English summary: Different approaches have been taken towards the emergence of early monasticism in Egypt. One of its distinctive features is its variety of organizational forms, its theology, spirituality and social functions. Was this variety the result of social needs or merely a development of theological ideas? In this work, the author provides a purely historical examination of different kinds of sources in order to focus on how a paradoxical idea inherent in Christian thinking, the anticipation of God's kingdom on earth, interacts with various challenges of its environment. The outcome is a multidimensional development of new identities which enable a better understanding of the religious transformation in Egypt in the 4th century. German description: Das christliche Monchtum wurde schon ofter mit einem immanent christlichen Gedanken verbunden, und zwar der Vorwegnahme des Reiches Gottes, des Eschatons, der begriffsgeschichtlich grundlich erforscht wurde. Die Umsetzung dieser Idee in die Tat offenbart jedoch eine breite Palette unterschiedlichster organisatorischer Formen, religioser Erlebnisse, theologischer Ansichten und sozialer Funktionen. Diese Vielfalt wurde bisher normalerweise 'von aussen', im Hinblick auf die soziale Umgebung, untersucht. Anhand narrativer und archaologischer Quellen greift Dimitrios Moschos die Eigenentwicklung der christlichen Eschatologie im Monchtum wieder auf. Er stellt fest, dass konkrete theologische Stromungen und entsprechende eschatologische Auffassungen mit analogen sozialen Funktionen interagieren, was letztlich zum Aufbau neuer Identitaten fuhrt. Die Erkenntnis dieses Prozesses hilft zum besseren Verstandnis der religiosen Transformation Agyptens und ferner der spatantiken Welt im 4. Jh.
Author: Michael W. Champion
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Release Date: 2014
Explaining the Cosmos analyzes the writings of three thinkers associated with Gaza: Aeneas, Zacharias and Procopius. Together, they offer a case study for the appropriation, adaptation, and transformation of classical philosophy in late antiquity, and for cultural transitions more generally in Gaza. Aeneas claimed that the "Academy and Lyceum" had been transferred to Gaza. This book asks what the cultural and intellectual characteristics of the Gazan "Academies" were, and how members of the schools mixed with local cultures of Christians, philosophers, rhetoricians and monks from the local monasteries. Aeneas, Zacharias and Procopius each contributed to debates about the creation and eternity of the world, which ran from the Neoplatonist Proclus into the sixth-century disputes between Philoponus, Simplicius and Cosmas Indicopleustes. The Gazan contribution is significant in its own right, highlighting distinctive aspects of late-antique Christianity, and it throws the later philosophical debates into sharper relief. Focusing on the creation debates also allows for exploration of the local cultures that constituted Gazan society in the late-fifth and early-sixth centuries. Explaining the Cosmos further explores cultural dynamics in the Gazan schools and monasteries and the wider cultural history of the city. The Gazans adapt and transform aspects of Classical and Neoplatonic culture while rejecting Neoplatonic religious claims. The study also analyses the Gazans' intellectual contributions in the context of Neoplatonism and early Christianity. The Gaza which emerges from this study is a set of cultures in transition, mutually constituting and transforming each other through a fugal pattern of exchange, adaptation, conflict and collaboration.
Author: Simon Hornblower
Release Date: 2011-03-17
The Greek World 479-323 BC has been an indispensable guide to classical Greek history since its first publication nearly thirty years ago. Now Simon Hornblower has comprehensively revised and partly rewritten his original text, bringing it up-to-date for yet another generation of readers. In particular, this fourth edition takes full account of recent and detailed scholarship on Greek poleis across the Hellenic world, allowing for further development of the key theme of regional variety across the Mediterranean and beyond. Other extensive changes include a new sub-chapter on Islands, a completely updated bibliography, and revised citation of epigraphic material relating to the fourth-century BC. With valuable coverage of the broader Mediterranean world in which Greek culture flourished, as well as close examination of Athens, Sparta, and the other great city-states of Greece itself, this fourth edition of a classic work is a more essential read than ever before.
Author: Pat Southern
Publisher: Yale University Press
Release Date: 1996
From the reign of Septimius Severus at the end of the second century A.D., the Roman Empire was continuously beset by internal unrest, revolts, usurpations, civil wars, and attacks along its far-flung frontiers. Scarcely a part of the empire was unaffected, and some areas were forced to deal with several serious problems at the same time. This book is the first comprehensive discussion of the Roman army during this period, and it shows how the army adapted itself to meet these growing threats and how effective it was in combating them.
Author: Ian Morris
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2013-01-27
Genre: Social Science
In the last thirty years, there have been fierce debates over how civilizations develop and why the West became so powerful. The Measure of Civilization presents a brand-new way of investigating these questions and provides new tools for assessing the long-term growth of societies. Using a groundbreaking numerical index of social development that compares societies in different times and places, award-winning author Ian Morris sets forth a sweeping examination of Eastern and Western development across 15,000 years since the end of the last ice age. He offers surprising conclusions about when and why the West came to dominate the world and fresh perspectives for thinking about the twenty-first century. Adapting the United Nations' approach for measuring human development, Morris's index breaks social development into four traits--energy capture per capita, organization, information technology, and war-making capacity--and he uses archaeological, historical, and current government data to quantify patterns. Morris reveals that for 90 percent of the time since the last ice age, the world's most advanced region has been at the western end of Eurasia, but contrary to what many historians once believed, there were roughly 1,200 years--from about 550 to 1750 CE--when an East Asian region was more advanced. Only in the late eighteenth century CE, when northwest Europeans tapped into the energy trapped in fossil fuels, did the West leap ahead. Resolving some of the biggest debates in global history, The Measure of Civilization puts forth innovative tools for determining past, present, and future economic and social trends.
Author: David Batson
Publisher: Eerdmans Pub Co
Release Date: 2001-12-01
This volume explores the formation of the Christian church as a faith community deeply concerned for the care of others. Plumbing the historical sources that illumine the development of Christian corporate and social life from its earliest days through the fourth century, David Batson chronicles the church's crucial role as caretaker of the destitute and deprived -- a role unique in late antiquity.In uncovering the origins of Christian social action, Batson treats many themes that still resonate today: the relationship between church and state, the divergence of faith and practice, the conflict between traditionalism and modernity, the challenge of fundamentalism, and the continuing reality of persecution. Deft in his narrative of such accounts, Batson provides a fascinating story as well as an insightful study in social history. Readers will find in this book both valuable background to the world of the New Testament and a proper Christian model for modern community care.
A in-depth portrait of the Byzantine Empress Theodora profiles one of the most important female figures in Western history, who was born the daughter of a bear-keeper and rose to become the wife and partner of the Emperor Justinian, leading a fascinating life depicted here in meticulously researched detail.
Author: Allen M. Ward
Release Date: 2016-05-23
A History of the Roman People provides a comprehensive analytical survey of Roman history from its prehistoric roots in Italy and the wider Mediterranean world to the dissolution of the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity ca. A.D. 600. Clearly organized and highly readable, the text's narrative of major political and military events provides a chronological and conceptual framework for chapters on social, economic, and cultural developments of the periods covered. Major topics are treated separately so that students can easily grasp key concepts and ideas.