What is innovation and how should it be measured? Understanding the scale of innovation activities, the characteristics of innovative firms and the internal and systemic factors that can influence innovation is a prerequisite for the pursuit and analysis of policies aimed at fostering innovation.
Author: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Publisher: Publications de l'OCDE
Release Date: 2005-11
The Oslo Manual is the foremost international source of guidelines for the collection and use of data on innovation activities in industry. This third edition, published in October 2005, has been updated to take into account the progress made in understanding the innovation process and its economic impact, and the experience gained from recent rounds of innovation surveys in OECD member and non-member countries. For the first time, the Manual investigates the field of non-technological innovation and the linkages between different innovation types. It also includes an annex on the implementation of innovation surveys in developing countries.
Author: Kung-Chung Liu
Release Date: 2016-05-19
This book examines the two most populous nations on earth – India and China – in an effort to demystify the interaction between intellectual property rights (IPR) regimes, innovation and economic growth by critically looking at the economic and legal realities. In addition, it analyzes the question of how innovation can best be transformed into IPR, and how IPR can best be exploited to encourage innovation. Comparing and contrasting these two giant nations can be highly beneficial as China and India were the two fastest-growing economies in the last three decades, and together their populations make up one third of the world’s total population; as such, exploring how to sustain their growth via innovation and commercialization of IPR could have a tremendous positive impact on global well-being. While a study of these two mega countries with such diverse dimensions and magnitudes can never be truly comprehensive, this joint effort by scholars from law, business management and economics disciplines that pursues an empirical approach makes a valuable contribution. Divided into three parts, the first offers an in-depth doctrinal and empirical analysis. The second part exclusively focuses on India, while the last is dedicated to China.
Author: Michael Fritsch
Release Date: 2015-07-15
Genre: Social Science
Politik und andere Akteure in den (vor allem ostdeutschen) Regionen stehen vor der Aufgabe, den demografischen Wandel zu gestalten. Dabei sollen sie zugleich die Voraussetzungen für „selbsttragende Entwicklungen“ und „gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse“ schaffen – und dies unter Bedingungen bis 2020 deutlich abgesenkter Landeshaushalte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Herausforderungen werden Optionen für die Regionalentwicklung aufgezeigt, die im Zusammenhang mit Hochschulen stehen.
What is innovation and how should it be measured? Understanding the scale of innovation activities, the characteristics of innovative firms and the internal and systemic factors that can influence innovation is a prerequisite for the pursuit and analysis of policies aimed at fostering innovation. First published in 1992, the Oslo Manual is the international reference guide for collecting and using data on innovation. In this fourth edition, the manual has been updated to take into account a broader range of innovation-related phenomena as well as the experience gained from recent rounds of innovation surveys in OECD countries and partner economies and organisations.
Author: Indermit Singh Gill
Publisher: World Bank
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Business & Economics
This publication examines recent developments in East Asian economies, including the meteoric rise of China, the economic crisis of the 1990's, and the rapid growth of cities, as well as considering future challenges and exploring how development strategies should be adapted in response. A key challenge now is to complement global and regional integration with domestic integration, requiring vibrant cities that are not only linked to the outside world but also well-integrated domestically, strengthening social cohesion and reducing inequality.
Author: Frane Adam
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-10-09
This book provides a critical re-examination of the Innovation Union Scoreboard (IUS) as the main tool used by the European Commission and other policy-making bodies to measure national innovation capacity. Given that contemporary societies and economies are to a great extent characterised by the processes of production, dissemination and application (re-combination) of knowledge, the accurate monitoring and measurement of R&D efficiency and innovation performance on national, regional and firm level are of outmost importance. The contextual reconstruction of the model of indicators used by IUS reveals that the accuracy and validity of measurement are not satisfactory, and that substantial modifications of metrics are needed to achieve stronger theoretical significance and policy-relevance. In this work, the »epistemic turn« is emphasised and offered as an alternative, namely in the sense of the shift from a mechanicist-positivist orientation toward a more reflective and contextual post-positivist approach.
Author: South Africa. Dept. of Science & Technology
Release Date: 2007-05-31
Genre: Business & Economics
Science and technology (S&T) can play an important role in making the economic, environmental and social dimensions of the development process more sustainable. Not only is S&T a key driver of economic growth, but it may also help provide answers for managing resources and reducing pollution, addressing climate change and preserving biodiversity, as well as reducing disease and safeguarding health and well-being, while maintaining the general quality of life. This publication provides the proceedings of an international workshop, held in South Africa, intended to address how international co-operation in science and technology can further the three inter-related aspects (economic, social and environmental) of the development process. The workshop focused on good practices in international S&T partnerships, specifically in the areas of water and energy. In terms of good practices, the workshop examined what works and what doesn't in three areas: 1) enhancing the capacity to absorb technology; (2) transferring technology; and (3) building knowledge networks. In breakout sessions, the workshop identified specific technologies and approaches effective in improving water management and increasing energy efficiency within the varied circumstances of developing countries.
This publication is the foremost international source of guidelines for the collection and use of data on innovation activities in industry. This third edition has been updated to take account of the progress made in understanding the innovation process, the experience gained from the previous round of innovation surveys, the extension of the field of investigation to other sectors of industry and the latest revisions of international standard classifications.--Publisher's summary.
Author: Carmen Pagés
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
Release Date: 2010-03-15
Genre: Business & Economics
A look at how the low productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean is preventing the region from catching up with the developed world. The authors look beyond the traditional macro explanations and dig all the way down to the industry and firm level to uncover the causes. The book examines productivity growth by focusing on the extreme heterogeneity of sectors and firms, emphasizing the importance of policies that allow firms to thrive and expand. The book zeros in on the critical services sectors, particularly those, such as transportation and retail, with important repercussions on the rest of the economy. It challenges the argument that the region is condemned to stagnation and examines a number of policy levers that can transform its economies.