The Flight from Reality in the Human Sciences

Author: Ian Shapiro
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400826902
Release Date: 2009-02-09
Genre: Social Science

In this captivating yet troubling book, Ian Shapiro offers a searing indictment of many influential practices in the social sciences and humanities today. Perhaps best known for his critique of rational choice theory, Shapiro expands his purview here. In discipline after discipline, he argues, scholars have fallen prey to inward-looking myopia that results from--and perpetuates--a flight from reality. In the method-driven academic culture we inhabit, argues Shapiro, researchers too often make display and refinement of their techniques the principal scholarly activity. The result is that they lose sight of the objects of their study. Pet theories and methodological blinders lead unwelcome facts to be ignored, sometimes not even perceived. The targets of Shapiro's critique include the law and economics movement, overzealous formal and statistical modeling, various reductive theories of human behavior, misguided conceptual analysis in political theory, and the Cambridge school of intellectual history. As an alternative to all of these, Shapiro makes a compelling case for problem-driven social research, rooted in a realist philosophy of science and an antireductionist view of social explanation. In the lucid--if biting--prose for which Shapiro is renowned, he explains why this requires greater critical attention to how problems are specified than is usually undertaken. He illustrates what is at stake for the study of power, democracy, law, and ideology, as well as in normative debates over rights, justice, freedom, virtue, and community. Shapiro answers many critics of his views along the way, securing his position as one of the distinctive social and political theorists of our time.

Religi ses Bewusstsein und Politische Ordnung Eine Kritik von Eric Voegelins Bewusstseinsphilosophie

Author: Eckhart Arnold
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
ISBN: 9783638822275
Release Date: 2007
Genre:

Fachbuch aus dem Jahr 2000 im Fachbereich Politik - Politische Theorie und Ideengeschichte, Note: 1, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat Bonn (Seminar fur Politische Wissenschaft), 120 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Inhaltsangabe Eric Voegelin glaubte, dass eine moralisch akzeptable und langfristig erfolgreiche (und das hiess fur den Emigranten Voegelin vor allem: totalitarismusresistente) politische Ordnung nur auf Grundlage einer gesunden Religiositat der Burger und insbesondere des politischen Fuhrungspersonals errichtet werden kann. Der Frage, wie eine gesunde Religiositat bzw. ein gesundes Transzendenzbewusstein beschaffen sein muss, versuchte Voegelin sowohl durch geistesgeschichtliche als auch durch bewusstseinsphilosophische Untersuchungen nachzuspuren. In diesem Buch wird die Bewusstseinsphilsophie Voegelins und die sich darauf grundende politische Ordnungsvorstellung einer eingehenden Kritik unterzogen. Im Ergebnis fuhrt dies zu einer Absage an die Politische Theologie Voegelinscher oder auch anderer Pragung und einem entschiedenen Pladoyer fur die Trennung von Religion und Politik. Uber den Autor: Eckhart Arnold (Jahrgang 1972) hat in Bonn Politische Wissenschaften, Offentliches Recht und Philosophie studiert. Nach seinem Magisterabschluss im Jahr 2000 hat er zunachst fur mehrere Jahre an der Erfurt School of Public Policy in der "Entwicklung multimedialer Lehrmethoden im Bereich Public Policy"' gearbeitet. Anschliessend war er als wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Lehrstuhl fur Theoretische Philosophie in Dusseldorf tatig, wo er vor kurzem seine Dissertation zu dem Thema "Explaining Altruism. A Simulation-Based Approach and its Limits"' fertig gestellt hat. Seit Oktober 2007 ist er wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter an der Universitat Bayreuth im Studiengang "Philosophy and Economics"'. English Summary: Eric Voegelin believed that a morally acceptable and in the long run successful political order (which meant for t

Change Research

Author: Corey S. Shdaimah
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231525367
Release Date: 2011-09-13
Genre: Social Science

Collaborating with community members adds a critical dimension to social work research, providing practitioners with intimate knowledge of a community's goals and needs while equipping community advocates with vital skills for social change. Sharing the inspiring story of one such partnership, Corey Shdaimah, Roland Stahl, and Sanford F. Schram recount their efforts working with an affordable housing coalition in Philadelphia, helping activists research low-income home ownership and repair. Their collaboration helped create the Philadelphia Housing Trust Fund, which funnels millions of dollars to people in need. This volume describes the origins of their partnership and its growth, including developing tensions and their diffusion in ways that contributed to the research. The authors personalize methods of research and the possibilities for advocacy, ultimately connecting their encounters to more general, critical themes. Building on the field's commitment to social justice, they effectively demonstrate the potential of change research to facilitate widespread, long-term difference and improve community outcomes.

Faith in Politics

Author: Bryan T. McGraw
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139487726
Release Date: 2010-06-10
Genre: Political Science

No account of contemporary politics can ignore religion. The liberal democratic tradition in political thought has long treated religion with some suspicion, regarding it as a source of division and instability. Faith in Politics shows how such arguments are unpersuasive and dependent on questionable empirical claims: rather than being a serious threat to democracies' legitimacy, stability and freedom, religion can be democratically constructive. Using historical cases of important religious political movements to add empirical weight, Bryan McGraw suggests that religion will remain a significant political force for the foreseeable future and that pluralist democracies would do well to welcome rather than marginalize it.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies

Author: Michael Freeden
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191663710
Release Date: 2013-08-15
Genre: Political Science

This is the first comprehensive volume to offer a state of the art investigation both of the nature of political ideologies and of their main manifestations. The diversity of ideology studies is represented by a mixture of the range of theories that illuminate the field, combined with an appreciation of the changing complexity of concrete ideologies and the emergence of new ones. Ideologies, however, are always with us. The Handbook is divided into three sections: The first is divided into three sections: The first reflects some of the latest thinking about the development of ideology on an historical dimension, from the standpoints of conceptual history, Marx studies, social science theory and history, and leading schools of continental philosophy. The second includes some of the most recent interpretations and theories of ideology, all of which are sympathetic in their own ways to its exploration and close investigation, even when judiciously critical of its social impact. This section contains many of the more salient contemporary accounts of ideology. The third focuses on the leading ideological families and traditions, as well as on some of their cultural and geographical manifestations, incorporating both historical and contemporary perspectives. Each chapter is written by an expert in their field, bringing the latest approaches and understandings to their task. The Handbook will position the study of ideologies in the mainstream of political theory and political analysis and will attest to its indispensability both to courses on political theory and to scholars who wish to take their understanding of ideologies in new directions.

Online Teaching and Learning

Author: Carla Meskill
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 9781441175786
Release Date: 2013-08-15
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Online Teaching and Learning shows how learning through the internet depends on complex human interactions for success. The text uses sociocultural theory as its foundational stance to empirically examine the dynamics of these interactions. It seeks to understand meaning making in all of its social, linguistic and cultural complexity. Each chapter examines how it is that culturally and historically situated meanings get negotiated through social mediation in online instructional venues. It extends the ways we think and talk about online teaching and learning.

The Oil Curse

Author: Michael L. Ross
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400841929
Release Date: 2012-03-04
Genre: Political Science

Countries that are rich in petroleum have less democracy, less economic stability, and more frequent civil wars than countries without oil. What explains this oil curse? And can it be fixed? In this groundbreaking analysis, Michael L. Ross looks at how developing nations are shaped by their mineral wealth--and how they can turn oil from a curse into a blessing. Ross traces the oil curse to the upheaval of the 1970s, when oil prices soared and governments across the developing world seized control of their countries' oil industries. Before nationalization, the oil-rich countries looked much like the rest of the world; today, they are 50 percent more likely to be ruled by autocrats--and twice as likely to descend into civil war--than countries without oil. The Oil Curse shows why oil wealth typically creates less economic growth than it should; why it produces jobs for men but not women; and why it creates more problems in poor states than in rich ones. It also warns that the global thirst for petroleum is causing companies to drill in increasingly poor nations, which could further spread the oil curse. This landmark book explains why good geology often leads to bad governance, and how this can be changed.

Democracy s Place

Author: Ian Shapiro
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801483700
Release Date: 1996
Genre: Political Science

One of our nation's most prolific and widely discussed political theorists, Ian Shapiro speaks with a distinctive voice. His work is Deweyan in its inspiration, cosmopolitan in its concerns, and practical in its referents. In this book, he provides his first extended statement on contemporary democratic politics.Democracy's Place includes seven essays in which Shapiro carefully integrates the theoretical and the applied. Four deal principally with democratic theory and its link to problems of social justice; the other three detail applications in the United States, the postcommunist world, and the author's native South Africa. All advance a view of democratic politics which rests on principled, yet nuanced, suspicion of hierarchical social arrangements and of political blueprints. Shapiro's writing is unified as well by a pervasive concern with the relations between the requirements of democracy and those of social justice. These themes, substantiated by complex yet accessible arguments, offer a constructive democratic perspective on contemporary debates about liberalism, communitarianism, and distributive justice.

Honor

Author: James Bowman
Publisher: Encounter Books
ISBN: UOM:39015079781582
Release Date: 2006-04-06
Genre: Technology

The importance of honor is present in the earliest records of civilization. Today, while it may still be an essential concept in Islamic cultures, in the West, honor has been disparaged and dismissed as obsolete. In this lively and authoritative book, James Bowman traces the curious and fascinating history of this ideal, from the Middle Ages through the Enlightenment and to the killing fields of World War I and the despair of Vietnam. Bowman reminds us that the fate of honor and the fate of morality and even manners are deeply interrelated.

Ethnomethodology and the Human Sciences

Author: Graham Button
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521389526
Release Date: 1991-08-30
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Through its empirical inquiries into the ordered properties of social action, this text demonstrates how ethnomethodology provides a radical respecification of the foundations of the human sciences, an achievement that has often been misunderstood.

Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences

Author: Donald E. Polkinghorne
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9781438416281
Release Date: 2010-03-31
Genre: Philosophy

This book expands the concept of the nature of science and provides a practical research alternative for those who work with people and organizations. Using literary criticism, philosophy, and history, as well as recent developments in the cognitive and social sciences, Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences shows how to use research information organized by the narrative form--such information as clinical life histories, organizational case studies, biographic material, corporate cultural designs, and literary products. The relationship between the narrative format and classical and statistical and experimental designs is clarified and made explicit. Suggestions for doing research are given as well as criteria for judging the accuracy and quality of narrative research results.

The State of Democratic Theory

Author: Ian Shapiro
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140082589X
Release Date: 2009-01-10
Genre: Political Science

What should we expect from democracy, and how likely is it that democracies will live up to those expectations? In The State of Democratic Theory, Ian Shapiro offers a critical assessment of contemporary answers to these questions, lays out his distinctive alternative, and explores its implications for policy and political action. Some accounts of democracy's purposes focus on aggregating preferences; others deal with collective deliberation in search of the common good. Shapiro reveals the shortcomings of both, arguing instead that democracy should be geared toward minimizing domination throughout society. He contends that Joseph Schumpeter's classic defense of competitive democracy is a useful starting point for achieving this purpose, but that it stands in need of radical supplementation--both with respect to its operation in national political institutions and in its extension to other forms of collective association. Shapiro's unusually wide-ranging discussion also deals with the conditions that make democracy's survival more and less likely, with the challenges presented by ethnic differences and claims for group rights, and with the relations between democracy and the distribution of income and wealth. Ranging over politics, philosophy, constitutional law, economics, sociology, and psychology, this book is written in Shapiro's characteristic lucid style--a style that engages practitioners within the field while also opening up the debate to newcomers.

The Real World of Democratic Theory

Author: Ian Shapiro
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400836832
Release Date: 2010-11-22
Genre: Political Science

In this book Ian Shapiro develops and extends arguments that have established him as one of today's leading democratic theorists. Shapiro is hardheaded about the realities of politics and power, and the difficulties of fighting injustice and oppression. Yet he makes a compelling case that democracy's legitimacy depends on pressing it into the service of resisting domination, and that democratic theorists must rise to the occasion of fashioning the necessary tools. That vital agenda motivates the arguments of this book. Tracing modern democracy's roots to John Locke and the American founders, Shapiro shows that they saw more deeply into the dynamics of democratic politics than have many of their successors. Drawing on Lockean and Madisonian insights, Shapiro evaluates democracy's changing global fortunes over the past two decades. He also shows how elusive democracy can be by exploring the contrast between its successful establishment in South Africa and its failures elsewhere--particularly the Middle East. Shapiro spells out the implications of his account for long-standing debates about public opinion, judicial review, abortion, and inherited wealth--as well as more recent preoccupations with globalization, national security, and international terrorism. Scholars, students, and democratic activists will all learn from Shapiro's trenchant account of democracy's foundations, its history, and its contemporary challenges. They will also find his distinctive democratic vision both illuminating and appealing.