The Nuremberg Medical Trial

Author: Horst H. Freyhofer
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 0820467979
Release Date: 2004-01
Genre: History

Freyhofer gives the reader the opportunity to follow the exchange between prosecutors and defendants as well as the final reasoning of the court."--BOOK JACKET.

God s Solution

Author: Declan Hayes
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 9780595461196
Release Date: 2007-08
Genre: Religion

God's Solution demolishes the anti religious arguments of Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett, Peter Singer and atheism's other polemicists who have scurried aboard this lucrative bandwagon. God's Solution begins by showing us that science, not religion, has always been war's harlot. God's Solution then proceeds to show how and why sacred scripture makes sense and how the secular ideologies raged against it have always brought out the worst in people. God's Solution then demolishes Darwinism as a scientific theory and denounces Darwin as the racist bigot that he was. God's Solution uses a wide array of examples to show that Mother Nature is much too varied to be shoehorned into a simplistic theory like evolution. God's Solution then uses the charity industry to show that religion, not atheism holds the moral high ground. In using the arguments of the secular jihadists to show how life without religion is meaningless, God's Solution will prove a valuable resource to all readers who honestly seek the scientifically grounded metaphysical truths of their own inherited faith and who wish to imbue their children and grandchildren with those same beliefs.

Justice at Nuremberg

Author: U. Schmidt
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9780230505247
Release Date: 2004-06-30
Genre: History

This book traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial of 1946-47, through the eyes of the Austrian émigré psychiatrist Leo Alexander, whose investigations helped the US prosecution. Schmidt provides a detailed insight into the origins of human rights in medical science and into the changing role of international law, ethics and politics.

Genocide and Fascism

Author: Aristotle Kallis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134300341
Release Date: 2008-09-25
Genre: History

This book investigates how fascism – as an ideology and political praxis – reconfigured the ideological, political, and moral landscape of interwar Europe, generating an atmosphere of extreme ‘license’ that facilitated the leap into eliminationist violence. It demonstrates how fascist ideology linked the prospect of violent ‘cleansing’ to utopias of national/racial regeneration, thus encouraging and legitimizing targeted hatred against particular ‘others’. It also shows how the diffusion and internationalization of fascism in the 1930s produced a sense of a revolutionary new beginning and created a transnational fascist ‘new order’ in which Nazi Germany came to occupy a potent position of authority. The book analyzes how the eliminationist initiative and precedent of Nazi Germany became a second ‘license’ that empowered fascist regimes across Europe to embark on their own eliminationist projects with diminished accountability. Finally, it examines how this ‘license’ – enhanced by the actions of fascists and the collapse of order caused by World War Two – released individuals and communities from the burden of legal and moral accountability, turning them into accomplishes in the most wide, brutal, and devastating genocidal campaign that the continent had ever experienced.

Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust

Author: Sheldon Rubenfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319057026
Release Date: 2014-06-30
Genre: Medical

“An engaging, compelling and disturbing confrontation with evil ...a book that will be transformative in its call for individual and collective moral responsibility." – Michael A. Grodin, M.D., Professor and Director, Project on Medicine and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies, Boston University Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust challenges you to confront the misguided medical ethics of the Third Reich personally, and to apply the lessons learned to contemporary human subjects research. While it is comforting to believe that Nazi physicians, nurses, and bioscientists were either incompetent, mad, or few in number, they were, in fact, the best in the world at the time, and the vast majority participated in the government program of “applied biology.” They were not coerced to behave as they did—they enthusiastically exploited widely accepted eugenic theories to design horrendous medical experiments, gas chambers and euthanasia programs, which ultimately led to mass murder in the concentration camps. Americans provided financial support for their research, modeled their medical education and research after the Germans, and continued to perform unethical human subjects research even after the Nuremberg Doctors’ Trial. The German Medical Association apologized in 2012 for the behavior of its physicians during the Third Reich. By examining the medical crimes of human subjects researchers during the Third Reich, you will naturally examine your own behavior and that of your colleagues, and perhaps ask yourself "If the best physicians and bioscientists of the early 20th century could do evil while believing they were doing good, can I be certain that I will never do the same?"

The Law and Ethics of Medical Research

Author: Aurora Plomer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135338336
Release Date: 2013-03-04
Genre: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

The growing globalization of medical research and the application of new biotechnologies in morally contested areas has forced a revision of international ethical guidelines. This book examines the controversies surrounding biomedical research in the twenty-first century from a human rights perspective, analyzing the evolution and changes in form and content of international instruments regulating the conduct of biomedical research. The approach adopted is comparative and includes an evaluation of human rights and UK and US law on embryonic stem cell research, the HIV/AIDS trials in the developing world, the Alder Hey Inquiry and the human radiation and nerve gas experiments on human subjects in the US and the UK. This is the first book to analyze some of the major issues in biomedical research today from an international, comparative human rights perspective.

History and Theory of Human Experimentation

Author: Ulf Schmidt
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
ISBN: STANFORD:36105122438984
Release Date: 2007
Genre: History

Despite having been revised and criticised over the years, the Declaration of Helsinki remains one of the most important and internationally known ethics codes worldwide. Yet we know relatively little about its historical origins or about the prolonged revision process which accompanied this ôliving documentö. The chapters presented in this volume look at the history and theory of human experimentation, assess the role of the Helsinki Declaration in an international context, and illustrate specific issues about the history and practice of research ethics through a number of case studies in the United States, Asia and Europe. To this day, the Declaration is one of the most important landmarks in human subject research which is aimed at protecting experimental subjects in society. The current volume offers a better and historically-informed understanding of the Declaration to ensure that the existing safeguards are not only preserved but developed and improved in the future. Die 1964 veröffentlichte Deklaration zu Helsinki ist einer der wichtigsten und international bekanntesten Kodizes zur Forschungsethik, dessen Entstehungsgeschichte von steter Kritik und zahlreichen Ã_berarbeitungen begleitet wurde. Dennoch weiá man relativ wenig ber die historischen Wurzeln und Novellierungsprozesse dieses ägewachsenen Dokumentsô der Medizingeschichte. Bis zum heutigen Tag ist die Deklaration einer der bedeutendsten Wegweiser f r die Forschung am Menschen, deren grundsätzliches Ziel es ist, Versuchspersonen in medizinischen Experimenten zu sch tzen. Der Band beleuchtet Geschichte und Theorie der Experimente am Menschen, untersucht die Rolle der Deklaration im internationalen Kontext und illustriert spezifische Themen zur Geschichte und Praxis der Forschungsethik anhand von Fallstudien zu den USA, Asien und Europa. Auáerdem geben die Studien Einblick in die Entstehungsgeschichte der Deklaration - nicht nur um die bestehenden Standards zum Schutz von Versuchspersonen zu bewahren, sondern auch um diese zuk nftig weiterzuentwickeln und zu verbessern. Aus dem Inhalt Ulf Schmidt / Andreas Frewer: History and Ehtics of Human Experimentation: the Twisted Road to Helsinki. An Introduction History and Theory of Medical Research Ethics Ulrich Tröhler: The Long Road of Moral Concern: Doctors' Ethos and Statute Law Relating to Human Research in Europe Dietrich von Engelhardt: The Historical and Philosophical Background of Ethics in Clinical Research Ulf Schmidt: The Nuremberg Doctors' Trial and the Nuremberg Code Till Bärnighausen: Communicating ôTainted Scienceö: The Japanese Biological Warfare Experiments on Human Subjects in China The Helsinki Declaration in an International Context Susan E. Lederer: Research Without Borders: The Origins of the Declaration of Helsinki Povl Riis: Forty Years of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress in Medical Ethics? Kati Myllymäki: Revising the Declaration of Helsinki: An Insiders' View Robert Carlson / Kenneth Boyd / David Webb: The Interpretation of Codes of Medical Ethics: Some Lessons from the Fifth Revision of the Declaration of Helsinki David Willcox: Medical Ethics and Public Perception: The Declaration of Helsinki and its Revisions in 2000 Dominique Sprumont / Sara Girardin / Trudo Lemmens: The Helsinki Declaration and the Law: An International and Comparative Analysis History and Ethics of Research - International Perspectives Andreas Frewer: History of Medicine and Ethics in Conflict: Research on National Socialism as Moral Problem Ulf Schmidt: Medical Ethics and Human Experiments at Porton Down: Informed Consent in Britain's Biological and Chemical Warfare Experiments John Williams: The Declaration of Helsinki. The Importance of Context Jonathan D. Moreno: Helsinki into the Future. An Epilogue Key Documents on the History of Research Ethics Circular of the Reich Minister of the Interior Concerning Guidelines for New Therapy and Human Experimentation (Berlin, 1931) ù The Nuremberg Code (1947) ù World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki I (1964) ù World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki II (Tokyo, 1975) ù Council of Europe: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Oviedo, 1997) ù World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki (2004).

Eichmann in Jerusalem

Author: Hannah Arendt
Publisher: Piper Verlag
ISBN: 9783492962582
Release Date: 2013-02-14
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Der ehemalige SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann gilt als einer der Hauptverantwortlichen für die »Endlösung« der Juden in Europa. Der Prozess gegen ihn fand 1961 in Jerusalem statt. Hannah Arendts Prozessbericht wurde von ihr 1964 als Buch publiziert und brachte eine Lawine ins Rollen: Es stieß bei seinem Erscheinen auf heftige Ablehnung in Israel, Deutschland und in den USA– und wurde zu einem Klassiker wie kaum ein anderes vergleichbares Werk zur Zeitgeschichte und ihrer Deutung.

Medizinische Forschung mit Kindern und Jugendlichen

Author: Franziska Sprecher
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783540737582
Release Date: 2007-07-24
Genre: Law

Die Autorin liefert hier die faktischen und rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen sowie eine aktuelle Übersicht über die Normen des schweizerischen, deutschen, europäischen und internationalen Rechts, die auf die Humanforschung anwendbar sind. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf den Persönlichkeitsrechten Minderjähriger im medizinischen Kontext im Allgemeinen und in der medizinischen Forschung im Besonderen. Plus: aktuelle Rechtsetzungsprojekte in der Schweiz.

Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen biomedizinischer Forschung am Menschen

Author: Hans-Christoph Kandler
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783540755166
Release Date: 2008-04-16
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Der Autor untersucht und kommentiert die einzelnen forschungsbezogenen Regelungen des Zusatzprotokolls zum Übereinkommen des Europarats über Menschenrechte und Biomedizin. Bestehende nationale und internationale Bestimmungen werden vergleichend ebenso einbezogen wie allgemeine Rechtsgrundsätze, die die biomedizinische Forschung am Menschen in Deutschland derzeit prägen. Zugleich wird die Frage beantwortet, inwieweit das Zusatzprotokoll mit verfassungsrechtlichen Vorgaben vereinbar ist und eine Übernahme in nationales Recht befürwortet werden kann.

Roderick Hudson

Author: Henry James
Publisher: Kiepenheuer & Witsch
ISBN: 9783462411287
Release Date: 2017-11-20
Genre: Fiction

Rowland Mallet, ein wohlhabender Kunstliebhaber, wird zum Mäzen des jungen Bildhauers Roderick Hudson, den er in der Enge der amerikanischen Provinz entdeckt und mit nach Europa nimmt. In der ersten Begeisterung über die Kunstwerke Roms und die belebende Atmosphäre der Stadt gelingen Roderick Hudson einige vielversprechende Skulpturen. Doch dann erstarrt er immer mehr in Eitelkeit und Selbstherrlichkeit und sucht Zerstreuung im gesellschaftlichen Leben Roms und auf Reisen. Er verliebt sich leidenschaftlich in die extravagante, ehrgeizige Christina Light, die jedoch bald seine Charakterschwächen erkennt und ihn zurückweist. Rowland Mallet, der sich durch Rodericks selbstzerstörerische Entwicklung in seinen Erwartungen in den jungen Künstler enttäuscht sieht, versucht noch vermittelnd einzugreifen; er läßt Rodericks Mutter und Braut aus Amerika kommen. Aber Roderick Hudsons moralischer und künstlerischer Verfall ist nicht mehr aufzuhalten.

Twentieth century ethics of human subjects research

Author: Volker Roelcke
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
ISBN: 351508455X
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Medical

Debates on the ethics of human subjects research meet with an increasing interest both within the medical profession and the broader public. Frequently, historical arguments are used to propagate or attack certain positions within these debates. However, there is a tendency to oversimplify the complexities of the past for present day purposes, and at the same time a lack of awareness of the historical dimension implicit in today's value preferences. Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research brings together leading historians of medicine to reconstruct and analyse the history of actual experimental practices, the debates on human subjects research, and the attempts to regulate such research during the twentieth century. The volume addresses cases of medical research in France, Britain, Israel, the United States, and Germany, including the Nazi period; the major developments of ethical debates in these and further national contexts, such as the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, and Japan. It also explores religious views (Catholic, Jewish) on human experimentation, and the origins and contexts of international codes and declarations. "Volker Roelckes Ã_berblick ueber die Geschichte der Menschenversuche im Dritten Reich sei jedem empfohlen, der sich kurz und prägnant ueber dieses duestere Kapitel deutscher Geschichte informieren möchte." FAZ.