The Burning Tigris

Author: Peter Balakian
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0061860174
Release Date: 2009-10-13
Genre: History

A History of International Human Rights and Forgotten Heroes In this national bestseller, the critically acclaimed author Peter Balakian brings us a riveting narrative of the massacres of the Armenians in the 1890s and of the Armenian Genocide in 1915 at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. Using rarely seen archival documents and remarkable first-person accounts, Balakian presents the chilling history of how the Turkish government implemented the first modern genocide behind the cover of World War I. And in the telling, he resurrects an extraordinary lost chapter of American history. Awarded the Raphael Lemkin Prize for the best scholarly book on genocide by the Institute for Genocide Studies at John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY Graduate Center.

The Burning Tigris

Author: Peter Balakian
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 071266761X
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Armenian massacres, 1894-1896

From Question to Massacre to Genocide, the story of the Armenians from the dying days of the Ottoman Empire and the early years of modern Turkey is one of shocking and tragic modernity - the first genocide of a century of genocides. Over a million Armenians were viciously slaughtered, starved or marched to death - men, women, the elderly, children and babies - in a systematic, state-sponsored onslaught on an ancient minority. And Turkey today still denies that this genocide took place. Peter Balakian reveals the three stages of persecution of the Armenian people, from the relatively small-scale massacres under the last Sultan, Abdul Hamid II, to the ethnic cleansing undertaken by the forces of the Committee of Union and Progress under the cover of the First World War. Balakian makes use of the eye-witness accounts of US diplomats and missionaries and the terrible testimony of the persecutors themselves during the short-lived trials of the 1920s. He exposes the failures of the great powers to respond effectively - just as they failed to halt later genocides. And he shows how the issue of oil changed the focus of US foreign policy in the 1920s so that the fate of the Armenians was forgotten and the lesson of the genocide ignored. Compelling and authoritative, this groundbreaking book restores the Armenian tragedy to its rightful place in history.

The Burning Tigris

Author: Peter Balakian
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0434008168
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Armenian massacres, 1894-1896

From Question to Massacre to Genocide, the story of the Armenians from the dying days of the Ottoman Empire and the early years of modern Turkey is one of shocking and tragic modernity - the first genocide of a century of genocides. Over a million Armenians were viciously slaughtered, starved or marched to death, men, women, the elderly, children and babies, in a systematic, state-sponsored onslaught on an ancient minority. And Turkey today still denies that this genocide took place. Peter Balakian reveals the three stages of persecution of the Armenian people, from the relatively small-scale massacres under the last Sultan, Abdul Hamid II, to the ethnic cleansing undertaken by the forces of the Committee of Union and Progress under the cover of the First World War. Balakian makes use of the eye-witness accounts of US diplomats and missionaries and the terrible testimony of the persecutors themselves during the short-lived trials of the 1920s. He exposes the failures of the great powers to respond effectively - just as they failed to halt later genocides. And he shows how the issue of oil changed the focus of US foreign policy in the 1920s so that the fate of the Armenians was forgotten and the lesson of the genocide ignored. Compelling and authoritative, this groundbreaking book restores the Armenian tragedy to its rightful place in history.

Starving Armenians

Author: Merrill D. Peterson
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
ISBN: 0813922674
Release Date: 2004
Genre: History

Between 1915 and 1925 as many as 1.5 million Armenians, a minority in the Ottoman Empire, died in Ottoman Turkey, victims of execution, starvation, and death marches to the Syrian Desert. Peterson explores the American response to these atrocities, from initial reports to President Wilson until Armenia's eventual absorption into the Soviet Union.

Black Dog of Fate

Author: Peter Balakian
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 9780786743704
Release Date: 2009-02-10
Genre: History

In this tenth anniversary edition of his award-winning memoir, New York Times bestselling author Peter Balakian has expanded his compelling story about growing up in the baby-boom suburbs of the '50s and '60s and coming to understand what happened to his family in the first genocide of the twentieth century—the Ottoman Turkish government's extermination of more than one million Armenians in 1915. In this new edition, Balakian continues his exploration of the Armenian Genocide with new chapters about his journey to Aleppo and his trip to the Der Zor desert of Syria in his pursuit of his grandmother's life, bringing us closer to the twentieth century's first genocide.

Revolution and Genocide

Author: Robert Melson
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226519910
Release Date: 1996-06-01
Genre: History

In a study that compares the major attempts at genocide in world history, Robert Melson creates a sophisticated framework that links genocide to revolution and war. He focuses on the plights of Jews after the fall of Imperial Germany and of Armenians after the fall of the Ottoman as well as attempted genocides in the Soviet Union and Cambodia. He argues that genocide often is the end result of a complex process that starts when revolutionaries smash an old regime and, in its wake, try to construct a society that is pure according to ideological standards.

The Young Turks Crime against Humanity

Author: Taner Akçam
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400841844
Release Date: 2012-04-22
Genre: History

Introducing new evidence from more than 600 secret Ottoman documents, this book demonstrates in unprecedented detail that the Armenian Genocide and the expulsion of Greeks from the late Ottoman Empire resulted from an official effort to rid the empire of its Christian subjects. Presenting these previously inaccessible documents along with expert context and analysis, Taner Akçam's most authoritative work to date goes deep inside the bureaucratic machinery of Ottoman Turkey to show how a dying empire embraced genocide and ethnic cleansing. Although the deportation and killing of Armenians was internationally condemned in 1915 as a "crime against humanity and civilization," the Ottoman government initiated a policy of denial that is still maintained by the Turkish Republic. The case for Turkey's "official history" rests on documents from the Ottoman imperial archives, to which access has been heavily restricted until recently. It is this very source that Akçam now uses to overturn the official narrative. The documents presented here attest to a late-Ottoman policy of Turkification, the goal of which was no less than the radical demographic transformation of Anatolia. To that end, about one-third of Anatolia's 15 million people were displaced, deported, expelled, or massacred, destroying the ethno-religious diversity of an ancient cultural crossroads of East and West, and paving the way for the Turkish Republic. By uncovering the central roles played by demographic engineering and assimilation in the Armenian Genocide, this book will fundamentally change how this crime is understood and show that physical destruction is not the only aspect of the genocidal process.

They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else

Author: Ronald Grigor Suny
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400865581
Release Date: 2015-03-22
Genre: History

Starting in early 1915, the Ottoman Turks began deporting and killing hundreds of thousands of Armenians in the first major genocide of the twentieth century. By the end of the First World War, the number of Armenians in what would become Turkey had been reduced by 90 percent—more than a million people. A century later, the Armenian Genocide remains controversial but relatively unknown, overshadowed by later slaughters and the chasm separating Turkish and Armenian interpretations of events. In this definitive narrative history, Ronald Suny cuts through nationalist myths, propaganda, and denial to provide an unmatched account of when, how, and why the atrocities of 1915–16 were committed. Drawing on archival documents and eyewitness accounts, this is an unforgettable chronicle of a cataclysm that set a tragic pattern for a century of genocide and crimes against humanity.

Ozone Journal

Author: Peter Balakian
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226207032
Release Date: 2015-03-26
Genre: Poetry

"A sequel of sorts to "Ziggurat," published in the Phoenix Poets series in 2010, the title poem from "Ozone Journal" recounts the memory of the speaker's excavating the bones of Armenian genocide victims in the Syrian desert with a TV journalist crew in 2009. The speaker "dreams back," as it were, to the 1980s, when, as a young man in his thirties and caring for a young daughter after a recent divorce, he is having to juggle both personal and cultural/historical complexities living as a single parent in Manhattan. The poems create a montage that has the feel of history as lived experience, with the speaker struggling with the nature of memory as the poems move constantly back and forth to the Syrian desert, the dissolution of his marriage, visits and conversations with a cousin dying of AIDS, and encounters with famous jazz producers at Columbia Records to discuss music. In this book, Peter Balakian aims at the bigger picture of humanity's history of atrocity and trauma, but through short vignettes grounded in everyday situations, and in particular times and places"--Publisher's info.

Operation Nemesis

Author: Eric Bogosian
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 9780316292016
Release Date: 2015-04-21
Genre: History

A masterful account of the assassins who hunted down the perpetrators of the Armenian Genocide In 1921, a tightly knit band of killers set out to avenge the deaths of almost one million victims of the Armenian Genocide. They were a humble bunch: an accountant, a life insurance salesman, a newspaper editor, an engineering student, and a diplomat. Together they formed one of the most effective assassination squads in history. They named their operation Nemesis, after the Greek goddess of retribution. The assassins were survivors, men defined by the massive tragedy that had devastated their people. With operatives on three continents, the Nemesis team killed six major Turkish leaders in Berlin, Constantinople, Tiflis, and Rome, only to disband and suddenly disappear. The story of this secret operation has never been fully told, until now. Eric Bogosian goes beyond simply telling the story of this cadre of Armenian assassins by setting the killings in the context of Ottoman and Armenian history, as well as showing in vivid color the era's history, rife with political fighting and massacres. Casting fresh light on one of the great crimes of the twentieth century and one of history's most remarkable acts of vengeance, Bogosian draws upon years of research and newly uncovered evidence. Operation Nemesis is the result--both a riveting read and a profound examination of evil, revenge, and the costs of violence.

Armenian Golgotha

Author: Grigoris Balakian
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 0307271382
Release Date: 2009-03-31
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

On April 24, 1915, Grigoris Balakian was arrested along with some 250 other leaders of Constantinople’s Armenian community. It was the beginning of the Ottoman Empire’s systematic attempt to eliminate the Armenian people from Turkey—a campaign that continued through World War I and the fall of the empire. Over the next four years, Balakian would bear witness to a seemingly endless caravan of blood, surviving to recount his miraculous escape and expose the atrocities that led to over a million deaths. Armenian Golgotha is Balakian’s devastating eyewitness account—a haunting reminder of the first modern genocide and a controversial historical document that is destined to become a classic of survivor literature. From the Trade Paperback edition.

A Shameful Act

Author: Taner Akcam
Publisher: Metropolitan Books
ISBN: 9781466832121
Release Date: 2007-08-21
Genre: History

A landmark assessment of Turkish culpability in the Armenian genocide, the first history of its kind by a Turkish historian In 1915, under the cover of a world war, some one million Armenians were killed through starvation, forced marches, forced exile, and mass acts of slaughter. Although Armenians and world opinion have held the Ottoman powers responsible, Turkey has consistently rejected any claim of intentional genocide. Now, in a pioneering work of excavation, Turkish historian Taner Akçam has made extensive and unprecedented use of Ottoman and other sources to produce a scrupulous charge sheet against the Turkish authorities. The first scholar of any nationality to have mined the significant evidence—in Turkish military and court records, parliamentary minutes, letters, and eyewitness accounts—Akçam follows the chain of events leading up to the killing and then reconstructs its systematic orchestration by coordinated departments of the Ottoman state, the ruling political parties, and the military. He also probes the crucial question of how Turkey succeeded in evading responsibility, pointing to competing international interests in the region, the priorities of Turkish nationalists, and the international community's inadequate attempts to bring the perpetrators to justice. As Turkey lobbies to enter the European Union, Akçam's work becomes ever more important and relevant. Beyond its timeliness, A Shameful Act is sure to take its lasting place as a classic and necessary work on the subject.

The Forty Days of Musa Dagh

Author: Franz Werfel
Publisher: David R. Godine Publisher
ISBN: 9781567924077
Release Date: 2012-01
Genre: Fiction

The book that first drew America's attention to the Armenian Genocide, which began 100 years ago on April 24, 1915. The Forty Days of Musa Dagh is Franz Werfel's masterpiece, bringing him international acclaim and a BOMC Main Selection. First published in 1933, the chilling and riveting story takes place along the Anatolian coast in the mountain villages that chose to disobey the deportation order of the Turkish government, fearlessly repelling Turkish soldiers and police throughout the summer of 1915. Most significantly, it is the first book to deal seriously with "ethnic cleansing," an early clarion call that some heard but few heeded. This edition presents the first full English translation, with an introduction by Vartan Gregorian. In every sense, a true and thrilling novel.--The New York Times Book Review

The Armenian Genocide

Author: Raymond Kevorkian
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9780857730206
Release Date: 2011-03-30
Genre: History

The Armenian Genocide was one of the greatest atrocities of the twentieth century, an episode in which up to 1.5 million Armenians lost their lives. In this major new history, Raymond Kévorkian provides a long-awaited authoritative account of origins, events, and consequences of the years 1915 and 1916. Kévorkian explains and analyses the debates that occurred within the elite circles of the Young Turks, and traces the roots of the violence that would be raged upon the Ottoman Armenians. Uniquely, this is also a geographical account of the Armenian genocide, documenting its course region by region, including a complete account of the deportations, massacres and resistance that occurred. Kévorkian considers the role that the Armenian Genocide played in the construction of the Turkish nation state and Turkish identity, as well as exploring the ideologies of power, rule, and state violence, presenting an important contribution to the understanding of how such destruction could have occurred. Thus, Kévorkian examines the history of the Young Turks and the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire as they came into conflict with one another, taking into consideration the institutional, political, social and even psychological mechanisms that culminated in the destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Beginning with an exploration of the origins of the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, Kévorkian analyses the decision making process which led to the terrible fate of those who were deported to the concentration camps of Aleppo and along the Euphrates. Crucially, 'The Armenian Genocide' also examines the consequences of the violence against the Armenians, the implications of the expropriation of property and assets, and deportations, as well as the attempts to bring those who committed atrocities to justice. This covers the documents from the Mazhar Governmental Commission of Inquiry and the formation of courts martial by the Ottoman authorities, and the findings of the March 1920 Committee for the Protection of the Minorities in Turkey, created by the League of Nations. Kévorkian offers a detailed and meticulous account of the Armenian Genocide, providing an authoritative analysis of the events and their impact upon the Armenian community itself, as well as the development of the Turkish state. This important book will serve as an indispensable resource to historians of the period, as well as those wishing to understand the history of genocidal violence more generally.