The International Law Commission s Articles on State Responsibility

Author: United Nations. International Law Commission
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521013895
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Law

In 2001 the International Law Commission completed its work on State responsibility, begun 40 years previously. The Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts marks a major step in the codification and progressive development of international law, comparable in significance to the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. The Articles cover such topics as attributing conduct to the State; defining when there has been a breach of international law and the excuses or justifications for breaches; reparation for injustices, the invocation of responsibility, especially standing of States in the public interest, and the rules relating to countermeasures. The Articles develop basic concepts of international law, in particular peremptory norms and obligations to the international community as a whole. They signal definitively how international law has moved away from a purely bilateral conception of responsibility to accommodate categories of general public interest (human rights, the environment etc.).

Multiple Nationality And International Law

Author: Alfred Michael Boll
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
ISBN: 9789004148383
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Law

This book is a comprehensive overview of multiple nationality in international law, and contains a survey of current State practice covering over 75 countries. It examines the topic in light of the historical treatment of multiple nationality by States, international bodies and commentators, setting out the general trends in international law and relations that have influenced nationality. While the book's purpose is not to debate the merits of multiple nationality, but to present actual state practice, it does survey arguments for and against multiple nationality, and considers States' motivations in adopting a particular attitude toward the topic. As a reference work, the volume includes a detailed examination of the nature of nationality under international law and the concepts of nationality and citizenship under municipal law. The survey of State practice also constitutes a valuable resource for practitioners.

The International Law of Migrant Smuggling

Author: Anne T. Gallagher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139991988
Release Date: 2014-07-21
Genre: Political Science

Whether forced into relocation by fear of persecution, civil war, or humanitarian crisis, or pulled toward the prospect of better economic opportunities, more people are on the move than ever before. Opportunities for lawful entry into preferred destinations are decreasing rapidly, creating demand that is increasingly being met by migrant smugglers. This companion volume to the award-winning The International Law of Human Trafficking presents the first-ever comprehensive, in-depth analysis into the subject. The authors call on their experience of working with the UN to chart the development of new international laws and to link these specialist rules to other relevant areas of international law, including law of the sea, human rights law, and international refugee law. Through this analysis, the authors explain the major legal obligations of States with respect to migrant smuggling, including those related to criminalization, interdiction and rescue at sea, protection, prevention, detention, and return.

Principles of Shared Responsibility in International Law

Author: André Nollkaemper
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781316195383
Release Date: 2014-12-04
Genre: Law

The Shared Responsibility in International Law series examines the underexplored problem of allocation of responsibilities among multiple states and other actors. The International Law Commission, in its work on state responsibility and the responsibility of international organisations, recognised that attribution of acts to one state or organisation does not exclude possible attribution of the same act to another state or organisation, but has provided limited guidance on allocation or reparation. From the new perspective of shared responsibility, this volume reviews the main principles of the law of international responsibility as laid down in the Articles on State Responsibility and the Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations, such as attribution of conduct, breach, circumstances precluding wrongfulness and reparation. It explores the potential and limitations of current international law in dealing with questions of shared responsibility in areas such as military operations and international environmental law.

State Responsibility Climate Change and Human Rights under International Law

Author: Margaretha Wewerinke-Singh
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781509918454
Release Date: 2019-03-21
Genre: Law

The last decade has witnessed an increasing focus on the relationship between climate change and human rights. Several international human rights bodies have expressed concern about the negative implications of climate change for the enjoyment of human rights, and the Paris Agreement is the first multilateral climate agreement to refer explicitly to states' human rights obligations in connection with climate change. Yet despite this, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of the role of international human rights law in enhancing accountability for climate action or inaction. As the Paris Agreement has shifted the focus of the climate change regime towards voluntary action, and the humanitarian impacts of climate change are increasingly being felt around the world, accountability for climate change has become an increasingly salient issue. This book offers a timely and comprehensive analysis of the legal issues related to accountability for the human rights impact of climate change, drawing on the state responsibility regime. It explains when and where state action relating to climate change may amount to a violation of human rights, and evaluates various avenues of legal redress available to victims. The overall analysis offers a perceptive insight into the potential of innovative rights-based climate actions to shape climate and energy policies around the world.

The Foundations of International Investment Law

Author: Zachary Douglas
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191508585
Release Date: 2014-05-01
Genre: Law

International investment law is one of the fastest growing areas of international law. It has led to the signing of thousands of agreements, mostly in the form of investment contracts and bilateral investment treaties. Also, in the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in the number of disputes being resolved by investment arbitration tribunals. Yet the legal principles at the basis of international investment law and arbitration remain in a state of flux. Perhaps the best illustration of this phenomenon is the wide disagreement among investment tribunals on some of the core concepts underpinning the regime, such as investment, property, regulatory powers, scope of jurisdiction, applicable law, or the interactions with other areas of international law. The purpose of this book is to revisit these conceptual foundations in order to shed light on the practice of international investment law. It is an attempt to bridge the growing gap between the theory and the practice of this thriving area of international law. The first part of the book focuses on the 'infrastructure' of the investment regime or, more specifically, on the structural arrangements that have been developed to manage foreign investment transactions and the potential disputes arising from them. The second part of the book identifies the common conceptual bases of an array of seemingly unconnected practical problems in order to clarify the main stakes and offer balanced solutions. The third part addresses the main sources of 'regime stress' as well as the main legal mechanisms available to manage such challenges to the operation of the regime. Overall, the book offers a thorough investigation of the conflicting theoretical positions underlying international investment law, testing their worth by reference to concrete issues that have arisen in the jurisprudence. It demonstrates that many of the most important practical questions arising in practice can be addressed by a carefully dosed resort to theory.

International Law

Author: Donald R. Rothwell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139495004
Release Date: 2010-11-03
Genre: Law

With a strong focus on Australian practice and interpretation of international law, this comprehensive cases and materials textbook will provide students with a contemporary understanding of an area of law that has seen major changes in recent years. Written by a team of pre-eminent experts, International Law: Cases and Materials with Australian Perspectives is unique in reflecting the Australian context, perspectives and values on international law. Each chapter covers a substantive area of the law with specialist topics on human rights, law of the sea, and international environmental law. Students will be able to readily identify the key principles, rules and distinctive learning points and will benefit from the clear exposition of state practice in the field, how it has contributed to the development of the law, and how Australian governments have viewed and interpreted international law.

The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

Author: Jorge E. Viñuales
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780191510427
Release Date: 2015-02-05
Genre: Law

The international community has long grappled with the issue of safeguarding the environment and encouraging sustainable development, often with little result. The 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development was an emphatic attempt to address this issue, setting down 27 key principles for the international community to follow. These principles define the rights of people to sustainable development, and the responsibilities of states to safeguard the common environment. The Rio Declaration established that long term economic progress required a connection to environmental protection. It was designed as an authoritative and comprehensive statement of the principles of sustainable development law, an instrument to take stock of the past international and domestic practice, a guide for the design of new multilateral environmental regimes, and as a reference for litigation. This commentary provides an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the principles of the Declaration, written by over thirty inter-disciplinary contributors, including both leading practitioners and academics. Each principle is analysed in light of its origins and rationale. The book investigates each principle's travaux préparatoires setting out the main points of controversy and the position of different countries or groups. It analyses the scope and dimensions of each principle, providing an in-depth understanding of its legal effects, including whether it can be relied before a domestic or international court. It also assesses the impact of the principles on subsequent soft law and treaty development, as well as domestic and international jurisprudence. The authors demonstrate the ways in which the principles interact with each other, and finally provide a detailed analysis of the shortcomings and future potential of each principle. This book will be of vital importance to practitioners, scholars, and students of international environomental law and sustainable development.

Statelessness

Author: William Conklin
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781782253730
Release Date: 2014-12-01
Genre: Law

'Statelessness' is a legal status denoting lack of any nationality, a status whereby the otherwise normal link between an individual and a state is absent. The increasingly widespread problem of statelessness has profound legal, social, economic and psychological consequences but also gives rise to the paradox of an international community that claims universal standards for all natural persons while allowing its member states to allow statelessness to occur. In this powerfully argued book, Conklin critically evaluates traditional efforts to recognize and reduce statelessness. The problem, he argues, rests in the obligatory nature of law, domestic or international. By closely analysing a broad spectrum of court and tribunal judgments from many jurisdictions, Conklin explains how confusion has arisen between two discourses, the one discourse inside the other, as to the nature of the international community. One discourse, a surface discourse, describes a community in which international law justifies a state's freedom to confer, withdraw or withhold nationality. This international community incorporates state freedom over nationality matters, bringing about the de jure and effective stateless condition. The other discourse, an inner discourse, highlights a legal bond of socially experienced relationships. Such a bond, judicially referred to as 'effective nationality', is binding upon all states, and where such a bond exists, harm to a stateless person represents harm to the international community as a whole.

The Arms Trade and International Law

Author: Zeray Yihdego
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781847313935
Release Date: 2007-11-16
Genre: Law

Shortlisted for the 2008 Young Authors Inner Temple Book Prize There are believed to be about 700 million small arms and light weapons (SALW) in the world, often contributing to highly destabilising security and other concerns in international law. SALW are the primary source of violations and abuses of humanitarian and human rights principles by states, rebels, terrorists and criminals. Many consider them the real weapons of mass destruction of our time, causing about half a million deaths annually. The unrestricted international transfer of SALW by states (99 states and 1000 companies involved in manufacturing and supply) is one of the major contributory and aggravating factors of this crisis; another is the illicit traffic in small arms. This book deals with the proliferation of SALW and their unregulated trade and transfer across borders. It addresses questions of definition, manufacturing, trade/transfer, and issues relating to state responsibility. The primary focus is on conventional small arms, in particular military-style weapons. The book tackles the core and most divisive legal problem of whether or not the laws relating to arms control and relevant norms of international law provide substantive restrictions upon the transfer of small arms by states. The application of the norms of international peace and security, non-intervention, humanitarian and human rights laws, and evolved relevant customary rules of arms control relating to these norms are considered particularly carefully. Questions of application and enforcement of relevant rules and institutional responses to the problem are also examined. The UN began considering an arms trade treaty in 2006; the publication of the book at this critical moment in time will make a positive contribution towards shaping the debate and aims to further enhance understanding in an area where close analysis is required.

State Responsibility

Author: James Crawford
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107276369
Release Date: 2013-07-18
Genre: Law

Annexed to GA Resolution 56/83 of 2001, the International Law Commission's Articles on Responsibility for Internationally Wrongful Acts put the international law of responsibility on a sound footing. As Special Rapporteur for the second reading, James Crawford helped steer it to a successful conclusion. With this book, he provides a detailed analysis of the general law of international responsibility and the place of state responsibility in particular within that framework. It serves as a companion to The International Law Commission's Articles on State Responsibility: Introduction, Text and Commentaries (Cambridge University Press, 2002) and is essential reading for scholars and practitioners concerned with issues of international responsibility, whether they arise in interstate relations, in the context of arbitration or litigation, or in bringing international claims.

V lkerrecht Und Landesrecht

Author: Heinrich Triepel
Publisher: Wentworth Press
ISBN: 0270343857
Release Date: 2018-07-26
Genre: Law

This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.

Law and Practice of Investment Treaties

Author: Andrew Paul Newcombe
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9789041123510
Release Date: 2009-01-01
Genre: Political Science

The book focuses on the substantive protections accorded to investors and investments and on the variations among jurisdictions. Among the many specific issues and topics that arise in the course of the discussion are the following: - problems of transparency and conflict of interest; - the recent growth in IIAs between and among developing nations; - the effect of new model bilateral investment treaties (BITs); - the ability of non-disputing parties to participate in investor-state arbitration; - theories of the interaction of foreign direct investment (FDI) and BITs; - investor-state arbitration as an evasion of public regulatory authority; - the role of investment funds in international investment; - 'fork in the road' provisions; and - institutional versus ad hoc arbitration. International business and other investors will greatly appreciate the in-depth information and insightful guidance in this solidly useful book. It will also be welcomed by jurists and students as a significant milestone in the development of principles in a quickly growing field of practice that is still plagued with inconsistencies.