The Evolution of Memory Systems

Author: Kim S. Graham
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199686438
Release Date: 2016-11-03
Genre:

Current theories about human memory have been shaped by clinical observations and animal experiments. This doctrine holds that the medial temporal lobe subserves one memory system for explicit or declarative memories, while the basal ganglia subserves a separate memory system for implicit or procedural memories, including habits. Cortical areas outside the medial temporal lobe are said to function in perception, motor control, attention, or other aspects of executive function, but not in memory. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' advances dramatically different ideas on all counts. It proposes that several memory systems arose during evolution and that they did so for the same general reason: to transcend problems and exploit opportunities encountered by specific ancestors at particular times and places in the distant past. Instead of classifying cortical areas in terms of mutually exclusive perception, executive, or memory functions, the authors show that all cortical areas contribute to memory and that they do so in their own ways-using specialized neural representations. The book also presents a proposal on the evolution of explicit memory. According to this idea, explicit (declarative) memory depends on interactions between a phylogenetically ancient navigation system and a representational system that evolved in humans to represent one's self and others. As a result, people embed representations of themselves into the events they experience and the facts they learn, which leads to the perception of participating in events and knowing facts. 'The Evolution of Memory Systems' is an important new work for students and researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and biology.

From Conditioning to Conscious Recollection

Author: Howard Eichenbaum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198024703
Release Date: 2004-11-18
Genre: Medical

This cutting-edge book offers a theoretical account of the evolution of multiple memory systems of the brain. The authors conceptualize these memory systems from both behavioral and neurobiological perspectives, guided by three related principles. First, that our understanding of a wide range of memory phenomena can be advanced by breaking down memory into multiple forms with different operating characteristics. Second, that different forms of memory representation are supported by distinct brain pathways with circuitry and neural coding properties. Third, that the contributions of different brain systems can be compared and contrasted by distinguishing between dedicated (or specific) and elaborate (or general) memory systems. A primary goal of this work is to relate the neurobiological properties of dedicated and elaborate systems to their neuropsychological counterparts, and in so doing, account for the phenomenology of memory, from conditioning to conscious recollection.

Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology

Author: Louise Barrett
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198568304
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Psychology

With contributions from over 50 experts in the field, this book provides an overview of the latest developments in evolutionary psychology. In addition to well studied areas of investigation, it also includes chapters on the philosophical underpinnings of evolutionary psychology, comparative perspectives from other species, and more.

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology

Author: Jennifer Vonk
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199909834
Release Date: 2012-01-04
Genre: Psychology

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Evolutionary Psychology ambitiously brings together an eclectic and provocative body of work from some of the brightest minds in comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology, highlighting the strengths and insights of each field. Across chapters, readers will come to appreciate the new field of "comparative evolutionary psychology," which successfully combines laboratory and field approaches, drawing on diverse methodologies and theoretical viewpoints to elucidate the mysteries of animal behavior and cognition. This comprehensive volume includes coverage of: - Unique specializations in a wide range of taxa from insects, cephalopods, reptiles, corvids, canines, cetaceans, and primates - Communication, cooperation, social learning, memory and cognitition in different species - Controversial theories about the evolution of sometimes surprising abilities in species, both phylogenetically close to and distant from humans. Suitable for seasoned researchers and graduate students alike, this volume reflects a range of views on human and non-human behavior and cognition, and advances these topics in a wide range of species.

Talking to Our Selves

Author: John M. Doris
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191047329
Release Date: 2015-03-19
Genre: Philosophy

John M. Doris presents a new account of agency and responsibility, which reconciles our understanding of ourselves as moral agents with psychological research on the unconscious mind. Much philosophical theorizing maintains that the exercise of morally responsible agency consists in judgment and behavior ordered by accurate reflection. On such theories, when human beings are able to direct their lives in the manner philosophers have dignified with the honorific 'agency', it's because they know what they're doing, and why they're doing it. This understanding is compromised by quantities of psychological research on unconscious processing, which suggests that accurate reflection is distressingly uncommon; very often behavior is ordered by surprisingly inaccurate self-awareness. Thus, if agency requires accurate reflection, people seldom exercise agency, and skepticism about agency threatens. To counter the skeptical threat, John M. Doris proposes an alternative theory that requires neither reflection nor accurate self-awareness: he identifies a dialogic form of agency where self-direction is facilitated by exchange of the rationalizations with which people explain and justify themselves to one another. The result is a stoutly interdisciplinary theory sensitive to both what human beings are like—creatures with opaque and unruly psychologies-and what they need: an account of agency sufficient to support a practice of moral responsibility.

The Handbook of Emotion and Memory

Author: Sven-Ake Christianson
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9781317783589
Release Date: 2014-02-04
Genre: Psychology

This important volume defines the state of the art in the field of emotion and memory by offering a blend of research review, unpublished findings, and theory on topics related to its study. As the first contemporary reference source in this area, it summarizes findings on implicit and explicit aspects of emotion and memory, addresses conceptual and methodological difficulties associated with different paradigms and current procedures, and presents broad theoretical perspectives to guide further research. This volume articulates the accomplishments of the field and the points of disagreement, and gives the brain, clinical, and cognitive sciences an invaluable resource for 21st-century researchers. Citing and analyzing the results of experiments as well as field and case studies, the chapters are organized around methodological approaches, biological-evolutionary perspectives, and clinical perspectives, and bring together experts in neuroscience, and both cognitive and clinical psychology. Questions addressed include: * What is the nature of emotional events and what do we retain from them? * Is there something about emotional events that causes them to be processed differently in memory? * Do emotional memories have special characteristics that differ from those produced by "ordinary" memory mechanisms or systems? * Do people with emotional disturbances remember differently than normal people? * Which factors play the most crucial role in functional amnesia?

Handbook of Culture and Memory

Author: Brady Wagoner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780190230814
Release Date: 2017
Genre: Psychology

Concept and history of memory -- The evolutionary origins of human cultural memory / Merlin Donald -- From memory as archive to remembering as conversation / Jens Brockmeier -- Discerning the history inscribed within : significant sites of the narrative unconscious / Mark Freeman -- Cultural contexts of remembering -- The landscape of family memory / Bradd Shore and Sara Kauko -- Materiality of memory : the case of the remembrance poppy / Kyoko Murakami -- Approaches to testimony : two current views and beyond / Kotaro Takagi and Naohisa Mori -- Rethinking function, self and culture, in "difficult" autobiographical memories / Steve D. Brown and Paula Reavey -- Memory through the life course -- The cultural construction of memory in early childhood / Katherine Nelson -- Memory in life transitions / Constance de Saint Laurent and Tania Zittoun -- Memory in old age : a life-span perspective / Dieter Ferring -- Memory, history and identity -- National memory and where to find it / James Wertsch -- History, collective memories or national memories? how the representation of the past is framed by master narratives / Mario Carretero and Floor van Alphen -- Media and the dynamics of memory : from cultural paradigms to transcultural mediation / Astrid Erll

What Is Adaptive about Adaptive Memory

Author: Bennett L. Schwartz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199928057
Release Date: 2013-12
Genre: Psychology

Human memory, like other biological systems, has been subject to natural selection over the course of evolution. The goal of this volume is to present the best theoretical and empirical work on the adaptive nature of memory. The volume features current and relevant work of cognitive, developmental, and comparative psychologists.

Science of Memory

Author: Henry L. Roediger III
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199727511
Release Date: 2007-04-26
Genre: Psychology

Scientists currently study memory from many different perspectives: neurobiological, ethological, animal conditioning, cognitive, behavioral neuroscience, social, and cultural. The aim of this book is to help initiate a new science of memory by bringing these perspectives together to create a unified understanding of the topic. The book began with a conference where leading practitioners from all these major approaches met to analyze and discuss 16 concepts that are crucial to our understanding of memory. Each of these 16 concepts is addressed in a section of the book, and in the 66 succinct chapters that fill these sections, a leading researcher addresses the section's concept by clearly stating his or her position on it, elucidating how it is used, and discussing how it should be used in future research. For some concepts, there is general agreement among practitioners from different fields and levels of analysis, but for others there is general disagreement and much controversy. A final chapter in each section, also written by a leading researcher, integrates the various viewpoints offered on the section's concept, then draws conclusions about the concept. This groundbreaking volume will be an indispensable reference for all the students and researchers who will build upon the foundation it provides for the new science of memory.

Introductory Readings for Cognitive Psychology

Author: Richard P. Honeck
Publisher: William C Brown Communications
ISBN: 0697386422
Release Date: 1998-01
Genre: Psychology

This book, composed of 31 selections, is designed for the student who is taking a first course in cognitive psychology. Because texts rarely give students any idea of the methodological and theoretical struggles of researchers in this area, these readings capture the excitement and flow of cognitive psychology. Students will benefit from being directly exposed to the pursuits and passions of cognitive psychologists, the questions they grapple with, and the inner workings of their research.

Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences

Author: David Sander
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191021015
Release Date: 2014-02-06
Genre: Psychology

Few areas have witnessed the type of growth we have seen in the affective sciences in the past decades. Across psychology, philosophy, economics, and neuroscience, there has been an explosion of interest in the topic of emotion and affect. Comprehensive, authoritative, up-to-date, and easy-to-use, the new Oxford Companion to Emotion and the Affective Sciences is an indispensable resource for all who wish to find out about theories, concepts, methods, and research findings in this rapidly growing interdisciplinary field - one that brings together, amongst others, psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, philosophers, and historians. Organized by alphabetical entries, and presenting brief definitions, concise overviews, and encyclopaedic articles (all with extensive references to relevant publications), this Companion lends itself to casual browsing by non-specialists interested in the fascinating phenomena of emotions, moods, affect disorders, and personality as well as to focused search for pertinent information by students and established scholars in the field. Not only does the book provide entries on affective phenomena, but also on their neural underpinnings, their cognitive antecedents and the associated responses in physiological systems, facial, vocal, and bodily expressions, and action tendencies. Numerous entries also consider the role of emotion in society and social behavior, as well as in cognitive processes such as those critical for perception, attention, memory, judgement and decision-making. The volume has been edited by a group of internationally leading authorities in the respective disciplines consisting of two editors (David Sander and Klaus Scherer) as well as group of 11 associate editors (John T. Cacioppo, Tim Dalgleish, Robert Dantzer, Richard J. Davidson, Ronald B. de Sousa, Phoebe C. Ellsworth, Nico Frijda, George Loewenstein, Paula M. Niedenthal, Peter Salovey, and Richard A. Shweder). The members of the editorial board have commissioned and reviewed contributions from major experts on specific topics. In addition to comprehensive coverage of technical terms and fundamental issues, the volume also highlights current debates that inform the ongoing research process. In addition, the Companion contains a wealth of material on the role of emotion in applied domains such as economic behaviour, music and arts, work and organizational behaviour, family interactions and group dynamics, religion, law and justice, and societal change. Highly accessible and wide-ranging, this book is a vital resource for scientists, students, and professionals eager to obtain a rapid, conclusive overview on central terms and topics and anyone wanting to learn more about the mechanisms underlying the emotions dominating many aspects of our lives.

The Oxford Handbook of Memory

Author: Endel Tulving Research Scientist Rotman Research Institute
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780199729395
Release Date: 2000-05-04
Genre: Psychology

Written by the world's leading memory scientists in a highly accessible language, this volume brings together facts and theories of cognitive psychology; memory development in childhood and old age; memory impairment in brain injury and disease; the emergence of memory functions from the brain; as well as reviews of current behavioral, neuroimaging, and computer simulation theories of memory. philosophers and thinkers for hundreds of years. The last decades in particular have seen the emergence of a genuine science of memory, based first on behavioral studies and more recently on the new technologies of brain scanning. These recent studies have resulted in theories that are rich, complex, and far-reaching in their implications. The Oxford Handbook of Memory lays out these theories, and the evidence on which the theories are based. The important new discoveries of the last few years are described, along with their consequences for professionals in the areas of law, engineering, and clinical medicine. Endel Tulving and Fergus Craik, two world-class experts on memory, provide this handbook as a guide to the dynamic and exciting field of memory research. Individual chapters are written by eminent researchers who provide insight into their special areas, and outline challenges for the work that lies ahead. The book is exhaustive in its coverage-examining such topics as the development of memory, the contents of memory, memory in the laboratory and in everyday use, memory in decline, the organization of memory, and theories of memory-making this book ideal for psychologists, memory researchers, neuroscientists, and graduate students of psychology.

Cps1 Int Rdg Cogn Psy gen Use

Author: HONECK
Publisher:
ISBN: 0072947152
Release Date: 2003-06-01
Genre:

This book, composed of 31 selections, is designed for the student who is taking a first course in cognitive psychology. Because texts rarely give students any idea of the methodological and theoretical struggles of researchers in this area, these readings capture the excitement and flow of cognitive psychology. Students will benefit from being directly exposed to the pursuits and passions of cognitive psychologists, the questions they grapple with, and the inner workings of their research.

Handbook of Neuropsychology

Author: François Boller
Publisher: Elsevier Science Limited
ISBN: 0444812091
Release Date: 1992-01-01
Genre: Medical

Hardbound. Volume 7 complements Volume 6 and focusses on language, memory, attention, mood and noncognitive aspects of behavior. Additional chapters deal with academic disorders (dyslexia and dyscalculia), and with epilepsy, autism and childhood psychosis.The book will keep all scientists working in the field of neuropsychology abreast of recent developments, and points to future paths to be explored in this rapidly expanding area.

Cultural Neuroscience Cultural Influences on Brain Function

Author: Juan Y. Chiao
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080952215
Release Date: 2009-11-25
Genre: Science

This volume presents recent empirical advances using neuroscience techniques to investigate how culture influences neural processes underlying a wide range of human abilities, from perception and scene processing to memory and social cognition. It also highlights the theoretical and methodological issues with conducting cultural neuroscience research. Section I provides diverse theoretical perspectives on how culture and biology interact are represented. Sections II –VI is to demonstrate how cultural values, beliefs, practices and experience affect neural systems underlying a wide range of human behavior from perception and cognition to emotion, social cognition and decision-making. The final section presents arguments for integrating the study of culture and the human brain by providing an explicit articulation of how the study of culture can inform the study of the brain and vice versa.