The Ethics and Efficacy of the Global War on Terrorism

Author: C. Webel
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 134929361X
Release Date: 2011-11-16
Genre: Political Science

Presenting the reader with provocative articles that critically examine the morality of the war on terrorism as it has evolved over the past eight years, this book consists of articles that effectively address specific aspects of the war on terrorism that are missing or underrepresented in ethical discourse since 9/11

The Religious Roots of the Syrian Conflict

Author: Mark Tomass
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781137525710
Release Date: 2016-04-08
Genre: Political Science

Explores the historical origins of Syria's religious sects and their dominance of the Syrian social scene. It identifies their distinct beliefs and relates how the actions of the religious authorities and political entrepreneurs acting on behalf of their sects expose them to sectarian violence, culminating in the dissolution of the nation-state.

Inside Terrorism

Author: Bruce Hoffman
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231126991
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Political Science

In this revised edition, the author analyzes the new adversaries, motivations, and tactics of global terrorism that have emerged in recent years, focusing specifically on how Al Qaeda has changed since 9/11; the reasons behind its resiliency, resonance, and longevity; and its successful use of the Internet and videotapes to build public support and gain new recruits. He broadens the discussion by evaluating the potential repercussions of the Iraqi insurgency, the use of suicide bombers, terrorist exploitation of new communications media, and the likelihood of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear terrorist strike. Looking at the U.S., he reconsiders the Timothy McVeigh case and the threats posed by American Christian white supremacists and abortion opponents as well as those posed by militant environmentalists and animal rights activists. He argues that the attacks on the World Trade Center fundamentally transformed the West's view of the terrorist threat.

Military Ethics and Virtues

Author: Peter Olsthoorn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136894299
Release Date: 2010-09-21
Genre: History

This book examines the role of military virtues in today's armed forces. Although long-established military virtues, such as honor, courage and loyalty, are what most armed forces today still use as guiding principles in an effort to enhance the moral behavior of soldiers, much depends on whether the military virtues adhered to by these militaries suit a particular mission or military operation. Clearly, the beneficiaries of these military virtues are the soldiers themselves, fellow-soldiers, and military organizations, yet there is little that regulates the behavior of soldiers towards civilian populations. As a result, troops trained for combat in today's missions sometimes experience difficulty in adjusting to the less aggressive ways of working needed to win the hearts and minds of local populations after major combat is over. It can be argued that today's missions call for virtues that are more inclusive than the traditional ones, which are mainly about enhancing military effectiveness, but a convincing case can be made that a lot can already be won by interpreting these traditional virtues in different ways. This volume offers an integrated approach to the main traditional virtues, exploring their possible relevance and proposing new ways of interpretation that are more in line with the military tasks of the 21st century. The book will be of much interest to students of military ethics, philosophy, and war and conflict in general.

Fresh Perspectives on the War on Terror

Author: Miriam Gani
Publisher: ANU E Press
ISBN: 9781921313745
Release Date: 2008-07-01
Genre: Social Science

On 20 September 2001, in an address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American people, President George W Bush declared a 'war on terror'. The concept of the 'war on terror' has proven to be both an attractive and a potent rhetorical device. It has been adopted and elaborated upon by political leaders around the world, particularly in the context of military action in Afghanistan and Iraq. But use of the rhetoric has not been confined to the military context. The 'war on terror' is a domestic one, also, and the phrase has been used to account for broad criminal legislation, sweeping agency powers and potential human rights abuses throughout much of the world. This collection seeks both to draw on and to engage critically with the metaphor of war in the context of terrorism. It brings together a group of experts from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, France and Germany who write about terrorism from a variety of disciplinary perspectives including international law and international relations, public and constitutional law, criminal law and criminology, legal theory, and psychology and law.

Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict

Author: Ekaterina A. Stepanova
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199533558
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Political Science

To engage in terrorist activity, a militant group needs the determination and capability which are provided by its extremist ideology and organizational model. This book explains why terrorist groups are in many ways better tailored, ideologically and organizationally, to asymmetrical confrontation with the conventionally more powerful 'enemy'-the state and the international system. It puts forwad an original typology of terrorism based on the overall level of amilitant group's goals and the extent to which its terrorist activities are linked to a broader armed conflict.

The Terrorism Threat and U S Government Response

Author: James M. Smith
ISBN: 1410212785
Release Date: 2005-01-01
Genre: Political Science

CONTENTS Foreword: Twenty-First Century Terrorism Terrorism Threat and Response: A Policy Perspective The Terrorist Threat The Terrorist Threat in Strategic Context The Changing Nature of Terrorism WMD Terrorism: Hype or Reality The Cyber Threat Prevention, Preemption, Deterrence, and Denial Domestic Preemption Combating International Terrorism Antiterrorism Via Counterproliferation Intelligence Responding to and Organizing for Terrorism The Military's Response to Domestic WMD Terrorism International Incident Response Organizing to Combat 21st Century Terrorism Epilogue: A Terrorism Agenda for the United States About the Contributors

Monsters to Destroy

Author: Ira Chernus
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781317255956
Release Date: 2015-11-30
Genre: Social Science

"This book takes an incisive look at the stories we are told -- and tell ourselves -- about evil forces and American responses. Chernus pushes beyond political rhetoric and media cliches to examine psychological mechanisms that freeze our concepts of the world." Norman Solomon, author, War Made Easy: How Presidents and Pundits Keep Spinning Us to Death In his new book Monsters to Destroy: The Neoconservative War on Terror and Sin, Ira Chernus tackles the question of why U.S. foreign policy, aimed at building national security, has the paradoxical effect of making the country less safe and secure. His answer: The "war on terror" is based not on realistic appraisals of the causes of conflict, but rather on "stories" that neoconservative policymakers tell about human nature and a world divided between absolute good and absolute evil. The root of the stories is these policymakers' terror of the social and cultural changes that swept through U.S. society in the 1960s. George W. Bush and the neoconservatives cast the agents of change not simply as political opponents, but as enemies or sinners acting with evil intent to destroy U.S. values and morals-that is, as "monsters" rather than human beings. The war on terror transfers that plot from a domestic to a foreign stage, making it more appealing even to those who reject the neoconservative agenda at home. Because it does not deal with the real causes of global conflict, it harms rather than helps the goal of greater national security.

Conflict Security and the Reshaping of Society

Author: Alessandro Dal Lago
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136933417
Release Date: 2010-07-13
Genre: History

A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via as well as the OAPEN Library platform, It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. This book is an examination of the effect of contemporary wars (such as the 'War on Terror') on civil life at a global level. Contemporary literature on war is mainly devoted to recent changes in the theory and practice of warfare, particular those in which terrorists or insurgents are involved (for example, the 'revolution in military affairs', 'small wars', and so on). On the other hand, today's research on security is focused, among other themes, on the effects of the war on terrorism, and on civil liberties and social control. This volume connects these two fields of research, showing how 'war' and 'security' tend to exchange targets and forms of action as well as personnel (for instance, the spreading use of private contractors in wars and of military experts in the 'struggle for security') in modern society. This shows how, contrary to Clausewitz's belief war should be conceived of as a "continuation of politics by other means", the opposite statement is also true: that politics, insofar as it concerns security, can be defined as the 'continuation of war by other means'. This book will be of much interest to students of critical security studies, war and conflict studies, terrorism studies, sociology and IR in general. Salvatore Palidda is Professor of Sociology in the Faculty of Education at the University of Genoa. Alessandro Dal Lago is Professor of Sociology of Culture and Communication at the University of Genoa.

Peace Education

Author: James Page
Publisher: IAP
ISBN: 9781607529293
Release Date: 2008-09-01
Genre: Political Science

Peace education is now well recognized within international legal instruments and within critical educational literature as an important aspect of education. Despite this, little attention has been given in the critical literature to the philosophical foundations for peace education and the rationale for peace education thus remains substantially an assumed one. This investigation explores some possible ethicophilosophical foundations for peace education, through an examination of five specific ethical traditions: 1) virtue ethics, whereby peace may be interpreted as a virtue, and/or virtue is interpreted as peacefulness, and peace education as education in that virtue; 2) consequentialist ethics, whereby peace education may be interpreted as education regarding the consequences of our action and inaction, both as individuals and collectivities; 3) conservative political ethics, whereby peace education may be interpreted as emphasizing the importance of the evolution of social institutions and the importance of ordered and lawful social change; 4) aesthetic ethics, whereby peace may be interpreted as something beautiful and valuable in itself, and peace education as emphasizing the importance of that beauty and value; and 5) the ethics of care, whereby care may be interpreted as a core element in peace, and peace education as encouraging trust and engagement with the other. The study addresses major contributions to each of these ethical traditions, the strengths and weaknesses of the tradition, and the ways in which the tradition provides support for peace education. It is argued in the thesis that each tradition provides only a partial basis for peace education, and that ultimately a holistic and integrative understanding is required, one that encourages a culture of peace. " ... an important addition to the emerging literature on peace education and the culture of peace" (From the Foreword by Koichiro Matsuura, DirectorGeneral of UNESCO).

Social Theory of Fear

Author: Geoffrey R. Skoll
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9780230103498
Release Date: 2010-09-14
Genre: Political Science

Fear has long served elites. They rely on fear to keep and expand their privileges and control the masses. In the current crisis of the capitalist world system, elites in the United States, along with other central countries, promote fear of crime and terrorism. They shaped these fears so that people looked to authorities for security, which permitted extension of apparatuses of coercion like police and military forces. In the face of growing oppression, rebellion against elite hegemony remains possible. This book offers an analysis of the crisis and strategies for rebellion. This ebook is participating in an experiment and is available Open Access under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) licence. Users are free to disseminate and reuse the ebook. The licence does not however permit commercial exploitation or the creation of derivative works without specific permission. To view a copy of this license visit For more information about the experiment visit our FAQs

Human Security

Author: Shahrbanou Tadjbakhsh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134134236
Release Date: 2007-02-12
Genre: Political Science

This book, now available in paperback, traces the key evolutions in the development of the concept of human security, the various definitions and critiques, how it relates to other concepts, and what it implies for polities, politics, and policy. Human security is an important subject for the whole world, in particular Asia, as it deals with interactions among fields of social change, such as development, conflict resolution, human rights, and humanitarian assistance. In a globalizing world, in which threats become trans-national and states lose power, security can no longer be studied in a one-dimensional fashion. Written by authors who are experts in this field and with case studies from different regions (Afghanistan, Central Asia and South Asia) presented throughout, this book - now available in paperback - contributes to this new multidimensional conception of security, analyzes its strengths and weaknesses, and focuses on its implications for analysis and action.

Just Policing Not War

Author: Gerald Schlabach
Publisher: Liturgical Press
ISBN: 0814652212
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Religion

For decades, the Catholic Church and historical peace churches such as the Mennonites have come together in ecumenical discussions about war and peace. The dividing point has always been between pacifism, the view held by Mennonites and other peace churches, and the just war theory that dominates Catholic thinking on the issue. Given the transformation of global relations over this period?increased interdependency and communication as well as the fall of the Soviet Union, emerging nationalism movements, and the slow development of international courts?the time is right to rethink the Christian response to war.Gerald Schlabach has proposed just policing theory as a way to narrow the gap between just war and pacifist traditions. If the world can address problems of violence through a police model instead of a conventional military model, there may be a role for Christians from all traditions. In this volume, Schlabach presents his theory and has invited a number of scholars representing Catholic, Mennonite, and other traditions to respond to the theory and address a number of key questions: What do we mean by policing?Can policing solve conflicts beyond one?s own borders?How does just policing theory address terrorism?Is international policing possible, and what would it look like?Is just policing a Christian solution that meets the criteria of both traditions?This important volume offers a fresh and meaningful discussion to help Christians of all traditions navigate the difficult questions of how to live in these times of violence and war.?What makes us uncomfortable intellectually as well as practically is usually something that challenges our way of understanding and acting. The uncomfortable feeling is often an indication that creativity is at work in a way that makes us look at what we have ignored. Just Policing, Not War, makes me uncomfortable as a pacifist. But perhaps it is in the creative challenging even of what is dear to me?pacifism?that something new and wonderful can be born. The book is eminently worthwhile precisely in its challenge to the just war and the pacifist traditions.? Rene McGraw?Jane Jacobs, prohibition, and the chaos created by military intrusions in Iraq all remind us that policing can only work when a relatively coherent ?relationality? renders disruptive elements marginal. These essays draw on two complementary sets of religious practices to suggest how an international police action could be shaped as an effective alternative to the invariably counter-productive imposing a ?military solution,? so allowing political and ecclesial analyses to converge towards imagining fresh forms of order.? David Burrell, C.S.C. Hesburgh Professor in Philosophy and Theology University of Notre Dame ?If September 11, 2001 was murder rather than war then we desperately need an account of what just policing might look like. Which means this book is extremely important. For here we have the beginnings of an exploration of what just policing might actually entail not only theoretically but also in practice. Not only are the war/pacifism investigated, but also the institutional questions surrounding international relations as well as what the Church must be if just policing is possible are explored in these essays. I cannot recommend this book highly enough for anyone concerned with issues of war and peace.? Stanley Hauerwas Professor of Theological Ethics Duke University, Divinity School Durham, North Carolina ?In proposing the concept of ?just policing,? this book breaks new ground in the long discussion between Christians committed to pacifism and those utilizing a ?Just War? framework. A focus on policing rather than on war responds to the need for order in society, which both sides would agree is necessary, while at the same time exemplifying the limitations to force that the just war theory calls for. ?Just Policing? also provides a fresh way to conceptualize possible responses in the current struggle against terrorism. Schlabach and his collaborators are to be commended for both their exploration of practical examples, and their underlying commitment to searching for common ground between ?just war? and pacifist Christians. Pacifists will find much to ponder here, as they seek ways to respond to the need for peace and order in the world without using violence.? Judy Zimmerman Herr Co-Director, MCC Peace Office Mennonite Central Committee, Akron, PA

The Moral Dimension of Asymmetrical Warfare

Author: Th.A van Baarda
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789047424604
Release Date: 2009-06-30
Genre: Law

PART I The superpower and asymmetry - PART II Jus ad bellum, jus in bello, jus post bellum - PART III Leadership and accountability - PART IV Soldiers’ perspectives - PART V Ethical Education and Decision-making for the Military - PART VI Stress and trauma - PART VII The media - PART VIII Democracy under Scrutiny - PART IX In Hindsight

The United Nations in the 21st Century

Author: Karen A. Mingst
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 9780813350486
Release Date: 2016-07-12
Genre: Political Science

The United Nations in the 21st Century provides a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to the United Nations, exploring the historical, institutional, and theoretical foundations of the UN. This popular text for courses on international organizations and international relations also discusses the political complexities facing the organization today. Thoroughly revised throughout, the fifth edition focuses on major trends since 2012, including changing power dynamics, increasing threats to peace and security, and the growing challenges of climate change and sustainability. It examines the proliferating public-private partnerships involving the UN and the debates over reforming the Security Council and the Secretary-General selection process. This edition also includes new case studies on peacekeeping and the use of force in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Mali, transnational terrorism and the emergence of ISIS, the Security Council's failure to act in Syria, the Syrian and global refugee/migrant crisis, and the conclusion of the Millennium Development Goals and framing of the Sustainable Development Goals.