The Middle East

Author: Gary S. Gregg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195346750
Release Date: 2005-07-21
Genre: Political Science

For over a decade the Middle East has monopolized news headlines in the West. Journalists and commentators regularly speculate that the region's turmoil may stem from the psychological momentum of its cultural traditions or of a "tribal" or "fatalistic" mentality. Yet few studies of the region's cultural psychology have provided a critical synthesis of psychological research on Middle Eastern societies. Drawing on autobiographies, literary works, ethnographic accounts, and life-history interviews, The Middle East: A Cultural Psychology, offers the first comprehensive summary of psychological writings on the region, reviewing works by psychologists, anthropologists, and sociologists that have been written in English, Arabic, and French. Rejecting stereotypical descriptions of the "Arab mind" or "Muslim mentality,' Gary Gregg adopts a life-span- development framework, examining influences on development in infancy, early childhood, late childhood, and adolescence as well as on identity formation in early and mature adulthood. He views patterns of development in the context of recent work in cultural psychology, and compares Middle Eastern patterns less with Western middle class norms than with those described for the region's neighbors: Hindu India, sub-Saharan Africa, and the Mediterranean shore of Europe. The research presented in this volume overwhelmingly suggests that the region's strife stems much less from a stubborn adherence to tradition and resistance to modernity than from widespread frustration with broken promises of modernization--with the slow and halting pace of economic progress and democratization. A sophisticated account of the Middle East's cultural psychology, The Middle East provides students, researchers, policy-makers, and all those interested in the culture and psychology of the region with invaluable insight into the lives, families, and social relationships of Middle Easterners as they struggle to reconcile the lure of Westernized life-styles with traditional values.

Arab Family Studies

Author: Suad Joseph
Publisher: Syracuse University Press
ISBN: 9780815654247
Release Date: 2018-07-10
Genre: Social Science

Family remains the most powerful social idiom and one of the most powerful social structures throughout the Arab world. To engender love of nation among its citizens, national movements portray the nation as a family. To motivate loyalty, political leaders frame themselves as fathers, mothers, brothers, or sisters to their clients, parties, or the citizenry. To stimulate production, economic actors evoke the sense of duty and mutual commitment of family obligation. To sanctify their edicts, clerics wrap religion in the moralities of family and family in the moralities of religion. Social and political movements, from the most secular to the most religious, pull on the tender strings of family love to recruit and bind their members to each other. To call someone family is to offer them almost the highest possible intimacy, loyalty, rights, reciprocities, and dignity. In recognizing the significance of the concept of family, this state-of-the-art literature review captures the major theories, methods, and case studies carried out on Arab families over the past century. The book offers a country-by-country critical assessment of the available scholarship on Arab families. Sixteen chapters focus on specific countries or groups of countries; seven chapters offer examinations of the literature on key topical issues. Joseph’s volume provides an indispensable resource to researchers and students, and advances Arab family studies as a critical independent field of scholarship.

Culture and Identity in a Muslim Society

Author: Gary S. Gregg
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198042353
Release Date: 2007-02-15
Genre: Political Science

In the last fifteen years, psychologists have rediscovered culture and its influence on emotion, thought, and self. Many researchers have come to the conclusion that the world's cultures can be ranked according to the degree to which they are individualist or collectivist, with Western cultures falling at the individualist end and non-Western cultures at the collectivist end. These scholars argue that while individualist cultures give rise to "independent" selves, leading Westerners to think and act autonomously, collectivist cultures foster "interdependent" selves, leading non-Westerners, embedded in social-relationships, to think and act relationally. Culture and Identity in a Muslim Society presents an alternative to the individualist- collectivist approach to identity. Unlike most psychological and anthropological studies of culture and self, Gary Gregg's work directly investigates individuals, using "study of lives"-style interviews with young adults living in villages and small towns in southern Morocco. Analyzing these young adults' life-narratives, Gregg builds a theory of culture and identity that differs from prevailing psychological and anthropological models in important respects. In contrast to modernist theories of identity as unified, the life-narratives show individuals to articulate a small set of shifting identities. In contrast to post-modern theories that claim people have a kaleidoscopic multiplicity of fluid identities, the narratives show that the identities are integrated by repeated use of culturally-specific self-symbols, metaphors, and story-plots. Most importantly, the life-narratives show these young Moroccans' self-representations to be pervasively shaped by the volatile cultural struggle between Western-style "modernity" and authentic Muslim "tradition." Offering a new approach to the study of identity, the volume will be of interest to cross-cultural psychologists, anthropologists, scholars of Middle-East societies, and researchers specializing in the study of lives.

The Role of Trust in Conflict Resolution

Author: Ilai Alon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319433554
Release Date: 2017-02-21
Genre: Psychology

Built on the premise that trust is one of the most important factors in intergroup relations, conflict management and resolution at large, this volume explores trust and its mechanisms and operations especially in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Significantly, this volume focuses not only on the nature of trust and distrust in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, but it also explores how it is possible to build and increase trust on both sides in the conflict, a necessity in order to advance the stalled peace process. As trust is a concept that is interdisciplinary by nature, so are this volume’s contributors: sociologists, philosophers, sociologists, social psychologists, political scientists, as well as experts in the Middle East, Islam, Judaism and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict bring together real multidisciplinary perspectives that complement each other and then provide a comprehensive picture about the nature of trust and distrust and its ramification and implications for the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Divided into five thematic parts, the volume begins with by examining the theoretical basis of trust research from multiple perspectives. Then, it presents chapters on trust, distrust, and trust-building in other conflicts around the world. The third part is a unique feature of this volume as it takes a contextual approach: it emphasizes the importance of particular cultural and religious considerations on both sides of the conflict. The thrust of the book is examined in the next section. Part IV discusses and analyses various aspects of trust, and specifically distrust, in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Significantly, the chapters of this part take the perspectives of the participants in the conflict: Israeli Jews, Palestinians and Israeli Arabs. Finally, the volume concludes by providing an integrative conceptual perspective based on the principles of social and political psychology. An important goal of this volume is to not only explore trust and distrust in an intractable conflict, but also to provide practical multi-disciplinary outlooks and implications to advance trust building in two conflict ridden societies—Israeli and Palestinian, and other societies around the world.

The Cultural Shaping of Accounting

Author: Ahmed Riahi-Belkaoui
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 0899309534
Release Date: 1995
Genre: Business & Economics

A challenging exploration of the ways in which culture affects the process and product of accounting.

The Culture of Military Innovation

Author: Dima Adamsky
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804773805
Release Date: 2010-01-27
Genre: Political Science

This book studies the impact of cultural factors on the course of military innovations. One would expect that countries accustomed to similar technologies would undergo analogous changes in their perception of and approach to warfare. However, the intellectual history of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in Russia, the US, and Israel indicates the opposite. The US developed technology and weaponry for about a decade without reconceptualizing the existing paradigm about the nature of warfare. Soviet 'new theory of victory' represented a conceptualization which chronologically preceded technological procurement. Israel was the first to utilize the weaponry on the battlefield, but was the last to develop a conceptual framework that acknowledged its revolutionary implications. Utilizing primary sources that had previously been completely inaccessible, and borrowing methods of analysis from political science, history, anthropology, and cognitive psychology, this book suggests a cultural explanation for this puzzling transformation in warfare. The Culture of Military Innovation offers a systematic, thorough, and unique analytical approach that may well be applicable in other perplexing strategic situations. Though framed in the context of specific historical experience, the insights of this book reveal important implications related to conventional, subconventional, and nonconventional security issues. It is therefore an ideal reference work for practitioners, scholars, teachers, and students of security studies.

Handbook of Cognitive Aging

Author: Scott M. Hofer
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 9781452278926
Release Date: 2008-03-20
Genre: Psychology

"Provides a unique perspective. I am particularly impressed with the sections on innovative design and methods to investigate cognitive aging and the integrative perspectives. None of the existing texts covers this material to the same level." —Donna J. La Voie, Saint Louis University "The emphasis on integrating the literature with theoretical and methodological innovations could have a far-reaching impact on the field." —Deb McGinnis, Oakland University The Handbook of Cognitive Aging: Interdisciplinary Perspectives clarifies the differences in patterns and processes of cognitive aging. Along with a comprehensive review of current research, editors Scott M. Hofer and Duane F. Alwin provide a solid foundation for building a multidisciplinary agenda that will stimulate further rigorous research into these complex factors. Key Features Gathers the widest possible range of perspectives by including cognitive aging experts in various disciplines while maintaining a degree of unity across chapters Examines the limitations of the extant literature, particularly in research design and measurement, and offers new suggestions to guide future research Highlights the broad scope of the field with topics ranging from demography to development to neuroscience, offering the most complete coverage available on cognitive aging

Encyclopedia of group processes and intergroup relations

Author: John M. Levine
Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc
ISBN: PSU:000068307462
Release Date: 2009-11-11
Genre: Psychology

Over the past 75 years there has been a tremendous amount of theoretical and empirical research on group processes and intergroup relations by scholars in various disciplines. The Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations is a reflection of the growing integration of what were formerly two distinct approaches. With approximately 300 entries, the two volumes of this encyclopedia cover concepts ranging from conformity to diversity and from small group interaction to intergroup relations on a global scale. Key Features Examines the major criteria used by researchers to define groups Conveys what behavioral scientists know and theorize about how people think, feel, and act when responding to ingroup and outgroup members Discusses perspectives on what happens within groups and between groups Key Themes Cognitions and Feelings Conflict and Cooperation Within Groups Group Decision Making Group Performance and Problem Solving Group Structure Identity and Self Influence and Persuasion Intergroup Relations in Society Methodology Organizations Theory Types of Groups and Subgroups

Counseling Across Cultures

Author: Paul B. Pedersen
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 9781483321684
Release Date: 2015-01-14
Genre: Social Science

Offering a primary focus on North American cultural and ethnic diversity while addressing global questions and issues, Counseling Across Cultures, Seventh Edition, edited by Paul B. Pederson, Walter J. Lonner, Juris G. Draguns, Joseph E. Trimble, and María R. Scharrón-del Río, draws on the expertise of 48 invited contributors to examine the cultural context of accurate assessment and appropriate interventions in counseling diverse clients. The book’s chapters highlight work with African Americans, Asian Americans, Latinos/as, American Indians, refugees, individuals in marginalized situations, international students, those with widely varying religious beliefs, and many others. Edited by pioneers in multicultural counseling, this volume articulates the positive contributions that can be achieved when multicultural awareness is incorporated into the training of counselors.

Handbook of Culture and Consumer Behavior

Author: Sharon Ng
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199388547
Release Date: 2015-03-10
Genre: Psychology

Research on the influence of culture on consumer decision-making and consumption behavior has witnessed tremendous growth in the last decade. With increasing globalization, managers are becoming increasingly aware that operating in multiple markets is crucial for firms' survival and growth. As the world's growth engine shifts from Europe and North America to Asia and Latin America, it has become apparent that an inward-looking and domestic focus strategy will not be sustainable in the long run. And success in foreign markets requires marketers to understand not just what consumers in these markets need but also how they think, behave, consume, and purchase. Numerous studies have documented cultural differences in values and beliefs, motivational orientations, emotions, self-regulation, and information-processing styles, and the effects of these cultural variations on consumer behavior such as brand evaluation, materialism, and impulsive consumption. In this volume, experts from a variety of disciplines and perspectives trace the historical development of culture research in consumer psychology and examine the theoretical underpinnings that account for these findings and the current state of the field. Collectively, the chapters provide a forum for researchers to engage in thoughtful debates and stimulating conversations and offer directions for future research.

Personality and Person Perception Across Cultures

Author: Yueh-Ting Lee
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9781134808298
Release Date: 2013-05-13
Genre: Psychology

Neither human nature nor personality can be independent of culture. Human beings share certain social norms or rules within their cultural groups. Over 2000 years ago, Aristotle held that man is by nature a social animal. Similarly, Xun Kuang (298-238 B.C.), a Chinese philosopher, pointed out that humans in social groups can not function without shared guidance or rules. This book is designed to provide readers with a perspective on how people are different from, and similar to, each other --both within and across cultures. One of its goals is to offer a practical guide for people preparing to interact with those whose cultural background is different from their own.