Firmly established as the standard text for undergraduate courses in ethics, this concise, lively book combines clear explanations of the main theories of ethics with discussions of interesting examples. Topics covered include famine relief, euthanasia, homosexuality, and the treatment of animals. The text's versatility allows it to be widely used not only in ethical theory courses, but also in applied ethics courses of all kinds.
Author: David Fordyce
Publisher: Liberty Fund Inc.
Release Date: 2003-02-01
Though little known today, David Fordyce was an important figure in the Scottish Enlightenment and closely associated with liberal Dissenters in England. His Elements of Moral Philosophywas a notable contribution to the curriculum in moral philosophy and a widely circulated text in moral philosophy in the second half of the eighteenth century. It was first published as part of a comprehensive textbook system in 1748 and as a separate book in 1754. It is the latter that is now being reissued. The significance of The Elementsis evidenced by the fact that it was included practically verbatim in the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica(1771). A Brief Account, Fordyce's opening lectures to his Marischal class of 1743/44, has never before been published. David Fordyce(1711-1751) taught at Marischal College, Aberdeen. Thomas D. Kennedyis Associate Professor of Philosophy at Valparaiso University. Knud Haakonssenis Professor of Intellectual History and Director of the Centre for Intellectual History at the University of Sussex, England.
Author: John C. Caiazza
Release Date: 2017-09-07
Religion, Violence, and the Secular State assesses contemporary religious violence in the context of tensions between state secularism and religious ethics, and ultimately concludes that the West must reemphasize its own religious tradition in order to successfully combat the rise of a violent fundamentalism. The book presents an argument in three parts: first, an examination of the nature of religious violence; second, the effects of the present secularism of the American state on our ineffective ethical framework; and third, an advocacy for both the reasonableness of religious belief and the value of religiously based ethics (i.e., Jewish, Christian, and Muslim) as an influence within the modern state. The conclusion is that, with the arrival of violent Islam in the West, the presence of (traditional) religious influence in the United States needs to be reemphasized to combat religious terrorism. Islam represents a challenge to America and the West as a religious ideal that can only be successfully met by an energetic renewal of our own religious resources.
""With our American Philosophy and Religion series, Applewood reissues many primary sources published throughout American history. Through these books, scholars, interpreters, students, and non-academics alike can see the thoughts and beliefs of Americans who came before us.""
A History of Scottish Philosophy is a series of collaborative studies by expert authors, each volume being devoted to a specific period. Together they provide a comprehensive account of the Scottish philosophical tradition, from the centuries that laid the foundation of the remarkable burst of intellectual fertility known as the Scottish Enlightenment, through the Victorian age and beyond, when it continued to exercise powerful intellectual influence at home and abroad. The books aim to be historically informative, while at the same time serving to renew philosophical interest in the problems with which the Scottish philosophers grappled, and in the solutions they proposed. This new history of Scottish philosophy will include two volumes that focus on the Scottish Enlightenment. In this volume a team of leading experts explore the ideas, intellectual context, and influence of Hutcheson, Hume, Smith, Reid, and many other thinkers, frame old issues in fresh ways, and introduce new topics and questions into debates about the philosophy of this remarkable period. The contributors explore the distinctively Scottish context of this philosophical flourishing, and juxtapose the work of canonical philosophers with contemporaries now very seldom read. The outcome is a broadening-out, and a filling-in of the detail, of the picture of the philosophical scene of Scotland in the eighteenth century. General Editor: Gordon Graham, Princeton Theological Seminary
Religion and Morality seeks to answer two fundamental questions regarding the relation between religion and morality. The first is the puzzle posed by Socrates, the so-called 'Euthyphro dilemma', which asks: is morality valuable by virtue of its intrinsic importance and worth, or is morality valuable because, and only because, God approves it and commands us to follow its dictates? The second question is raised by Kierkegaard inFear and Trembling. He asks: Is a conflict between religion and morality possible? Does God ever demand that we neglect our moral commitments? The discussion on these questions is divided into three parts. In the first two parts, we discuss the idea that morality depends on religion. The authors distinguish two types of dependence: strong dependence, according to which the very existence, or validity, of moral obligations depends on God's command, and weak dependence, according to which though morality itself is independent of God, God (or belief in God) is necessary to enable human beings to know their moral duties and to carry them out. The authors reject the strong dependence thesis, as well as most versions of the weak dependence. The third part of the book discusses different versions of the view that religion might conflict with morality. The authors reject this view, and show that very few religious thinkers would follow it all the way through to its ultimate consequences. The book has implications for the philosophy of religion, in its emphasis on the centrality of the moral element in religion, and for moral philosophy, in its highlighting, among other things, of the nature of moral judgments.
Author: James Rachels
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2007-01
James Rachels's philosophical writings address key questions of contemporary life and the classic dilemmas of moral philosophy. A leading figure in the development of applied ethics, James Rachels became an influential and sometimes controversial thinker on issues concerning animal rights, euthanasia, bioethics, and moral objectivity. This final collection of James Rachels's work brings together fourteen essays that best summarize Rachels's philosophical positions. The essays also shed new light on the depth and breadth of Rachels's work and its importance for contemporary philosophy. Written in Rachels's characteristically lucid, literary prose, these essays address the relationship between morality and reason, the duty to relieve both human and animal suffering, the independence of morality from religion, the rejection of relativism and egoism, and the role of ethics in a democratic society. Rachels offers an argument for vegetarianism, examines a controversial case involving a surrogate mother, and speculates on the ethics of political killing. Other essays range from Rachels's interpretation of Nietzsche's philosophy to his appreciation of movies. Rachels was a strong believer in the ability of moral philosophy to improve our lives. This collection, which brings these important works together for the first time, is a testament to both the value of moral philosophy in understanding our world and the richness of Rachels's contributions to this understanding.
Author: Hans-Georg Kemper
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
Release Date: 1991-01-01
Genre: Literary Criticism
The discussion on the emergence of Empfindsamkeit has tended largely to ignore the lyric poetry of the period, although it may be said to be the first genre to take up and reflect this particular materialization of the Enlightenment. It displays close connections to the religious avant-garde of the period, with Pietist poetry being the first category to manifest tendencies that can genuinely be termed empfindsam. The most prominent poets of this bent are theologians with strong leanings towards Neologism, a religious persuasion reconciling within itself both Pietism and Rationalism and as such legitimately identifiable as the theology of Empfindsamkeit. This volume is the first study to point up these connections. In so doing it sheds new light on the religious roots of Empfindsamkeit and opens up an entirely new perspective on its poetry.
Author: Jeremy Schmidt
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release Date: 2007-01-01
This book furthers our understanding of the issue of melancholy in early modern culture by examining the extensive discussions of melancholy in seventeenth- and eighteenth- century religious and moral philosophical publications, many of which have receive
Author: Arthur Schopenhauer
Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag
Release Date: 1985-01-01
In seiner 1839 bei der Dänischen Societät der Wissenschaften eingereichten und 1841 erst mals in dem Band "Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik" veröffentlichten Preisschrift über die Grundlage der Moral legt Schopenhauer eine Reihe bemerkenswerter Ergänzungen zu seiner Ethik bzw. Metaphysik der Sitten vor. In keinem anderen seiner Werke setzt er sich so ausführlich mit Kants Ethik auseinander, die er einerseits als bedeutende Leistung würdigt, an derseits aber auch einer gründlichen und - in vielen Punkten - überzeugenden Kritik unter wirft. Ein zentraler Einwand lautet, daß der kategorische Imperativ letzten Endes einem kalkulierten Egoismus entspringe. Damit wäre er kein formales, sondern ein materiales Prinzip, und er würde nicht kategorisch, sondern allenfalls hypothetisch gelten. Darüber hinaus weist Schopenhauer die "imperative Form" der Kantischen Ethik als unangemessen zurück. Nach seiner Auffassung besteht die Aufgabe der Ethik keineswegs darin, Vorschriften aufzustellen, nach denen sich die Menschen zu richten hätten, sondern lediglich darin, deren Verhalten zu beschreiben und verständlich zu machen. Was seine eigene Konzeption der Ethik anbelangt, so läuft sie darauf hinaus, daß das Mitleid die Grundlage der Moral bildet. Schopenhauer charakterisiert es als ein Gefühl, in dem einem Menschen das Leiden des Anderen ebenso unmittelbar zugänglich ist wie das eigene und das ihn dazu motiviert, den Anderen zum letzten Zweck des Handelns zu machen. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickelt Schopenhauer seine eigene Tugendlehre, in deren Mittelpunkt die Gerechtigkeit und die Menschenliebe stehen.