The Ghost of Jim Crow

Author: Anders Walker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199720460
Release Date: 2009-07-30
Genre: History

In "Letter from Birmingham Jail," Martin Luther King, Jr. asserted that "the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to 'order' than to justice." To date, our understanding of the Civil Rights era has been largely defined by high-profile public events such as the crisis at Little Rock high school, bus boycotts, and sit-ins-incidents that were met with massive resistance and brutality. The resistance of Southern moderates to racial integration was much less public and highly insidious, with far-reaching effects. The Ghost of Jim Crow draws long-overdue attention to the moderate tactics that stalled the progress of racial equality in the South. Anders Walker explores how three moderate Southern governors formulated masked resistance in the wake of Brown v. Board of Education. J. P. Coleman in Mississippi, Luther Hodges in North Carolina, and LeRoy Collins in Florida each developed workable, lasting strategies to neutralize black political activists and control white extremists. Believing it possible to reinterpret Brown on their own terms, these governors drew on creative legal solutions that allowed them to perpetuate segregation without overtly defying the federal government. Hodges, Collins, and Coleman instituted seemingly neutral criteria--academic, economic, and moral--in place of racial classifications, thereby laying the foundations for a new way of rationalizing racial inequality. Rather than focus on legal repression, they endorsed cultural pluralism and uplift, claiming that black culture was unique and should be preserved, free from white interference. Meanwhile, they invalidated common law marriages and cut state benefits to unwed mothers, then judged black families for having low moral standards. They expanded the jurisdiction of state police and established agencies like the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission to control unrest. They hired black informants, bribed black leaders, and dramatically expanded the reach of the state into private life. Through these tactics, they hoped to avoid violent Civil Rights protests that would draw negative attention to their states and confirm national opinions of the South as backward. By crafting positive images of their states as tranquil and free of racial unrest, they hoped to attract investment and expand southern economic development. In reward for their work, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson appointed them to positions in the federal government, defying notions that Republicans were the only party to absorb southern segregationists and stall civil rights. An eye-opening approach to law and politics in the Civil Rights era, The Ghost of Jim Crow looks beyond extremism to highlight some of the subversive tactics that prolonged racial inequality.

Historical Dictionary of the Civil Rights Movement

Author: Christopher M. Richardson
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9780810880375
Release Date: 2014-06-11
Genre: Political Science

The second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Civil Rights Movement is a guide to the history of the African-American struggle for equal rights in the United States. This dictionary has over 500 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, significant legal cases, local struggles, forgotten heroes, and prominent women in the Movement.

The Southern Manifesto

Author: John Kyle Day
Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi
ISBN: 9781626741867
Release Date: 2014-07-09
Genre: Social Science

On March 13, 1956, ninety-nine members of the United States Congress promulgated the Declaration of Constitutional Principles, popularly known as the Southern Manifesto. Reprinted here, the Southern Manifesto formally stated opposition to the landmark United State Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education, and the emergent civil rights movement. This statement allowed the white South to prevent Brown’s immediate full-scale implementation and, for nearly two decades, set the slothful timetable and glacial pace of public school desegregation. The Southern Manifesto also provided the Southern Congressional Delegation with the means to stymie federal voting rights legislation, so that the dismantling of Jim Crow could be managed largely on white southern terms. In the wake of the Brown decision that declared public school segregation unconstitutional, seminal events in the early stages of the civil rights movement—like the Emmett Till lynching, the Montgomery bus boycott, and the Autherine Lucy riots at the University of Alabama brought the struggle for black freedom to national attention. Orchestrated by United States Senator Richard Brevard Russell Jr. of Georgia, the Southern Congressional Delegation in general, and the United States Senate’s Southern Caucus in particular, fought vigorously and successfully to counter the initial successes of civil rights workers and maintain Jim Crow. The South’s defense of white supremacy culminated with this most notorious statement of opposition to desegregation. The Southern Manifesto: Massive Resistance and the Fight to Preserve Segregation narrates this single worst episode of racial demagoguery in modern American political history and considers the statement’s impact upon both the struggle for black freedom and the larger racial dynamics of postwar America.

The Jim Crow Routine

Author: Stephen A. Berrey
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 9781469620947
Release Date: 2015-04-27
Genre: Social Science

The South's system of Jim Crow racial oppression is usually understood in terms of legal segregation that mandated the separation of white and black Americans. Yet, as Stephen A. Berrey shows, it was also a high-stakes drama that played out in the routines of everyday life, where blacks and whites regularly interacted on sidewalks and buses and in businesses and homes. Every day, individuals made, unmade, and remade Jim Crow in how they played their racial roles--how they moved, talked, even gestured. The highly visible but often subtle nature of these interactions constituted the Jim Crow routine. In this study of Mississippi race relations in the final decades of the Jim Crow era, Berrey argues that daily interactions between blacks and whites are central to understanding segregation and the racial system that followed it. Berrey shows how civil rights activism, African Americans' refusal to follow the Jim Crow script, and national perceptions of southern race relations led Mississippi segregationists to change tactics. No longer able to rely on the earlier routines, whites turned instead to less visible but equally insidious practices of violence, surveillance, and policing, rooted in a racially coded language of law and order. Reflecting broader national transformations, these practices laid the groundwork for a new era marked by black criminalization, mass incarceration, and a growing police presence in everyday life.

Klansville U S A

Author: David Cunningham
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199911080
Release Date: 2012-10-12
Genre: Social Science

In the 1960s, on the heels of the Brown vs. Board of Education decision and in the midst of the growing Civil Rights Movement, Ku Klux Klan activity boomed, reaching an intensity not seen since the 1920s, when the KKK boasted over 4 million members. Most surprisingly, the state with the largest Klan membership-more than the rest of the South combined-was North Carolina, a supposed bastion of southern-style progressivism. Klansville, U.S.A. is the first substantial history of the civil rights-era KKK's astounding rise and fall, focusing on the under-explored case of the United Klans of America (UKA) in North Carolina. Why the UKA flourished in the Tar Heel state presents a fascinating puzzle and a window into the complex appeal of the Klan as a whole. Drawing on a range of new archival sources and interviews with Klan members, including state and national leaders, the book uncovers the complex logic of KKK activity. David Cunningham demonstrates that the Klan organized most successfully where whites perceived civil rights reforms to be a significant threat to their status, where mainstream outlets for segregationist resistance were lacking, and where the policing of the Klan's activities was lax. Moreover, by connecting the Klan to the more mainstream segregationist and anti-communist groups across the South, Cunningham provides valuable insight into southern conservatism, its resistance to civil rights, and the region's subsequent dramatic shift to the Republican Party. Klansville, U.S.A. illuminates a period of Klan history that has been largely ignored, shedding new light on organized racism and on how political extremism can intersect with mainstream institutions and ideals.

The Burning House

Author: Anders Walker
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300235623
Release Date: 2018-03-20
Genre: History

A startling and gripping reexamination of the Jim Crow era, as seen through the eyes of some of the most important American writers In this dramatic reexamination of the Jim Crow South, Anders Walker demonstrates that racial segregation fostered not simply terror and violence, but also diversity, one of our most celebrated ideals. He investigates how prominent intellectuals like Robert Penn Warren, James Baldwin, Eudora Welty, Ralph Ellison, Flannery O’Connor, and Zora Neale Hurston found pluralism in Jim Crow, a legal system that created two worlds, each with its own institutions, traditions, even cultures. The intellectuals discussed in this book all agreed that black culture was resilient, creative, and profound, brutally honest in its assessment of American history. By contrast, James Baldwin likened white culture to a “burning house,” a frightening place that endorsed racism and violence to maintain dominance. Why should black Americans exchange their experience for that? Southern whites, meanwhile, saw themselves preserving a rich cultural landscape against the onslaught of mass culture and federal power, a project carried to the highest levels of American law by Supreme Court justice and Virginia native Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Anders Walker shows how a generation of scholars and judges has misinterpreted Powell’s definition of diversity in the landmark case Regents v. Bakke, forgetting its Southern origins and weakening it in the process. By resituating the decision in the context of Southern intellectual history, Walker places diversity on a new footing, independent of affirmative action but also free from the constraints currently placed on it by the Supreme Court. With great clarity and insight, he offers a new lens through which to understand the history of civil rights in the United States.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 9783641104986
Release Date: 2013-09-02
Genre: History

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Ich bin Malala

Author: Malala Yousafzai
Publisher: Droemer eBook
ISBN: 9783426424230
Release Date: 2013-10-08
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Am 9. Oktober 2012 wird die junge Pakistanerin Malala Yousafzai auf ihrem Schulweg überfallen und niedergeschossen. Die Fünfzehnjährige hatte sich den Taliban widersetzt, die Mädchen verbieten, zur Schule zu gehen. Wie durch ein Wunder kommt Malala mit dem Leben davon. Als im Herbst 2013 ihr Buch "Ich bin Malala" erscheint, ist die Resonanz enorm: Weltweit wird über ihr Schicksal berichtet. Im Juli 2013 hält sie eine beeindruckende Rede vor den Vereinten Nationen. Barack Obama empfängt sie im Weißen Haus, und im Dezember erhält sie den Sacharow-Preis für geistige Freiheit, verliehen vom Europäischen Parlament. Malala Yousafzai lebt heute mit ihrer Familie in England, wo sie wieder zur Schule geht. Malala Yousafzai wird mit dem Friedensnobelpreis 2014 ausgezeichnet. »Dieses Memoir unterstreicht ihre besten Eigenschaften. Ihren Mut und ihre Entschlossenheit kann man nur bewundern. Ihr Hunger nach Bildung und Neugestaltung ist authentisch. Sie wirkt so unschuldig, und da ist diese unverwüstliche Zuversicht. Sie spricht mit einem solchen Gewicht, dass man vergisst, dass Malala erst 16 ist.« The Times »Niemand hat das Recht auf Bildung so knapp, so einprägsam und überzeugend zusammengefasst wie Malala Yousafzai, die tapferste Schülerin der Welt.« Berliner Zeitung »Der mutigste Teenager der Welt« Bild »Bewegend erzählt Malala Yousafzai ihr Schicksal.« Brigitte

Vergangenheitsschuld

Author: Bernhard Schlink
Publisher: Diogenes Verlag AG
ISBN: 9783257603903
Release Date: 2013-10-23
Genre: Literary Collections

Nach »Vergewisserungen« nun ein weiterer Essayband von Bernhard Schlink: Das Thema, das sein literarisches Werk durchzieht, wird hier theoretisch und zugleich anschaulich erörtert. Schuld kann nicht nur einzelne Menschen betreffen, sondern ganze Generationen, nicht nur einzelne Taten, sondern ganze Abschnitte der Geschichte – sie kann als Vergangenheitsschuld die Gegenwart belasten. "

Die Reformation des Bildes

Author: Joseph Leo Koerner
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406712050
Release Date: 2017-09-19
Genre: Art

Welche Rolle hat die Reformation für die Kunst gespielt, wie hat sie das christliche Bild verändert? Joseph Leo Koerner, einer der weltweit besten Kenner der Kunst der Lutherzeit, legt mit diesem Buch eine umfassende und faszinierende Studie zur Entwicklung der christlichen Kunst nach dem Bildersturm vor. Die Ereignisse einer Zeit, in der die Dominanz des Wortes gegenüber dem Bild propagiert wurde, in der man Bilder als Idole und Fetische verachtete und vernichtete, hatten gravierende Auswirkungen auf die bildende Kunst. Im Zentrum des Buches steht Cranachs „Reformationsaltar“ in der Stadtkirche zu Wittenberg – der Ort, an dem die protestantische Bilderzerstörung ihren Ausgang nahm. Cranachs Bild entstand als Reaktion auf diese umwälzenden historischen Ereignisse, die auch in der Kunstgeschichte einen Wendepunkt markieren. Wie kann man einen verborgenen Gott sichtbar darstellen? Die Antworten, die Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen auf diese zentrale, bildkritische Frage fanden, sind bis in die heutige Zeit wirksam.

Mercy Seat

Author: Elizabeth H. Winthrop
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 9783406719059
Release Date: 2018-01-26
Genre: Fiction

Louisiana, die 1940er-Jahre, ein elektrischer Stuhl wird in die kleine Stadt St. Martinsville gebracht für die geplante Hinrichtung eines jungen Schwarzen namens Will, der ein weißes Mädchen vergewaltigt haben soll. In Wirklichkeit ist sie seine Geliebte gewesen, die sich aus Verzweiflung umgebracht hat und ihm nun nicht mehr helfen kann. Alle wissen, dass das Todesurteil ein Skandal ist, aber sogar Will selbst hat aus Trauer und Schuldgefühlen innerlich eingewilligt, und weiße Wutbürger drohen dem zweifelnden Staatsanwalt mit der Entführung seines Sohnes. Nach einer wahren Begebenheit, psychologisch fein und in einer an William Faulkner erinnernden multiperspektivischen Intensität erzählt Elizabeth Winthrop die tragischen Ereignisse bis zum überraschenden Ende. Ein meisterhaftes Buch, das man nicht mehr aus der Hand legt und das niemanden kaltlassen wird.