The Collapse of the Soviet Union 1985 1991

Author: David R. Marples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317869986
Release Date: 2016-09-16
Genre: History

Why did the Soviet Union collapse in 1991? The collapse of the Soviet Union has widely been seen as the result of the arms race and Cold War, and the failure of the Soviet side to keep pace with new technology. This book argues that the disintegration was mainly a result of two interrelated factors: the rise of the Soviet national republics, and the manipulation of the new Russian presidency by Boris Yeltsin in what became a direct power struggle between Yeltsin and the Soviet leader, Gorbachev. Written in a clear and accessible manner, the book provides: an explanation of how the national question came to dominate Soviet politics by 1990-1 analysis of the economic crisis that occurred in the late 1980s a chapter devoted to the year 1991, from the referendum to reform the Soviet Union to the unforeseen dissolution of the country by December a discussion of the personalities of and political confrontation between the two key statesman: Gorbachev and Yeltsin Also containing a Chronology, Glossary and Who's Who of key figures, The Collapse of the Soviet Union is essential reading for students of twentieth century European history.

The Soviet Union under Brezhnev

Author: William J. Tompson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317881728
Release Date: 2014-07-30
Genre: History

The Soviet Union Under Brezhnev provides an accessible post-Soviet perspective on the history of the USSR from the mid-1960’s to the mid-1980’s. It challenges both the ‘evil empire’ image of the USSR that was widespread in the early 1980’s and the ‘stagnation’ label attached to the period by Soviet reformers under Gorbachev. The book makes use of a range of memoirs, interviews, archival documents and other sources not available before 1990 to place Brezhnev and his epoch in a broader historical context. The author: examines high politics, foreign policy and policy making explores broader social, cultural and demographic trends presents a picture of Soviet society in the crucial decades prior to the upheavals and crises of the late 1980’s While stopping well short of a full-scale rehabilitation of Brezhnev, Tompson rejects the prevailing image of the Soviet leader as a colourless non-entity, drawing attention to Brezhnev’s real political skills, as well as his faults, and to the systemic roots of many of the problems he faced.

Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse Understanding Historical Change

Author: Robert Strayer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781315503967
Release Date: 2016-06-16
Genre: Philosophy

Taking the Soviet collapse - the most cataclysmic event of the recent past - as a case study, this text engages students in the exercise of historical analysis, interpretation and explanation. In exploring the question posed by the title, the author introduces and applies such organizing concepts as great power conflict, imperial decline, revolution, ethnic conflict, colonialism, economic development, totalitarian ideology, and transition to democracy in a most accessible way. Questions and controversies, and extracts from documentary and literary sources, anchor the text at key points. This book is intended for use in history and political science courses on the Soviet Union or more generally on the 20th century.

Terrorist Financing

Author: Nicholas Ridley
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9780857939463
Release Date: 2012-01-01
Genre: Political Science

ÔIn recent years a great deal has been written about terrorism and how best to inhibit and undermine terroristÕs aspirations. Much of this literature tends to be one dimensional reflecting the experience of the author. Dr Ridley having had a long and diverse career in intelligence and in particular financial analysis has succeeded in going far beyond description of a series of war stories to providing not only a starting account of the range and character of modern terrorism, but also a knowledgeable analysis of the measures adopted around the world to combat the threat. Of critical importance, in the minds of many, has been the adoption of techniques in the main from the Òwar against drugsÓ facilitating the identification and disruption of finance. While emphasising the value of financial intelligence Dr Ridley, now as a scholar, dispassionately questions how successful this strategy has been and where it might take us. Such issues need to be aired and resolved if we are not to undermine the very values which we seek to protect.Õ Ð Barry Rider, University of Cambridge, UK ÔThis is hugely important and highly relevant contribution by a world expert, which adds to our knowledge of terrorist funding. It will make practitioners and academics alike, not to mention politicians who should be seeking their advice, stop and think.Õ Ð John Grieve, Portsmouth University, UK and former UK National Co-ordinator for Counter Terrorism ÔDr. Ridley has authored an excellent, analytical, comprehensive, and solutions-oriented book addressing the complexities of terror financing and the challenges in combating this menace. Dr. RidleyÕs unique insight, arising from substantial academic and professional experiences on combating terror financing, lends substantial credibility to the volume.Õ Ð Dean C. Alexander, Western Illinois University, US This authoritative book provides a holistic overview of terrorist groups and finances, including consideration of the necessity and differing financial needs of different groups. For over a decade international efforts by law enforcement, government and financial regulatory authorities have been deployed in combatting terrorist financing, in good faith and with dedication beyond reproach. This book surveys the methods of financing of numerous terrorist groups and organisations Ð including the Chinese and Asian dimension Ð and considers why ultimately international efforts to combat the financing of terror are failing. Nick Ridley expertly illustrates the scale of the problem by first outlining the strategies of anti terrorist financing, the pre and post 9/11 differences in scope and extent of terrorist attacks, the financial support and the national and international efforts to implement and carry out countermeasures. He then goes on to set out a detailed analysis of the apparent failure of such counter measures to date. Including operational case studies and details from the authors own experience, studies and access to law enforcement and private sector sources, this book will prove insightful for undergraduate and postgraduate students studying criminology, history and law disciplines. Those in the legal profession will also find plenty of useful information in this topical compendium.

Ballistic Knives

Author: Wolfgang Peter-Michel
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 9783738627800
Release Date: 2017-02-20
Genre: Crafts & Hobbies

In the 1980s, the first ballistic knives began to appear on the Western collectors market. Their sinister feature: the handle concealed a strong coil spring. After pressing a trigger, the blade was propelled over several meters and hit the target with great force. It was rumoured that these knives originated in the Soviet Union as a clandestine weapon used by the KGB or special units such as the Spetsnaz. Due to their dangerous nature, ballistic knives were banned in most countries by the end of the 1990s. Nevertheless, a German blade manufacturer began to improve the allegedly Russian design, as revealed by the prototypes shown in this book. But where did these mysterious weapons really originate? Who developed and produced them? Who used them and over what distances are they effective? Most importantly; how dangerous are ballistic knives? All these questions are investigated in this book and the main variants of ballistic knives are presented.

The Origins of the Second World War

Author: Richard Overy
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317204695
Release Date: 2016-06-17
Genre: History

Exploring the reasons why the Second World War broke out in September 1939 and why a European conflict developed into a war that spanned the globe, The Origins of the Second World War argues that this was not just ‘Hitler’s War’ but one that had its roots and origins in the decline of the old empires of Britain and France and the rise of ambitious new powers in Germany, Italy and Japan who wanted large empires of their own. This fourth edition has been revised throughout, covering the origins of the war from its background in the First World War to its expansion to embrace the Soviet Union, Japan and the United States by the end of 1941. Creating a comprehensive and analytical narrative while remaining a succinct overview of the subject, this book takes a thematic approach to the complex range of events that culminated in global warfare, discussing factors such as economic rivalry, rearmament and domestic politics and emphasising that any explanation of the outbreak of hostilities must be global in scope. Containing updated references and primary source documents alongside a glossary, a chronology of key events and a Who’s Who of important figures, this book is an invaluable introduction for any student of this fascinating period.

Lenin s Revolution

Author: David R. Marples
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317882596
Release Date: 2014-06-06
Genre: History

This study examines one of the key events in history, the Russian Revolution. Since the late Gorbachev period, a wealth of new material has become available to historians that has triggered intense scholarly debate on the nature of revolution. This timely new book takes account of the new scholarship, including - for example - the role of Lenin. It is argued that the intial flexibility of Lenin and the Bolshevik party allowed them to take power, but that the conduct of both changed considerably once they were obliged to take steps to maintain their authority. This book charts the Febuary Revolution, the October Revolution, the Civil War and the main individuals involved, giving a remarkable degree of clarity to the tumultuous events in Russia whose consequences the world lived with for the rest of the twentieth century.

Encyclopedia of the Cold War

Author: Ruud van Dijk
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135923112
Release Date: 2013-05-13
Genre: History

Between 1945 and 1991, tension between the USA, its allies, and a group of nations led by the USSR, dominated world politics. This period was called the Cold War – a conflict that stopped short to a full-blown war. Benefiting from the recent research of newly open archives, the Encyclopedia of the Cold War discusses how this state of perpetual tensions arose, developed, and was resolved. This work examines the military, economic, diplomatic, and political evolution of the conflict as well as its impact on the different regions and cultures of the world. Using a unique geopolitical approach that will present Russian perspectives and others, the work covers all aspects of the Cold War, from communism to nuclear escalation and from UFOs to red diaper babies, highlighting its vast-ranging and lasting impact on international relations as well as on daily life. Although the work will focus on the 1945–1991 period, it will explore the roots of the conflict, starting with the formation of the Soviet state, and its legacy to the present day.

The Last Empire

Author: Serhii Plokhy
Publisher: Basic Books
ISBN: 9780465097920
Release Date: 2015-09-08
Genre: History

On Christmas Day, 1991, President George H. W. Bush addressed the nation to declare an American victory in the Cold War: earlier that day Mikhail Gorbachev had resigned as the first and last Soviet president. The enshrining of that narrative, one in which the end of the Cold War was linked to the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the triumph of democratic values over communism, took center stage in American public discourse immediately after Bush’s speech and has persisted for decades—with disastrous consequences for American standing in the world. As prize-winning historian Serhii Plokhy reveals in The Last Empire, the collapse of the Soviet Union was anything but the handiwork of the United States. On the contrary, American leaders dreaded the possibility that the Soviet Union—weakened by infighting and economic turmoil—might suddenly crumble, throwing all of Eurasia into chaos. Bush was firmly committed to supporting his ally and personal friend Gorbachev, and remained wary of nationalist or radical leaders such as recently elected Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Fearing what might happen to the large Soviet nuclear arsenal in the event of the union’s collapse, Bush stood by Gorbachev as he resisted the growing independence movements in Ukraine, Moldova, and the Caucasus. Plokhy’s detailed, authoritative account shows that it was only after the movement for independence of the republics had gained undeniable momentum on the eve of the Ukrainian vote for independence that fall that Bush finally abandoned Gorbachev to his fate. Drawing on recently declassified documents and original interviews with key participants, Plokhy presents a bold new interpretation of the Soviet Union’s final months and argues that the key to the Soviet collapse was the inability of the two largest Soviet republics, Russia and Ukraine, to agree on the continuing existence of a unified state. By attributing the Soviet collapse to the impact of American actions, US policy makers overrated their own capacities in toppling and rebuilding foreign regimes. Not only was the key American role in the demise of the Soviet Union a myth, but this misplaced belief has guided—and haunted—American foreign policy ever since.

The Civil Rights Movement

Author: Bruce J Dierenfield
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317863724
Release Date: 2013-09-13
Genre: History

The civil rights movement was arguably the most important reform in American history. This book recounts the extraordinary and often bloody story of how tens of thousands of ordinary African-Americans overcame long odds to dethrone segregation, to exercise the right to vote and to improve their economic standing. Organized in a clear chronological fashion, the book shows how concerted pressure in a variety of forms ultimately carried the day in realizing a more just society for African- Americans. It will provide students of American history with an invaluable, comprehensive introduction to the Civil Rights Movement.

The Struggle to Save the Soviet Economy

Author: Chris Miller
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469630182
Release Date: 2016-10-13
Genre: History

For half a century the Soviet economy was inefficient but stable. In the late 1980s, to the surprise of nearly everyone, it suddenly collapsed. Why did this happen? And what role did Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's economic reforms play in the country's dissolution? In this groundbreaking study, Chris Miller shows that Gorbachev and his allies tried to learn from the great success story of transitions from socialism to capitalism, Deng Xiaoping's China. Why, then, were efforts to revitalize Soviet socialism so much less successful than in China? Making use of never-before-studied documents from the Soviet politburo and other archives, Miller argues that the difference between the Soviet Union and China--and the ultimate cause of the Soviet collapse--was not economics but politics. The Soviet government was divided by bitter conflict, and Gorbachev, the ostensible Soviet autocrat, was unable to outmaneuver the interest groups that were threatened by his economic reforms. Miller's analysis settles long-standing debates about the politics and economics of perestroika, transforming our understanding of the causes of the Soviet Union's rapid demise.

Slavic Review

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: STANFORD:36105114638096
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Electronic journals


End of History and the Last Man

Author: Francis Fukuyama
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 9781416531784
Release Date: 2006-03-01
Genre: History

Ever since its first publication in 1992, The End of History and the Last Man has provoked controversy and debate. Francis Fukuyama's prescient analysis of religious fundamentalism, politics, scientific progress, ethical codes, and war is as essential for a world fighting fundamentalist terrorists as it was for the end of the Cold War. Now updated with a new afterword, The End of History and the Last Man is a modern classic.

Stalin and Stalinism

Author: Martin Mccauley
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317863687
Release Date: 2013-09-13
Genre: History

One of the most successful dictators of the twentieth century, Stalin believed that fashioning a better tomorrow was worth sacrificing the lives of millions today. He built a modern Russia on the corpses of millions of its citizens. First published in 1983, Stalin and Stalinism has established itself as one of the most popular textbooks for those who want to understand the Stalin phenomenon. Written in a clear and accessible manner, and fully updated throughout to incorporate recent research findings, the book also contains a chronology of key events, Who’s Who and Guide to Further Reading. This concise assessment of one of the major figures of twentieth century world history remains an essential purchase for students studying the subject.