Innovation is the main engine of competitiveness. However, in a world in which everything goes faster, the inherent nature of the innovation process has changed. This book assesses both the theoretically and empirically intertwined relationship between innovation, clusters and multinational enterprises in today's economy.
Author: Daniel Benoliel
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2017-11-30
Economic growth has traditionally been attributed to the increase in national production arising from technological innovation. Using a panel of seventy-nine countries bridging the North-South divide, Patent Intensity and Economic Growth is an important empirical study on the uncertain relationship between patents and economic growth. It considers the impact of one-size-fits-all patent policies on developing countries and their innovation-based economic growth, including those policies originating from the World Intellectual Property Organization, the World Trade Organization and the World Health Organization, as well as initiatives derived from the TRIPS Agreement and the Washington Consensus. This book argues against patent harmonization across countries and provides an analytical framework for country group coalitioning on policy at UN level. It will appeal to scholars and students of patent law, national and international policy makers, venture capitalist investors, and research and development managers, as well as researchers in intellectual property, innovation and economic growth.
This book addresses possible applications of computer simulation to theory building in management and organizational theory. The key hypothesis is that modelling and computer simulation provide an environment to develop, test and articulate theoretical propositions. In general, computer simulation provides an experimental environment where researchers are able to play with symbolic representations of phenomena by modifying the model’s structure and activating or deactivating model’s parameters. This environment allows to both generating hypotheses to ex post explain observed phenomena or to ex ante generate distributions of unrealized events thereby envisioning areas for further empirical investigations. Under a methodological perspective, the volume investigates logics and techniques to design a research strategy grounded on computer simulation. In particular, the articles in the book concentrate on two different techniques, and philosophies, to set up a simulation study: System Dynamics, which is grounded on differential equations and feedback theory, and agent-based modeling. The book describes how computer simulation helps to look into research issues typical to strategic management and organizational theory. In this respect, such themes as firms’ diversification strategies, competitive strategy, rivalry and the impact of role dynamics on organizational performances are explored through the lenses of computer simulation models.
Author: Saša Šarić
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-03-31
Genre: Business & Economics
The world over, clusters are home to leading firms and institutions that compete on the edge of technology. They can be found in developed and developing countries alike and comprise such famous ones as Silicon Valley, London ‟s financial center, ceramic tile and fashion in north Italy, wine in Bordeaux, automotive in Stuttgart and Munich, software in Bangalore, and manufacturing in China ‟s Pearl-river delta. Today they are studied by a variety of scholars from different fields including economists, social scientists, and strategists, but also by a growing number of business practitioners and policy makers.3 As a result, knowledge on the capacity of clusters to promote regional economic development and national prosperity and the role of local industrial policy in creating new clusters has increased rapidly in recent years The present research is best described as being exploratory in nature. It elaborates and extends existing theory. By doing so, it takes up a distinct position within scientific theory that is defined by three levels of analysis: (1) the meta-methodological level, (2) the methodological level, and (3) the theoretical level.
Author: Knut Ingar Westeren
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2012-01-01
Genre: Business & Economics
This book presents new evidence concerning the influential role of context and institutions on the relations between knowledge, innovation, clusters and learning. From a truly international perspective, the expert contributors capture the most interesting and relevant aspects of knowledge economy. They explore an evolutionary explanation of how culture can play a significant role in learning and the development of skills. Presenting new data and theory developments, this insightful book reveals how changes in the dynamics of knowledge influence the circumstances under which innovation occurs. It also examines cluster development in the knowledge economy, from regional to virtual space. This volume will prove invaluable to academics and researchers who are interested in exploring new ideas surrounding the knowledge economy. Those employed in consultant firms and the public sector, where an understanding of the knowledge economy is important, will also find plenty of relevant information in this enriching compendium.
Author: Héctor O. Rocha
Release Date: 2013-11-21
Genre: Business & Economics
Entrepreneurship and Regional Development aims to make a theoretical and practical contribution meeting the need for studies on the impact of clusters on entrepreneurship and societal outcomes. This book aims to answer the following research question: Do clusters matter to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship outcomes at the societal level?
Various theories have been put forward as to why business and industry develops in clusters and despite good work being carried out on path dependence and dynamics, this is still very much an emerging topic in the social sciences. To date, no overarching theoretical framework has been developed to show how clusters evolve. Unfolding Cluster Evolution aims to address this gap by presenting theoretical and empirical research on the geography of innovation. This contributed volume seeks to shed light on the understanding of clusters and its dynamic evolution. The book provides evidence to suggest that traditional perspectives from evolutionary economic geography need to be wedded to management thinking in order to reach this point. Bringing together thinking from a range of disciplines and countries across Europe, this book explores a wide range of topics from the capability approach, to network dynamics, to multinational corporations, to firm entry and exit and social capital. This book will be of interest to policy makers and students of urban studies, economic geography, and planning and development.
Author: Junmo Kim
Release Date: 2005
Genre: Business & Economics
Globalization has been, in some sense, one of the most widely discussed concept in understanding social, economic, and political aspects of the changing world since the late 20th century on. This book, noting the phenomenon, focuses on two parts. One is to empirically track industry level performance of major selected industrial sectors with an aim to analyze the existence of economic bloc formation. The other focus is more policy oriented one, which is to present exemplars or areas where public & private actors together work on for economic & industrial development. What is lacking in the existing literature has been more empirically founded research that would provide support for their arguments. Furthermore, an empirically based research in itself finds room for its own appeal when it can present a spectrum of different industrial and interests gaining and losing with the advent of economic integration. This book tackles this point. Especially, this book questions whether there has been a common economic dynamic that has driven the economic integration. If there is any common economic dynamic per se that has had major impact on globalization and integration, this book can present how different industrial sectors of different regions are affected, and thereby provide clues to fill the gaps in the existing theories.
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 2012-09-14
Genre: Political Science
Responding to the challenges of fostering regional growth and employment in an increasingly competitive global economy, many U.S. states and regions have developed programs to attract and grow companies as well as attract the talent and resources necessary to develop regional innovation clusters. These state and regionally based initiatives have a broad range of goals and increasingly include larger resources commitments, often with a sectoral focus and often in partnership with foundations and universities. Recent studies, however, have pointed out that many of these efforts lack the scale and the steady commitment needed for success. This has prompted new initiatives to coordinate and concentrate investments from a variety of federal agencies to develop research parks, business incubators, and other strategies to encourage entrepreneurships and high-tech development in the nation's regions. Understanding the nature of innovation clusters and public policies associated with successful cluster development is therefore of current relevance. Clustering for 21st Century Prosperity identifies best practices with regard to goals, structures, instruments, modes of operation, synergies across private and public programs, funding mechanisms and levels, and evaluation efforts. The committee, under the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy (STEP) is reviewing selected state and regional efforts to capitalize on federal and state investments in areas of critical national needs. This review includes both efforts to strengthen existing industries as well as specific technology focus areas such as nanotechnology, stem cells, and advanced energy in order to better understand program goals, challenges, and accomplishments. As part of this study, the committee is convening a series of public workshops and symposia involving responsible local, state, and federal officials and other stakeholders. Drawing from discussions at these symposia, fact-finding meetings, and commissioned analyses of existing state and regional programs and technology focus areas, the committee will subsequently produce a final report with findings and recommendations focused on lessons, issues, and opportunities for complementary U.S. policies created by these state and regional initiatives.
Author: Ron A. Boschma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2006-03-30
Jan Lambooy retired in October 2002. When Jan was asked how he wanted to celebrate this occasion, he was adamant that no great festivities should take place. Characteristically, Jan wanted just a scientific conference so he “could learn something from it” and, as he insisted, no great festivities. So that is what we did and a conference was organised in Amsterdam on 25 October 2002, hosted by the Faculty of Economics and Econometrics of the University of Amsterdam. Friends of Jan’s from academia in the Netherlands and abroad participated and thus paid homage to Jan, both as a scientist and as a person. We are now very proud to present this festschrift, firstly as the palpable result of this conference and secondly as a token of sincere respect and great affection for Jan. Edited volumes run the danger of being a hotchpotch of contributions on a wide variety of topics. Here, we have explicitly focused on a central theme in contemporary economic geography and regional science, namely the relationship between learning, innovation and clustering. Internationally renowned scientists made both theoretical and empirical contributions to this volume. We think this book constitutes a broad palette of contemporary thinking and research on the relationship between spatial concentration and innovation and hope it will play a significant role in future debates on this issue.
Innovative Cities presents a unique international comparison of innovation in Amsterdam, London, Milan, Paris and Stuttgart. Based on research funded by the ESRC program on 'Cities: Competitiveness and Cohesion', it compares and contrasts the reasons why these sites are among the top ten innovative cities in Europe. Innovation is one of the key driving forces of economic growth in modern economies. The research reported here takes a careful and directly comparable look at what characteristics and conditions in the five cities have led to the flourishing of innovation in them. Researchers with detailed local knowledge have applied the same analytical tools and survey techniques to investigating this question and the result present a unique international comparison of innovation in the five cities.