Author: Steven Johnson
Release Date: 2006-10-19
A National Bestseller, a New York Times Notable Book, and an Entertainment Weekly Best Book of the Year From Steven Johnson, the dynamic thinker routinely compared to James Gleick, Dava Sobel, and Malcolm Gladwell, The Ghost Map is a riveting page-turner about a real-life historical hero, Dr. John Snow. It's the summer of 1854, and London is just emerging as one of the first modern cities in the world. But lacking the infrastructure -- garbage removal, clean water, sewers -- necessary to support its rapidly expanding population, the city has become the perfect breeding ground for a terrifying disease no one knows how to cure. As the cholera outbreak takes hold, a physician and a local curate are spurred to action-and ultimately solve the most pressing medical riddle of their time. In a triumph of multidisciplinary thinking, Johnson illuminates the intertwined histories and interconnectedness of the spread of disease, contagion theory, the rise of cities, and the nature of scientific inquiry, offering both a riveting history and a powerful explanation of how it has shaped the world we live in.
Author: John Stanislav Sadar
Release Date: 2016-02-12
In the mid-1920s a physiologist, a glass chemist, and a zoo embarked on a project which promised to turn buildings into medical instruments. The advanced chemistry of "Vita" Glass mobilised theories of light and medicine, health practices and glassmaking technology to compress an entire epoch’s hopes for a healthy life into a glass sheet – yet it did so invisibly. To communicate its advantage, Pilkington Bros. spared no expense as they launched the most costly and sophisticated marketing campaign in their history. Engineering need for "Vita" Glass employed leading-edge market research, evocative photography and vanguard techniques of advertising psychology, accompanied by the claim: "Let in the Health Rays of Daylight Permanently through "Vita" Glass Windows." This is the story of how, despite the best efforts of two glass companies, the leading marketing firm of the day, and the opinions of leading medical minds, "Vita" Glass failed. However, it epitomised an age of lightness and airiness, sleeping porches, flat roofs and ribbon windows. Moreover, through its remarkable print advertising, it strove to shape the ideal relationship between our buildings and our bodies.
Author: Dorceta E. Taylor
Publisher: Duke University Press
Release Date: 2009-11-02
In The Environment and the People in American Cities, Dorceta E. Taylor provides an in-depth examination of the development of urban environments, and urban environmentalism, in the United States. Taylor focuses on the evolution of the city, the emergence of elite reformers, the framing of environmental problems, and the perceptions of and responses to breakdowns in social order, from the seventeenth century through the twentieth. She demonstrates how social inequalities repeatedly informed the adjudication of questions related to health, safety, and land access and use. While many accounts of environmental history begin and end with wildlife and wilderness, Taylor shows that the city offers important clues to understanding the evolution of American environmental activism. Taylor traces the progression of several major thrusts in urban environmental activism, including the alleviation of poverty; sanitary reform and public health; safe, affordable, and adequate housing; parks, playgrounds, and open space; occupational health and safety; consumer protection (food and product safety); and land use and urban planning. At the same time, she presents a historical analysis of the ways race, class, and gender shaped experiences and perceptions of the environment as well as environmental activism and the construction of environmental discourses. Throughout her analysis, Taylor illuminates connections between the social and environmental conflicts of the past and those of the present. She describes the displacement of people of color for the production of natural open space for the white and wealthy, the close proximity between garbage and communities of color in early America, the cozy relationship between middle-class environmentalists and the business community, and the continuous resistance against environmental inequalities on the part of ordinary residents from marginal communities.
The book provides insights into the social perception of environmental risks and their social impact during the first industrialization. It looks for the roots of our modern ecological consciousness in the cultural legacy of the long 19th century. It, therefore, employs prominent case studies from Europe and the United States, each grouping around a realist novel, a primary source of entertainment at the time. A reading of Charles Dickens, Wilhelm Raabe, and Upton Sinclair through an ecocritical lens reveals significant criticism of the shortcomings during their time. The intellectual protest manifests itself as an experimental, almost naturalistic and trendsetting writing style. At the same time, the individual writers propose solutions for the risk-laden environmental conditions with societal reconstruction at their center. Attentive contemporaries of the industrialization realized the necessity to address ecological and social problems jointly. Lacking political scope for environmental awareness, however, obstructed its social impact. This reinterpretation of several classics also draws on source material from personal correspondence or administrative files. The book makes a valuable contribution to the colorful and varied picture of the grand-parental generation of modern ecological thinking and action.
Author: Steven Johnson
Release Date: 2014-09-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
From the New York Times–bestselling author of Where Good Ideas Come From and Farsighted, a new look at the power and legacy of great ideas. In this illustrated history, Steven Johnson explores the history of innovation over centuries, tracing facets of modern life (refrigeration, clocks, and eyeglass lenses, to name a few) from their creation by hobbyists, amateurs, and entrepreneurs to their unintended historical consequences. Filled with surprising stories of accidental genius and brilliant mistakes—from the French publisher who invented the phonograph before Edison but forgot to include playback, to the Hollywood movie star who helped invent the technology behind Wi-Fi and Bluetooth—How We Got to Now investigates the secret history behind the everyday objects of contemporary life. In his trademark style, Johnson examines unexpected connections between seemingly unrelated fields: how the invention of air-conditioning enabled the largest migration of human beings in the history of the species—to cities such as Dubai or Phoenix, which would otherwise be virtually uninhabitable; how pendulum clocks helped trigger the industrial revolution; and how clean water made it possible to manufacture computer chips. Accompanied by a major six-part television series on PBS, How We Got to Now is the story of collaborative networks building the modern world, written in the provocative, informative, and engaging style that has earned Johnson fans around the globe.
Author: Dianne Watkins
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date: 2009-10-23
The third edition of this popular and useful text has been thoroughly updated to reflect the many major changes that have taken place in community nursing, making it an invaluable and up-to-date reference for all community nursing courses. The book covers the current public health landscape, epidemiology, frameworks for practice, with sections on family, and on the different Community Public Health Nurse Specialists. ‘Real-life’ case-studies link theory and practice, and promote further enquiry Discussion points encourage student reflection on methods of enhancing their professional and practice development A framework approach promotes development of practice Key issues begin, and Summaries end, each chapter to aid studying References and recommended reading promote depth and breadth of study. Thorough revision to reflect changes in community nursing More emphasis on public health reflects current government emphasis New chapters on: Chronic disease management Educational FrameworksCollaborative working Occupational Health NursesAdvanced Nurse PractitionersNurse prescribing
Author: Ellen L. Idler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2014-08-13
Frequently in partnership, but sometimes at odds, religious institutions and public health institutions work to improve the well-being of their communities. There is increasing awareness among public health professionals and the general public that the social conditions of poverty, lack of education, income inequality, poor working conditions, and experiences of discrimination play a dominant role in determining health status. But this broad view of the social determinants of health has largely ignored the role of religious practices and institutions in shaping the life conditions of billions around the globe. In Religion as a Social Determinant of Public Health, leading scholars in the social sciences, public health, and religion address this omission by examining the embodied sacred practices of the world's religions, the history of alignment and tension between religious and public health institutions, the research on the health impact of religious practice throughout the life course, and the role of religious institutions in health and development efforts around the globe. In addition, the volume explores religion's role in the ongoing epidemics of HIV/AIDS and Alzheimer's disease, as well as preparations for an influenza pandemic. Together, these groundbreaking essays help complete the picture of the social determinants of health by including religion, which has until now been an invisible determinant.
Author: Robert D. Behn
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
Release Date: 2014-06-24
Genre: Political Science
It started two decades ago with CompStat in the New York City Police Department, and quickly jumped to police agencies across the U.S. and other nations. It was adapted by Baltimore, which created CitiStat—the first application of this leadership strategy to an entire jurisdiction. Today, governments at all levels employ PerformanceStat: a focused effort by public executives to exploit the power of purpose and motivation, responsibility and discretion, data and meetings, analysis and learning, feedback and follow-up—all to improve government's performance. Here, Harvard leadership and management guru Robert Behn analyzes the leadership behaviors at the core of PerformanceStat to identify how they work to produce results. He examines how the leaders of a variety of public organizations employ the strategy—the way the Los Angeles County Department of Public Social Services uses its DPSSTATS to promote economic independence, how the City of New Orleans uses its BlightStat to eradicate blight in city neighborhoods, and what the Federal Emergency Management Agency does with its FEMAStat to ensure that the lessons from each crisis response, recovery, and mitigation are applied in the future. How best to harness the strategy's full capacity? The PerformanceStat Potential explains all.
Author: Ron Barrett
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2013-09-19
This book traces the social and environmental determinants of human infectious diseases from the Neolithic to the present day. Despite recent high profile discoveries of new pathogens, the major determinants of these emerging infections are ancient and recurring. These include changing modes of subsistence, shifting populations, environmental disruptions, and social inequalities. The recent labeling of the term "re-emerging infections" reflects a re-emergence, not so much of the diseases themselves, but rather a re-emerging awareness in affluent societies of long-standing problems that were previously ignored. An Unnatural History of Emerging Infections illustrates these recurring problems and determinants through an examination of three major epidemiological transitions. The First Transition occurred with the Agricultural Revolution beginning 10,000 years ago, bringing a rise in acute infections as the main cause of human mortality. The Second Transition first began with the Industrial Revolution; it saw a decline in infectious disease mortality and an increase in chronic diseases among wealthier nations, but less so in poorer societies. These culminated in today's "worst of both worlds syndrome" in which globalization has combined with the challenges of the First and Second Transitions to produce a Third Transition, characterized by a confluence of acute and chronic disease patterns within a single global disease ecology. This accessible text is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate level students and researchers in the fields of epidemiology, disease ecology, anthropology, health sciences, and the history of medicine. It will also be of relevance and use to undergraduate students interested in the history and social dynamics of infectious diseases.
Author: Howard Wainer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2013-10-10
Is it sensible to screen for breast or prostate cancer? Should the locations of cancer clusters be made available to the general public? When a doctor wants to perform major surgery and there's no chance for a second opinion, do you agree? The answers to these questions are not as black and white as they may first appear. Medical Illuminations presents thirteen contemporary medical topics, from the diminishing value of mammograms to how to decide if a hip needs to be replaced, to understanding cancer maps. In each case it illustrates how modern tools of statistical thinking and statistical graphics can illuminate our understanding. The goals are to solve some vexing problems that seem perplexing, and to make both the problems and their solutions clear to a non-technical audience. The aim is to ignite in the reader an understanding of statistical thinking, which, though subtle, can be learned without going through arcane mathematics. And, moreover, that learning about how to think in this way provides a huge payoff in the deeper understanding of our complex world.
Was ist Wirklichkeit? Existieren Raum und Zeit tatsächlich, wenn wir uns anschicken, die elementarsten Grundlagen unserer Existenz zu erforschen? Wie viel davon können wir überhaupt verstehen? Carlo Rovelli beschäftigt sich seit vielen Jahren damit, die Grenzen unseres Verstehens zu erweitern. In diesem Buch nimmt er uns mit auf eine Reise, die von dem Realitätsverständnis der griechischen Klassik bis zur Schleifenquantengravitation führt. Ein großer Physiker unserer Zeit macht sich auf, uns ein neues Welt-Bild zu zeichnen: mit einem physikalischen Universum ohne Zeit, einer Raumzeit, die aus Schleifen und Körnchen besteht und in der Unendlichkeit nicht existiert. Einer Kosmologie, die ohne Urknall und Paralleluniversen auskommt und hier zum ersten Mal von einem ihrer «Erfinder» für ein breites Publikum einfach und ausführlich erklärt wird. Ein Buch über «die großen Herausforderungen der gegenwärtigen Naturwissenschaften, die all unser Wissen über die Natur in Frage stellen» (Rovelli).
Author: Susan R. Holman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2015-01-28
Winner of the 2016 Grawemeyer Award in Religion Global health efforts today are usually shaped by two very different ideological approaches: a human rights-based approach to health and equity-often associated with public health, medicine, or economic development activities; or a religious or humanitarian "aid" approach motivated by personal beliefs about charity, philanthropy, missional dynamics, and humanitarian "mercy." The underlying differences between these two approaches can create tensions and even outright hostility that undermines the best intentions of those involved. In Beholden: Religion, Global Health, and Human Rights, Susan R. Holman--a scholar in both religion and the history of medicine--challenges this traditional polarization by telling stories designed to help shape a new perspective on global health, one that involves a multidisciplinary integration of religion and culture with human rights and social justice. The book's six chapters range broadly, describing pilgrimage texts in the Christian, Hindu, Buddhist, and Islamic traditions; the effect of ministry and public policy on nineteenth-century health care for the poor; the story of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as it shaped economic, social, and cultural rights; a "religious health assets" approach based in Southern Africa; and the complex dynamics of gift exchange in the modern faith-based focus on charity, community, and the common good. Holman's study serves as an insightful guide for students and practitioners interested in improving and broadening the scope of global health initiatives, with an eye towards having the greatest impact possible.
Emerging infectious diseases may be defined as diseases being caused by pathogens only recently recognized to exist. This group of diseases is important globally, and the experience of the last 30 years suggests that new emerging diseases are likely to bedevil us. As the global climate changes, so changes the environment, which can support not only the pathogens, but also their vectors of transmission. This expands the exposure and effects of infectious disease and, therefore, the importance of widespread understanding of the relationship between public health and infectious disease. This work brings together chapters that explain reasons for the emergence of these infectious diseases. These include the ecological context of human interactions with other humans, with animals that may host human pathogens, and with a changing agricultural and industrial environment, increasing resistance to antimicrobials, the ubiquity of global travel, and international commerce. * Features the latest discoveries related to influenza with a newly published article by Davidson Hamer and Jean van Seventer * Provides a listing of rare diseases that have become resurgent or spread their geographic distribution and are re-emergent * Highlights dengue and malaria, as well as agents such as West Nile and other arboviruses that have spread to new continents causing widespread concerns * Includes discussions of climate influencing the spread of infectious disease and political and societal aspects