The ubiquitous nature of transport signs on roadways, railways, and in airports can lead to an overload of visual information, yet little research has been done to understand the design and use of such signs from a driver’s perspective. The Human Factors of Transport Signs explores key transport sign research and examines new technologies that are revolutionizing signaling. While concentrating largely on the road environment and general signing issues, the authors also address specific railway and other transport modality topics. International contributors discuss driver psychology and interaction with transport signs as well as the strengths and weaknesses of different types of signs. This text is designed to be an easily-accessible information source for professionals in transportation design, highway engineering, applied psychology, and human factors, as well as for students preparing to enter these fields. Features: Summarizes the main findings about transport signs into an easily-accessible resource Covers transport signs in the road, rail, and aviation fields Reviews new technology in the field, including Variable Message Signs and Intelligent Transport Systems Discusses the main evidence detailing the interaction of transport signs and driver behavior
Author: Peter R. Boyce
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2008-12-04
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Integrates Vehicle, Signal, and Road Lighting into a Unified System Many people drive many miles after dark and rely on lighting to help them gather information about the road ahead and the presence and intentions of other people on and near the road. With new technology on the industry’s horizon, Lighting for Driving: Roads, Vehicle, Signs and Signals conveys the crucial role lighting plays in road safety and examines how it could be used more effectively. Authored by a lighting and visibility expert, this book explains the thinking and scientific reasoning behind various forms of lighting and analyzes their contribution to the driver’s understanding of real and potential road hazards. Filled with useful information, this resource straightforwardly addresses a wide range of safety factors encountered in real driving situations, such as weather conditions, complex signage, and driver age. It also deals with the often-ignored consequences of too much light, such as light trespass and sky glow. Comprehensively Explores the Field, Emphasizing Improved Safety Vehicle, road, sign, and signal lighting are provided to enable drivers to reach their destinations quickly and safely. However, the attention given to how these forms of lighting function is likely to change as new technology is introduced and understanding of ergonomics and human factors improves. This book effectively illustrates how these forms of lighting can be modified to work together to best provide a coherent flow of information to the driver.
Human factors and ergonomics have made considerable contributions to the research, design, development, operation and analysis of transportation systems and their complementary infrastructure. This volume focuses on the causations of road accidents, the function and design of roads and signs, the design of automobiles, and the training of the driver. It covers accident analyses, air traffic control, control rooms, intelligent transportation systems, and new systems and technologies.
Human error is involved in more than 90 percent of traffic accidents, and of those accidents, most are associated with visual distractions, or looking-but-failing-to-see errors. Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving gathers knowledge from a human factors psychology standpoint and provides deeper insight into traffic -user behavior and the ways drivers acquire information from the road. Emphasizes Drivers as Visual Information Processors Because driving is an eyes-wide-open task, drivers are exposed to a multitude of visual stimuli along their journey. This information must be correctly processed in order to make the right decisions and perform precise safety maneuvers. With contributions from more than 20 leading experts, this detailed resource discusses road and markings design, new technologies, signage, distraction, safety, situation awareness, workload, driving experience, fatigue, and driving interventions with the goal of improving driving behavior and preventing accidents. Addresses These Key Areas: Visual attention and in-vehicle technologies Interventions to reduce road trauma Avoiding collisions and the failures involved in that endeavor Using jargon-free language that is easily understood, this book compresses research from the past few decades into one accessible resource. It clearly and cohesively provides ergonomics and human factor engineers, industrial designers, and highway and roadway engineers with an overarching understanding of the incessant visual demands drivers face.
The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program is a cooperative effort by government, private industry, and academia to apply advanced technology to the task of resolving the problems of surface transportation. The objective is to improve travel efficiency and mobility, enhance safety, conserve energy, provide economic benefits, and protect the environment. The current demand for mobility has exceeded the available capacity of the roadway system. Because the highway system cannot be expanded, except in minor ways, the available capacity must be used more efficiently to handle the increased demand. ITS applies advanced information processing, communication, sensing, and computer control technologies to the problems of surface transportation. Considerable research and development efforts will be required to produce these new technologies and to convert technologies developed in the defense and space programs to solve surface transportation problems. ITS has been subdivided into six interlocking technology areas. This book addresses human factors concerns for four of these areas: * Advanced Traveler Information Systems are a variety of systems that provide real time, in-vehicle information to drivers regarding navigation and route guidance, motorist services, roadway signing, and hazard warnings. * Advanced Vehicle Control Systems refer to systems that aid drivers in controlling their vehicle particularly in emergency situations and ultimately taking over some or all of the driving tasks. * Commercial Vehicle Operations address the application of ITS technologies to the special needs of commercial roadway vehicles including automated vehicle identification, location, weigh-in-motion, clearance sensing, and record keeping. * Advanced Traffic Management Systems monitor, control and manage traffic on streets and highways to reduce congestion using vehicle route diversion, automated signal timing, changeable message signs, and priority control systems. Two technical areas are not specifically addressed in individual chapters, but many aspects of them are covered in associated chapters: * Advanced Rural Transportation Systems include systems that apply ITS technologies to the special needs of rural systems and include emergency notification and response, vehicle location, and traveler information. * Advanced Public Transportation Systems enhance the effectiveness, attractiveness and economics of public transportation and include fleet management, automated fare collection, and real-time information systems.
Two large international conferences on Advances in Engineering Sciences were held in Hong Kong, March 13-15, 2013, under the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists (IMECS 2013), and in London, U.K., 3-5 July, 2013, under the World Congress on Engineering 2013 (WCE 2013) respectively. IMECS 2013 and WCE 2013 were organized by the International Association of Engineers (IAENG). IAENG is a non-profit international association for engineers and computer scientists, which was founded in 1968. This volume contains 46 revised and extended research articles written by prominent researchers participating in the conferences. Topics covered include engineering mathematics, computer science, manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering, and industrial applications. The book offers the state of art of tremendous advances in engineering sciences and also serves as an excellent reference work for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering sciences.
Author: Mr José M Anca Jr
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release Date: 2012-10-01
Genre: Business & Economics
Safety management and human factors disciplines are often regarded as subjective and nebulous. This perhaps stems from a variety of, sometimes disparate, activities in the realms of education, industry and research. Aviation is one of the safety-critical industries that has led the development of safety systems and human factors. However, in recent years, safety management and human factors are seen to be progressing well in the road, rail and the medical arena. Multimodal Safety Management and Human Factors is a wide-ranging compendium of contemporary approaches in the aviation, road, rail and medical domains. It brings together 28 chapters from both the academic and professional worlds that focus on applications, tools and strategies in safety management and human factors. It is a wellspring of the practical rather than the theoretical. Safety scientists, human factors industry practitioners, change management advocates, educators and students will find this book extremely relevant and challenging.
Acceptance of new technology and systems by drivers is an important area of concern to governments, automotive manufacturers and equipment suppliers, especially technology that has significant potential to enhance safety. To be acceptable, new technology must be useful and satisfying to use. If not, drivers will not want to have it, in which case it will never achieve the intended safety benefit. Even if they have the technology, drivers may not use it if it is deemed unacceptable, or may not use it in the manner intended by the designer. At worst, they may seek to disable it. This book brings into a single edited volume the accumulating body of thinking and research on driver and operator acceptance of new technology. Bringing together contributions from international experts from around the world, the editors have shaped a book that covers the theory behind acceptance, how it can be measured and how it can be improved. Case studies are presented that provide data on driver acceptance of a wide range of new and emerging vehicle technology. Although driver acceptance is the central focus of this book, acceptance of new technology by operators in other domains, and across cultures, is also investigated. Similarly, perspectives are derived from domains such as human computer interaction, where user acceptance has long been regarded as a key driver of product success. This book comes at a critical time in the history of the modern motor vehicle, as the number of new technologies entering the modern vehicle cockpit rapidly escalates. The goal of this book is to inspire further research and development of new vehicle technology to optimise user acceptance of it; and, in doing so, to maximise its potential to be useful, satisfying to use and able to save human life.
Author: John L. Campbell
Publisher: Transportation Research Board
Release Date: 2010-01-01
NCHRP report 600 explores human factors principles and findings for consideration by highway designers and traffic engineers. The report is designed to help the nonexpert in human factors to consider more effectively the roadway user's capabilities and limitations in the design and operation of highway facilities.
Author: John L. Campbell
Publisher: Transportation Research Board
Release Date: 2012-01-01
Genre: Human engineering
"This report completes and updates the first edition of NCHRP Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems (HFG), which was published previously in three collections. The HFG contains guidelines that provide human factors principles and findings for consideration by, and is a resource document for, highway designers, traffic engineers, and other safety practitioners."--Foreword.
Author: David Shinar
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
Release Date: 2017-06-22
This comprehensive 2nd edition covers the key issues that relate human behavior to traffic safety. In particular it covers the increasing roles that pedestrians and cyclists have in the traffic system; the role of infotainment in driver distraction; and the increasing role of driver assistance systems in changing the driver-vehicle interaction.
Author: John R. Wilson
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Business & Economics
Following on from 2005's Rail Human Factors: Supporting the Integrated Railway, this book brings together an even broader range of academics and practitioners from around the world to share their expertise and experience on rail human factors.People an
Author: Ann Mills
Release Date: 2017-07-05
Genre: Business & Economics
In recent years, for reasons connected to the organization of the industry, technical developments, and major safety concerns, rail human factors has grown in importance at an international level. Despite its importance, however, supporting literature has been largely restricted to specialist journal publications and technical reports. Rail Human Factors addresses this imbalance by providing the first fully comprehensive overview of the area. The volume includes contributions from leading ergonomists, psychologists, sociologists, management scientists and engineers whose common theme is to investigate, understand and design for people on the railways, including staff, passengers and the general public. Every area of ergonomics/human factors is covered: physical design of work and equipment in maintenance; cognitive ergonomics in driving, signalling and control; organizational and social ergonomics in the way teams are formed, plans are made and organizations are structured and run. Topics covered include: ? Systems views of rail human factors ? Driver models and performance ? Train and cab design ? Network and train control systems, including ERTMS ? Signals and signal ? SPADS ? Signalling and control center design ? Signaller performance ? Control center interfaces ? Workload, situation awareness, team working ? Human error and reliability ? Timetabling and planning ? Maintenance planning and work ? Safety climate and safety culture ? Passenger comfort and behaviour ? Station design ? Public information systems ? Level crossings ? Trespass and vandalism ? Ergonomics standards and guidelines ? Human Factors integration The book is the definitive guide for all those concerned with making railways safer, more
Humans are highly mobile but at a price: over a million people are killed annually on the road, at least 30 times as many are injured, of whom 1 in 10 may be permanently disabled. How can we design a road or highway or transport system so as to provide both a high level of mobility and a high level of safety?For too long, from the perspective of the road user, highway engineers have had to employ their intuitions, personal experiences, shared 'know-how' and a 'wait-and-see' approach in many elements of highway design. Now the science of human behavior can provide both fundamental knowledge and principles to enable matching roadway and transport system design to human strengths, limitations and variability in performance; an understanding of human contributory factors in accidents; and the undertaking of informed safety audits and reviews.-- The first book ever to provide psychological knowledge and insight into human behavior on the road and how this can be integrated into highway engineering-- Discusses the use of human factors to improve road safety-- Demonstrates how highway design can increase safety and reduce risk