Author: Idith Zertal
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Release Date: 1998-10-05
In a book certain to generate controversy and debate, Idith Zertal boldly interprets a much revered chapter in contemporary Jewish and Zionist history: the clandestine immigration to Palestine of Jewish refugees, most of them Holocaust survivors, that was organized by Palestinian Zionists just after World War II. Events that captured the attention of the world, such as the Exodus affair in the summer 1947, are seen here in a strikingly new light. At the center of Zertal's book is the Mossad, a small, unorthodox Zionist organization whose mission beginning in 1938 was to bring Jews to Palestine in order to subvert the British quotas on Jewish immigration. From Catastrophe to Power scrutinizes the Mossad's mode of operation, its ideology and politics, its structure and history, and its collective human profile as never before. Zertal's moving story sweeps across four continents and encompasses a range of political cultures and international forces. But underneath this story another darker and more complex plot unfolds: the special encounter between the Zionist revolutionary collective and the mass of Jewish remnant after the Holocaust. According to Zertal, this psychologically painful yet politically powerful encounter was the Zionists' most effective weapon in their struggle for a sovereign Jewish state. Drawing on primary archival documents and new readings of canonical texts of the period, she analyzes this encounter from all angles—political, social, cultural, and psychological. The outcome is a gripping and troubling human story of a crucial period in Jewish and Israeli history, one that also provides a key to understanding the fundamental tensions between Israel and the Jewish communities and Israel and the world today.
Author: Karel Valansi
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
Release Date: 2018-02-20
The nationalist outlook of the Turkish state since the beginning of the Republican era in 1923 targeted uniform identity formation. While Turkey did not recognize the existence of ethnic identities as long as they were Muslim, non-Muslims were challenging this ideal. During this social engineering, the religious minorities and the state had very turbulent relations based on mistrust, resulting in many discriminative legislations. The Republican story of the Jews provides significant insight to highlight the difficulties and challenges encountered in the formation of the Turkish Republic as well as the changes in the Turkish public with the new nation state in effect. Following the Second World War, a new state was established in the Middle East. During the Cold War, the Soviet threat led Turkey to recognize the State of Israel, established as a Jewish state. The main reasoning of Turkey in recognizing Israel was to be accepted to the Western camp. While the bilateral relations of Turkey and Israel increased gradually, a surprisingly high number of Turkish Jews, nearly 40 percent of the Jewish community in Turkey, immigrated to the new country. This book is an attempt to investigate the establishment of the State of Israel, Turkey’s recognition of the Jewish state and its repercussions on the Turkish public between the years 1936 and 1956. It explains the establishment of the State of Israel and the first three decades of the Turkish Republic. It includes the religious minorities of Turkey, with a special focus on the Jewish community as it is one of the major links between Turkey and Israel. It combines Turkish public reaction to the establishment and recognition of the State of Israel, shedding light on the reasons of the mass Jewish immigration, which is at the same time the second biggest immigration out of Turkey after the labor immigration to Europe starting from the 1960s.
Author: Avinoam J. Patt
Publisher: Wayne State University Press
Release Date: 2010
By the spring of 1947, less than two years after Nazi Germany’s defeat, some 250,000 Jewish refugees remained in the displaced persons camps of Germany, Italy, and Austria. Yet many Jews did not know whether to return to their home countries or move on to someplace else. As a result, these stateless displaced persons (DPs) created a unique space for political, cultural, and social rebirth that was tempered by the complications of overcoming recent trauma. In "We Are Here," editors Avinoam J. Patt and Michael Berkowitz present current research on DPs between the end of the war and the creation of the State of Israel in order to present a more complete and nuanced picture of the DP experience, challenging many earlier assumptions about this group. Contributors to this volume analyze art, music, and literature of the DPs, as well as historical records of specific DP communities to explore the first reactions of survivors to liberation and their understanding of place in the context of postwar Germany and in Europe more generally. A number of the contributions in this volume challenge prior interpretations of Jewish DPs and Holocaust survivors, including the supposedly unified background of the DP population, the notion of a general reluctance to confront the past, the idea of Zionism as an inevitable success after the war, and the suggestion that Jews, despite their presence in Germany, strenuously avoided contact with Germans. Far from constituting a monolithic whole, then, "We Are Here" demonstrates that the DPs were composed of diverse groups with disparate wartime experiences. Responding to burgeoning scholarship on DPs and related issues, "We Are Here" sifts through the copious records DPs left behind to shed light on the many facets of a vibrant DP society. Scholars of the Holocaust and all readers concerned with the Jewish experience immediately after World War II will be grateful for this volume.
Author: Arieh J. Kochavi
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Release Date: 2003-01-14
Genre: Political Science
Between 1945 and 1948, more than a quarter of a million Jews fled countries in Eastern Europe and the Balkans and began filling hastily erected displaced persons camps in Germany and Austria. As one of the victorious Allies, Britain had to help find a solution for the vast majority of these refugees who refused repatriation. Drawing on extensive research in British, American, and Israeli archives, Arieh Kochavi presents a comprehensive analysis of British policy toward Jewish displaced persons and reveals the crucial role the United States played in undermining that policy. Kochavi argues that political concerns--not human considerations--determined British policy regarding the refugees. Anxious to secure its interests in the Middle East, Britain feared its relations with Arab nations would suffer if it appeared to be too lax in thwarting Zionist efforts to bring Jewish Holocaust survivors to Palestine. In the United States, however, the American Jewish community was able to influence presidential policy by making its vote hinge on a solution to the displaced persons problem. Setting his analysis against the backdrop of the escalating Cold War, Kochavi reveals how, ironically, the Kremlin as well as the White House came to support the Zionists' goals, albeit for entirely different reasons.
Author: Yoram Kaniuk
Publisher: Open Road + Grove/Atlantic
Release Date: 2007-12-01
“The first biography of Yossi Harel . . . offers valuable insights into the Jewish struggle to create a homeland” (Booklist). Hailed by the New York Times as “one of the most inventive, brilliant novelists in the Western world,” internationally renowned Israeli writer Yoram Kaniuk turns his hand to nonfiction to bring us his most important work yet. Commander of the Exodus animates the story of Yossi Harel, a modern-day Moses who defied the blockade of the British Mandate to deliver more than twenty-four thousand displaced Holocaust survivors to Palestine while the rest of the world closed its doors. Of the four expeditions commanded by Harel between 1946 and 1948, the voyage of the Exodus left the deepest impression on public consciousness, quickly becoming a beacon for Zionism and a symbol to all that neither guns, cannons, nor warships could stand in the way of the human need for a home. With grace and sensitivity, Kaniuk shows the human face of history. He pays homage to the young Israeli who was motivated not by politics or personal glory, but by the pleading eyes of the orphaned children languishing on the shores of Europe. Commander of the Exodus is both an unforgettable tribute to the heroism of the dispossessed and a rich evocation of the vision and daring of a man who took it upon himself to reverse the course of history. “[Yossi Harel’s] remarkable achievements have been engraved in history by the talent of Yoram Kaniuk.” —Ehud Barak, former prime minister of Israel
Author: Eli Lederhendler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2001-12-20
Bringing together contributions from established scholars as well as promising younger academics, the seventeenth volume of this established series offers a broad-ranging view of why Judaism, a religion whose observance is more honored in the breach in most western Jewish communities, has garnered attention, authority, and controversy in the late twentieth century. The volume considers the ways in which theological writings, sweeping social change, individual or small-group needs, and intra-communal diversity have re-energized Judaism even amidst secular trends in America and Israel.
Author: Sarah Kavanaugh
Publisher: Mitchell Vallentine
Release Date: 2008
This book centres on the role played by ORT in the rehabilitation of Holocaust survivors inside the Displaced Persons (DP) camps after the Second World War. A brief history of the ORT organisation is followed by the author highlighting ORT's work during the 1920s and 1930s, using Berlin as a case study. The important and often life-saving work carried out by ORT workers inside the ghettos of Eastern Europe, primarily in Warsaw and Kovno, is then examined. The book then focuses on the liberation of the concentration camps, the set-up of the post-war allied zones of occupation, the establishment of the DP camps, and ORT's arrival within them. The mature period of ORT's work in the DP camps is then covered, looking at Belsen in the British zone of occupation and Landsberg in the American zone. The book also explores ORT's work in Austria and Italy. The final chapter highlights the closure of the DP camps, the subsequent immigration of the DPs, and the creation of the State of Israel.
Author: Theodor Herzl
Publisher: Musaicum Books
Release Date: 2017-08-29
Genre: Social Science
Der Judenstaat. Versuch einer modernen Lösung der Judenfrage ist ein Buch von Theodor Herzl, mit dem er versuchte, eine jüdische Antwort auf die damals so genannte Judenfrage aufzuzeigen. Herzl schrieb es unter dem Eindruck der Dreyfus-Affäre; er beendete das Manuskript am 17. Juni 1895. Den Grund für den seiner Ansicht nach wachsenden Antisemitismus sieht er in der mangelnden sozialen Mobilität, die durch Benachteiligungen der Juden entsteht. Eine totale soziologische Assimilation lehnt Herzl jedoch ab, da die jüdische Volkspersönlichkeit geschichtlich zu berühmt und trotz aller Erniedrigungen zu hoch sei. Sie sei zu wertvoll für den Untergang. Davon abgesehen sei eine Assimilation nur dann möglich, wenn man die Juden einmal für zwei Generationen in Ruhe ließe. Dies würde aber nicht passieren, worauf der Druck sie wieder an den alten Stamm presse, der Hass ihrer Umgebung mache sie wieder zu Fremden. Theodor Herzl (1860-1904) war ein österreichisch-ungarischer Schriftsteller jüdischer Herkunft, Publizist und Journalist und der Begründer des modernen politischen Zionismus. Er gilt deshalb als der zentrale Vordenker und zugleich als aktiver Wegbereiter eines modernen Judenstaats, der später in Form des modernen Staates Israel Realität wurde.
Kein Geheimdienst weltweit ist so bekannt, keiner so legendär und berüchtigt wie der israelische Auslandsgeheimdienst Mossad. Gefeiert wurde er für das Aufspüren des Kriegsverbrechers Adolf Eichmann, kritisiert für die Ermordung eines marokkanischen Kellners als Vergeltung der Attentate von München 1972. Doch wie arbeitet der Mossad genau? Was sind seine Methoden? Die israelischen Autoren Michael Bar-Zohar und Nissim Mischal zeigen ein Netz aus Spionage, Sabotage und Propaganda und sparen auch die zuletzt bekannt gewordenen Liquidierungen von hochrangigen iranischen Atomphysikern nicht aus.
"Der Judenstaat. Versuch einer modernen Lösung der Judenfrage" ist ein Buch von Theodor Herzl, mit dem er versuchte, eine jüdische Antwort auf die damals so genannte Judenfrage aufzuzeigen. Es erschien 1896 in Leipzig und Wien in der "M. Breitenstein's Verlags-Buchhandlung", nachdem "Cronbach" in Berlin und "Duncker & Humblot" eine Publikation abgelehnt hatten. Herzl schrieb es unter dem Eindruck der Dreyfus-Affäre; er beendete das Manuskript am 17. Juni 1895.