The Nuremberg Medical Trial

Author: Horst H. Freyhofer
Publisher: Peter Lang
ISBN: 0820467979
Release Date: 2004-01
Genre: History

Freyhofer gives the reader the opportunity to follow the exchange between prosecutors and defendants as well as the final reasoning of the court."--BOOK JACKET.

God s Solution

Author: Declan Hayes
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 9780595461196
Release Date: 2007-08
Genre: Religion

God's Solution demolishes the anti religious arguments of Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, Daniel Dennett, Peter Singer and atheism's other polemicists who have scurried aboard this lucrative bandwagon. God's Solution begins by showing us that science, not religion, has always been war's harlot. God's Solution then proceeds to show how and why sacred scripture makes sense and how the secular ideologies raged against it have always brought out the worst in people. God's Solution then demolishes Darwinism as a scientific theory and denounces Darwin as the racist bigot that he was. God's Solution uses a wide array of examples to show that Mother Nature is much too varied to be shoehorned into a simplistic theory like evolution. God's Solution then uses the charity industry to show that religion, not atheism holds the moral high ground. In using the arguments of the secular jihadists to show how life without religion is meaningless, God's Solution will prove a valuable resource to all readers who honestly seek the scientifically grounded metaphysical truths of their own inherited faith and who wish to imbue their children and grandchildren with those same beliefs.

Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust

Author: Sheldon Rubenfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319057026
Release Date: 2014-06-30
Genre: Medical

“An engaging, compelling and disturbing confrontation with evil ...a book that will be transformative in its call for individual and collective moral responsibility." – Michael A. Grodin, M.D., Professor and Director, Project on Medicine and the Holocaust, Elie Wiesel Center for Judaic Studies, Boston University Human Subjects Research after the Holocaust challenges you to confront the misguided medical ethics of the Third Reich personally, and to apply the lessons learned to contemporary human subjects research. While it is comforting to believe that Nazi physicians, nurses, and bioscientists were either incompetent, mad, or few in number, they were, in fact, the best in the world at the time, and the vast majority participated in the government program of “applied biology.” They were not coerced to behave as they did—they enthusiastically exploited widely accepted eugenic theories to design horrendous medical experiments, gas chambers and euthanasia programs, which ultimately led to mass murder in the concentration camps. Americans provided financial support for their research, modeled their medical education and research after the Germans, and continued to perform unethical human subjects research even after the Nuremberg Doctors’ Trial. The German Medical Association apologized in 2012 for the behavior of its physicians during the Third Reich. By examining the medical crimes of human subjects researchers during the Third Reich, you will naturally examine your own behavior and that of your colleagues, and perhaps ask yourself "If the best physicians and bioscientists of the early 20th century could do evil while believing they were doing good, can I be certain that I will never do the same?"

Genocide and Fascism

Author: Aristotle Kallis
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134300341
Release Date: 2008-09-25
Genre: History

This book investigates how fascism – as an ideology and political praxis – reconfigured the ideological, political, and moral landscape of interwar Europe, generating an atmosphere of extreme ‘license’ that facilitated the leap into eliminationist violence. It demonstrates how fascist ideology linked the prospect of violent ‘cleansing’ to utopias of national/racial regeneration, thus encouraging and legitimizing targeted hatred against particular ‘others’. It also shows how the diffusion and internationalization of fascism in the 1930s produced a sense of a revolutionary new beginning and created a transnational fascist ‘new order’ in which Nazi Germany came to occupy a potent position of authority. The book analyzes how the eliminationist initiative and precedent of Nazi Germany became a second ‘license’ that empowered fascist regimes across Europe to embark on their own eliminationist projects with diminished accountability. Finally, it examines how this ‘license’ – enhanced by the actions of fascists and the collapse of order caused by World War Two – released individuals and communities from the burden of legal and moral accountability, turning them into accomplishes in the most wide, brutal, and devastating genocidal campaign that the continent had ever experienced.

Justice at Nuremberg

Author: U. Schmidt
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 033392147X
Release Date: 2004-06-30
Genre: History

This book traces the history of the Nuremberg Doctors' Trial of 1946-47, through the eyes of the Austrian émigré psychiatrist Leo Alexander, whose investigations helped the US prosecution. Schmidt provides a detailed insight into the origins of human rights in medical science and into the changing role of international law, ethics and politics.

The Law and Ethics of Medical Research

Author: Aurora Plomer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135338336
Release Date: 2013-03-04
Genre: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS

The growing globalization of medical research and the application of new biotechnologies in morally contested areas has forced a revision of international ethical guidelines. This book examines the controversies surrounding biomedical research in the twenty-first century from a human rights perspective, analyzing the evolution and changes in form and content of international instruments regulating the conduct of biomedical research. The approach adopted is comparative and includes an evaluation of human rights and UK and US law on embryonic stem cell research, the HIV/AIDS trials in the developing world, the Alder Hey Inquiry and the human radiation and nerve gas experiments on human subjects in the US and the UK. This is the first book to analyze some of the major issues in biomedical research today from an international, comparative human rights perspective.

American Bioethics

Author: George J. Annas
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195390292
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Law

Bioethics was "born in the USA" and the values American bioethics embrace are based on American law, including liberty and justice. This book crosses the borders between bioethics and law, but moves beyond the domestic law/bioethics struggles for dominance by exploring attempts to articulate universal principles based on international human rights. The isolationism of bioethics in the US is not tenable in the wake of scientific triumphs like decoding the human genome, and civilizational tragedies like international terrorism. Annas argues that by crossing boundaries which have artificially separated bioethics and health law from the international human rights movement, American bioethics can be reborn as a global force for good, instead of serving mainly the purposes of U.S. academics. This thesis is explored in a variety of international contexts such as terrorism and genetic engineering, and in U.S. domestic disputes such as patient rights and market medicine. The citizens of the world have created two universal codes: science has sequenced the human genome and the United Nations has produced the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The challenge for American bioethics is to combine these two great codes in imaginative and constructive ways to make the world a better, and healthier, place to live.

Nazi Law

Author: John J. Michalczyk
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781350007239
Release Date: 2017-12-28
Genre: History

"An exploration of how the Nazis harnessed and exploited the law to impose their will and how the law ultimately prevailed in the form of the Nuremberg war crime trials"--

History and Theory of Human Experimentation

Author: Ulf Schmidt
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden gmbh
ISBN: STANFORD:36105122438984
Release Date: 2007
Genre: History

Despite having been revised and criticised over the years, the Declaration of Helsinki remains one of the most important and internationally known ethics codes worldwide. Yet we know relatively little about its historical origins or about the prolonged revision process which accompanied this ôliving documentö. The chapters presented in this volume look at the history and theory of human experimentation, assess the role of the Helsinki Declaration in an international context, and illustrate specific issues about the history and practice of research ethics through a number of case studies in the United States, Asia and Europe. To this day, the Declaration is one of the most important landmarks in human subject research which is aimed at protecting experimental subjects in society. The current volume offers a better and historically-informed understanding of the Declaration to ensure that the existing safeguards are not only preserved but developed and improved in the future. Die 1964 veröffentlichte Deklaration zu Helsinki ist einer der wichtigsten und international bekanntesten Kodizes zur Forschungsethik, dessen Entstehungsgeschichte von steter Kritik und zahlreichen Ã_berarbeitungen begleitet wurde. Dennoch weiá man relativ wenig ber die historischen Wurzeln und Novellierungsprozesse dieses ägewachsenen Dokumentsô der Medizingeschichte. Bis zum heutigen Tag ist die Deklaration einer der bedeutendsten Wegweiser f r die Forschung am Menschen, deren grundsätzliches Ziel es ist, Versuchspersonen in medizinischen Experimenten zu sch tzen. Der Band beleuchtet Geschichte und Theorie der Experimente am Menschen, untersucht die Rolle der Deklaration im internationalen Kontext und illustriert spezifische Themen zur Geschichte und Praxis der Forschungsethik anhand von Fallstudien zu den USA, Asien und Europa. Auáerdem geben die Studien Einblick in die Entstehungsgeschichte der Deklaration - nicht nur um die bestehenden Standards zum Schutz von Versuchspersonen zu bewahren, sondern auch um diese zuk nftig weiterzuentwickeln und zu verbessern. Aus dem Inhalt Ulf Schmidt / Andreas Frewer: History and Ehtics of Human Experimentation: the Twisted Road to Helsinki. An Introduction History and Theory of Medical Research Ethics Ulrich Tröhler: The Long Road of Moral Concern: Doctors' Ethos and Statute Law Relating to Human Research in Europe Dietrich von Engelhardt: The Historical and Philosophical Background of Ethics in Clinical Research Ulf Schmidt: The Nuremberg Doctors' Trial and the Nuremberg Code Till Bärnighausen: Communicating ôTainted Scienceö: The Japanese Biological Warfare Experiments on Human Subjects in China The Helsinki Declaration in an International Context Susan E. Lederer: Research Without Borders: The Origins of the Declaration of Helsinki Povl Riis: Forty Years of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress in Medical Ethics? Kati Myllymäki: Revising the Declaration of Helsinki: An Insiders' View Robert Carlson / Kenneth Boyd / David Webb: The Interpretation of Codes of Medical Ethics: Some Lessons from the Fifth Revision of the Declaration of Helsinki David Willcox: Medical Ethics and Public Perception: The Declaration of Helsinki and its Revisions in 2000 Dominique Sprumont / Sara Girardin / Trudo Lemmens: The Helsinki Declaration and the Law: An International and Comparative Analysis History and Ethics of Research - International Perspectives Andreas Frewer: History of Medicine and Ethics in Conflict: Research on National Socialism as Moral Problem Ulf Schmidt: Medical Ethics and Human Experiments at Porton Down: Informed Consent in Britain's Biological and Chemical Warfare Experiments John Williams: The Declaration of Helsinki. The Importance of Context Jonathan D. Moreno: Helsinki into the Future. An Epilogue Key Documents on the History of Research Ethics Circular of the Reich Minister of the Interior Concerning Guidelines for New Therapy and Human Experimentation (Berlin, 1931) ù The Nuremberg Code (1947) ù World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki I (1964) ù World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki II (Tokyo, 1975) ù Council of Europe: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Oviedo, 1997) ù World Medical Association: Declaration of Helsinki (2004).

Reassessing the Nuremberg Military Tribunals

Author: Kim C. Priemel
Publisher: Berghahn Books
ISBN: 9780857455321
Release Date: 2012-08-30
Genre: History

For decades the history of the US Military Tribunals at Nuremberg (NMT) has been eclipsed by the first Nuremberg trial-the International Military Tribunal or IMT. The dominant interpretation-neatly summarized in the ubiquitous formula of "Subsequent Trials"-ignores the unique historical and legal character of the NMT trials, which differed significantly from that of their predecessor. The NMT trials marked a decisive shift both in terms of analysis of the Third Reich and conceptualization of international criminal law. This volume is the first comprehensive examination of the NMT and brings together diverse perspectives from the fields of law, history, and political science, exploring the genesis, impact, and legacy of the twelve Military Tribunals held at Nuremberg between 1946 and 1949.

The Betrayal

Author: Kim Christian Priemel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199669752
Release Date: 2016
Genre: History

At the end of World War II the Allies faced a threefold challenge: how to punish perpetrators of appalling crimes for which the categories of 'genocide' and 'crimes against humanity' had to be coined; how to explain that these had been committed by Germany, of all nations; and how to reform Germans. The Allied answer to this conundrum was the application of historical reasoning to legal procedure. In the thirteen Nuremberg trials held between 1945 and 1949, and in corresponding cases elsewhere, a concerted effort was made to punish key perpetrators while at the same time providing a complex analysis of the Nazi state and German history. Building on a long debate about Germany's divergence from a presumed Western path of development, Allied prosecutors sketched a historical trajectory which had led Germany to betray the Western model. Historical reasoning both accounted for the moral breakdown of a 'civilised' nation and rendered plausible arguments that this had indeed been a collective failure rather than one of a small criminal clique. The prosecutors therefore carefully laid out how institutions such as private enterprise, academic science, the military, or bureaucracy, which looked ostensibly similar to their opposite numbers in the Allied nations, had been corrupted in Germany even before Hitler's rise to power. While the argument, depending on individual protagonists, subject matters, and contexts, met with uneven success in court, it offered a final twist which was of obvious appeal in the Cold War to come: if Germany had lost its way, it could still be brought back into the Western fold. The first comprehensive study of the Nuremberg trials, The Betrayal thus also explores how history underpins transitional trials as we encounter them in today's courtrooms from Arusha to The Hague.

John W Thompson

Author: Paul Weindling
Publisher: University Rochester Press
ISBN: 9781580462891
Release Date: 2010
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Biography of a World War II-era physician whose work was a response to the suffering of Holocaust victims, and whose investigations laid the groundwork for the Nuremberg Medical Trials.

Atrocities on Trial

Author: Patricia Heberer
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 9780803210844
Release Date: 2008-04
Genre: History

These essays are organised into four sections, dealing with the history of war crime trials from Weimar Germany to just after World War II, the sometimes diverging Allied attempts to come to terms with the Nazi concentration camp system, the ability of postwar societies to confront war crimes of the past and the legacy of war crime trials.

The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code

Author: George J. Annas
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0195101065
Release Date: 1992
Genre: Medical

This important new work surveys the source and ramifications of the famed Nuremburg Code -- recognized around the world as one of the cornerstones of modern bioethics.