Author: Peter Balakian
Publisher: Harper Collins
Release Date: 2009-10-13
A History of International Human Rights and Forgotten Heroes In this national bestseller, the critically acclaimed author Peter Balakian brings us a riveting narrative of the massacres of the Armenians in the 1890s and of the Armenian Genocide in 1915 at the hands of the Ottoman Turks. Using rarely seen archival documents and remarkable first-person accounts, Balakian presents the chilling history of how the Turkish government implemented the first modern genocide behind the cover of World War I. And in the telling, he resurrects an extraordinary lost chapter of American history. Awarded the Raphael Lemkin Prize for the best scholarly book on genocide by the Institute for Genocide Studies at John Jay College of Criminal Justice/CUNY Graduate Center.
Author: Franz Werfel
Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag
Release Date: 2011-04-29
Noch immer ist es schwierig, den Völkermord an den Armeniern in den Jahren 1915 bis 1917 beim Namen zu nennen. Als Franz Werfel 1930 durch Anatolien reiste, schockierten ihn die Begegnungen mit Zeitzeugen und er begann, akribisch für einen Roman zu recherchieren. ›Die vierzig Tage des Musa Dagh‹ beschreiben das Schicksal einer armenischen Familie, die langsam ausgegrenzt und schließlich mit Waffengewalt verfolgt wird. Auf dem Heimatberg, dem Musa Dagh, leistet ihre Dorfgemeinschaft der Vertreibung Widerstand. Umsichtig und differenziert, mit einer klaren, fließenden Sprache verwandelt Werfel diese historische Katastrophe in ein eindrucksvolles Epos.
Author: Elif Shafak
Publisher: Kein & Aber AG
Release Date: 2015-02-27
Im heutigen Istanbul teilt die neunzehnjährige Asya Kazanci ihr Zuhause mit ihrer Großfamilie, einer bunten Ansammlung eigenwilliger Charaktere. Als Armanoush, Asyas armenisch- amerikanische Cousine, die Familie besucht, geraten jedoch die Grundmauern des Hauses ins Wanken. Denn sie hat keine Scheu, sich dem Familiengeheimnis zu widmen, das eng mit einem der dunkelsten Kapitel des Landes verbunden ist.
Setian provides stories submitted by sixteen descendants of survivors who were saved by Muslims during the 1915 Armenian Genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman Turks. She offers a corrective to mitigate the prejudice against Muslims and to uphold and to promote their dignity. She describes the geopolitical situation of the Genocide times and other issues of interest with commentary, such as the betrayal of Armenians by the 1923 Lausanne Peace Treaty, which did not mention Armenia nor the Armenian massacres. The omission of fairly settling the Armenian issue was in order for Allies to control the oil wealth in the region. “He who owns the oil will rule the world” (M. Henry Berenger, French senate, December 12, 1919). Setian graphically includes the vicious treatment of victims in order to convey the horrors committed by government officials and out of control citizens that seared the atmosphere. Noble Muslims risked their lives to save Armenians in the midst of such inhumanity.
Author: Paul R. Bartrop
Release Date: 2014-12-17
Genre: Political Science
This massive, four-volume work provides students with a close examination of 10 modern genocides enhanced by documents and introductions that provide additional historical and contemporary context for learning about and understanding these tragic events. • Provides a comprehensive examination of 10 modern genocides together in a single reference work, written by experts to be easily readable by advanced high school, undergraduate, and graduate students • Includes a collection of documents with each genocide section that also contains appropriate introductions to set the historical and contemporary context • Addresses not only the sobering reality of these different modern genocides but the pervasive, long-term consequences and impact on the communities affected by them • Supplies Analyze sections that allow for critical thinking while providing readers with insight into some of the most controversial and significant issues involving genocide • Serves as a gateway to further explorations regarding questions on genocide prevention, intervention, and the delivery of humanitarian aid
On April 24, 1915, Grigoris Balakian was arrested along with some 250 other leaders of Constantinople’s Armenian community. It was the beginning of the Ottoman Empire’s systematic attempt to eliminate the Armenian people from Turkey—a campaign that continued through World War I and the fall of the empire. Over the next four years, Balakian would bear witness to a seemingly endless caravan of blood, surviving to recount his miraculous escape and expose the atrocities that led to over a million deaths. Armenian Golgotha is Balakian’s devastating eyewitness account—a haunting reminder of the first modern genocide and a controversial historical document that is destined to become a classic of survivor literature. From the Trade Paperback edition.
Author: Thomas S. Kidd
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2013-12
In the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks, many of America's Christian evangelicals have denounced Islam as a "demonic" and inherently violent religion, provoking frustration among other Christian conservatives who wish to present a more appealing message to the world's Muslims. Yet as Thomas Kidd reveals in this sobering book, the conflicted views expressed by today's evangelicals have deep roots in American history. Tracing Islam's role in the popular imagination of American Christians from the colonial period to today, Kidd demonstrates that Protestant evangelicals have viewed Islam as a global threat--while also actively seeking to convert Muslims to the Christian faith--since the nation's founding. He shows how accounts of "Mahometan" despotism and lurid stories of European enslavement by Barbary pirates fueled early evangelicals' fears concerning Islam, and describes the growing conservatism of American missions to Muslim lands up through the post-World War II era. Kidd exposes American Christians' anxieties about an internal Islamic threat from groups like the Nation of Islam in the 1960s and America's immigrant Muslim population today, and he demonstrates why Islam has become central to evangelical "end-times" narratives. Pointing to many evangelicals' unwillingness to acknowledge Islam's theological commonalities with Christianity and their continued portrayal of Islam as an "evil" and false religion, Kidd explains why Christians themselves are ironically to blame for the failure of evangelism in the Muslim world. American Christians and Islam is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the causes of the mounting tensions between Christians and Muslims today.
Author: Jay Winter
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2004-01-08
Before Rwanda and Bosnia, and before the Holocaust, the first genocide of the twentieth century happened in Turkish Armenia in 1915, when approximately one million people were killed. This volume is an account of the American response to this atrocity. The first part sets up the framework for understanding the genocide: Sir Martin Gilbert, Vahakn Dadrian and Jay Winter provide an analytical setting for nine scholarly essays examining how Americans learned of this catastrophe and how they tried to help its victims. Knowledge and compassion, though, were not enough to stop the killings. A terrible precedent was born in 1915, one which has come to haunt the United States and other Western countries throughout the twentieth century and beyond. To read the essays in this volume is chastening: the dilemmas Americans faced when confronting evil on an unprecedented scale are not very different from the dilemmas we face today.
Author: David A. Hamburg
Release Date: 2015-11-17
Genre: Political Science
Genocide has been called 'a problem from hell' and despite vehement declarations of 'never again' it's a problem that continues to plague the world. From the beginning of history to the most recent massacres in Bosnia, Rwanda, and Darfur, genocide defies resolution. And given today's worldwide access to highly lethal weapons and advanced communications technology facilitating incitement to hate, we can expect to see this problem grow. It is often claimed that genocide occurs without warning, taking both local and global communities by surprise. Yet, as David Hamburg convincingly shows, we have had long-term advance knowledge of most modern genocides dating back to the early 20th century Armenian tragedy in Turkey and before. In this book, Dr. Hamburg applies a groundbreaking new perspective-the medical model of prevention-to the scourge of genocide in the world. Preventing genocide is not only possible, Dr Hamburg contends, but essential given its high cost in lives, human rights, and international security. Here he maps out numerous practical steps to recognise genocidal conflicts early and stem their tides of violence before they become acute. He also outlines several institutions in place and programs underway at the UN, EU, and NATO devoted to preventing future genocides before they erupt. He draws lessons both from missed opportunities and successful experiences and makes many constructive suggestions about strengthening international institutions, governments, and NGOs for this purpose.
Author: R. Hrair Dekmejian
Publisher: CQ Press
Release Date: 2007-02-07
Genre: Political Science
Since 9/11, images of fanatical jihadists have become the international symbol of terrorism. In the wake of the attacks, journalists and academics alike have taken up the task of trying to make sense of these seemingly alien terrorist organizations. Many of these sources have perpetuated the idea that terrorists are unknowable or irrational. What is often missed is the degree to which terrorists have motivations that can be grasped and understood. In his new text, Dekmejian places terrorism within a spectrum of political violence, creating a typology of terror based on scale and intent as well as by type of actor—from isolated attacks by individual bombers, to large scale attacks against state targets by organized networks, to state-sponsored genocide and politicide—thus facilitating comparisons across multiple cases. As well, the book’s model of conflict is informed by game theory, enriched with understandings of psychological, cultural, and historical contexts, helping students focus on the strategies and desired outcomes of different parties to conflict. This analytic approach enables students to trace the changes in mutual perceptions and preferences between terrorists and their targets and leads to a fuller understanding of the causes and dynamics of political violence. The book’s uniquely comprehensive coverage of terrorism includes extended cases on the IRA, the Tamil Tigers, Chechen rebels, Al Qaeda, Aum Shinrikyo, Hizbullah, and Hamas. Each case looks at the historical origins, political factors, leadership, and organization of the group to give context. Discussions of typical tactics, patterns of violence, the role of external actors, and outcomes help readers to explore possible solutions that might stop the cycle of violence and promote peaceful coexistence among the antagonists. Appendix materials include glossaries of terrorist groups and technical terms.
Author: Robert Shenk
Publisher: Naval Institute Press
Release Date: 2017-02-15
In a high-tempo series of operations throughout the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and eastern Mediterranean, a small American fleet of destroyers and other naval vessels responded ably to several major international crises including the last days of the Russian Revolution and the 1920-1922 Turkish Nationalist Revolution. Officers and men of the navy's "four-piper" destroyers began by investigating circumstances on the ground in mainland Turkey right after World War I, and by transporting American relief teams to ports throughout Turkey and Southern Russia to aid the tens of thousands of orphans and refugees who had survived the wartime Armenian genocide. Then the destroyers assisted in the final evacuation of 150,000 White Russians from the Crimea to Constantinople (one of the final acts of the Russian Revolution); coordinated the visits of the Hoover grain ships to ports in Southern Russia where millions were enduring a horrendous famine; witnessed and reported on the terrible dolorosa of the Greeks of the Pontus regious of Turkey; and, in September of 1922, conducted the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of Greek and Armenian refugees from burning Smyrna. This latter event was the cataclysmic conclusion of the Turkish Nationalist Revolutino, which had begun in early 1920. After Smyrna, the destroyers escorted Greek steamers in their rescue of ethnic Christian civilians being expelled from all the ports of Anatolian Turkey. As the conclusion of a long war between Nationalist Turks and an invading Hellenic Greek army, these people were being forced out of their ancestral homes by the Turks. Sometimes American destroyers carried hundreds of such refugees to friendly ports on their own weather decks. Upon the burning of Smyrna of September of 1922, Admiral Mark Bristol's small fleet had grown to some 26 naval vessels, most of them destroyers, although some cruisers, naval repair vessels and supply ships also came, and the battleships Arizona and Utah also appeared briefly. It was during 1922 that the destroyer BAinbridge rescued 482 of 495 men, women and children from the burning French transport Vinh Long in teh Sea of Marmora. The destroyer accomplished this by the expedient of ramming the large French ship so the exploding ammunition could not continue to force the vessels apart. For this action, Lieut.Commander W. Atlee Edwards was awarded the Medal of Honor by America, and the Legion of Honor by France. Over four years, Admiral Bristol maintained a strong grip on American naval and diplomatic affairs throughout the region. Headquartered at the American Embassy at Constantinople, Bristol also worked to further American business interests in Turkey, and tended to favor Turks over Greeks and Armenians in the process. Many Americans were convinced that Bristol was biased on behalf of the Turks, and a couple of navy captains risked their careers by speaking out about impending Turkish massacres that Bristol wanted to hush up.
Author: Scott Straus
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Release Date: 2015-03-24
Genre: Political Science
In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.