The development of nuclear weapons during the Manhattan Project is one of the most significant scientific events of the twentieth century. This revised and updated 3rd edition explores the challenges that faced the scientists and engineers of the Manhattan Project. It gives a clear introduction to fission weapons at the level of an upper-year undergraduate physics student by examining the details of nuclear reactions, their energy release, analytic and numerical models of the fission process, how critical masses can be estimated, how fissile materials are produced, and what factors complicate bomb design. An extensive list of references and a number of exercises for self-study are included. Links are given to several freely-available spread sheets which users can use to run many of the calculations for themselves.
Author: B. Cameron Reed
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date: 2017-05-22
The development of nuclear weapons by the Manhattan Project during World War II was one of the most dramatic scientific/technological episodes in human history. This book, prepared by a recognized expert on the Manhattan Project, offers a concise survey of the essential physics concepts underlying fission weapons. The text describes the energetics and timescales of fast-neutron chain reactions, why only certain isotopes of uranium and plutonium are suitable for use in fission weapons, how critical mass and bomb yield can be estimated, how the efficiency of nuclear weapons can be enhanced, how the fissile forms of uranium and plutonium were obtained, some of the design details of the 'Little Boy' and 'Fat Man' bombs, and some of the thermal, shock, and radiation effects of nuclear weapons. Calculation exercises are provided, and a Bibliography lists authoritative print and online sources of information for readers who wish to pursue more detailed study of this fascinating topic.
Author: Francis George Gosling
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Release Date: 1999
A history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during WWII. Begins with the scientific developments of the pre-war years. Details the role of the U.S. government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. Concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission. Chapters: the Einstein letter; physics background, 1919-1939; early government support; the atomic bomb and American strategy; and the Manhattan district in peacetime. Illustrated.
Author: Bruce Cameron Reed
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release Date: 2015-06-01
In August 1945, two US Army Air Force B-29 bombers each dropped single “atomic bombs” on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Little Boy and Fat Man each exploded with energies equivalent to more than 10,000 tons of conventional explosive. Just seven years later, in October 1952, the Ivy Mike test saw the detonation of America’s first full-scale thermonuclear weapon that achieved a yield over 400 times as much as Little Boy and Fat Man. The invention of nuclear weapons was one of the most stunning scientific and technological developments of the 20th century. Carried out under the auspices of the United States Army’s Manhattan Project, this development had profound immediate and long-term impacts: the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki helped bring World War II to a close, but set the stage for the Cold War, nuclear proliferation, and fear of nuclear annihilation and terrorism. This volume, prepared by an acknowledged expert on the Manhattan Project, gives a concise, fast-paced account of all major aspects of the project at a level accessible to an undergraduate college or advanced high-school student familiar with some basic concepts of energy, atomic structure, and isotopes. The text describes the underlying scientific discoveries that made nuclear weapons possible, how the project was organized, the daunting challenges faced and overcome in obtaining fissile uranium and plutonium and in designing workable bombs, the dramatic Trinity test carried out in the desert of southern New Mexico in July 1945, and the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The final chapter surveys current worldwide nuclear weapons deployments, and a bibliography lists sources of published and online information along with numerous links.
Author: Bruce Cameron Reed
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-10-16
The development of atomic bombs under the auspices of the U. S. Army’s Manhattan Project during World War II is considered to be the outstanding news story of the twentieth century. In this book, a physicist and expert on the history of the Project presents a comprehensive overview of this momentous achievement. The first three chapters cover the history of nuclear physics from the discovery of radioactivity to the discovery of fission, and would be ideal for instructors of a sophomore-level “Modern Physics” course. Student-level exercises at the ends of the chapters are accompanied by answers. Chapter 7 covers the physics of first-generation fission weapons at a similar level, again accompanied by exercises and answers. For the interested layman and for non-science students and instructors, the book includes extensive qualitative material on the history, organization, implementation, and results of the Manhattan Project and the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombing missions. The reader also learns about the legacy of the Project as reflected in the current world stockpiles of nuclear weapons.
Author: Ruth H. Howes
Publisher: Temple University Press
Release Date: 2003-05-22
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
"Authors Ruth H. Howes and Caroline L. Herzenberg discuss the various scientific problems the women helped to solve as well as the discrimination they faced in their work. Their abrupt recruitment for the war effort and anecdotes of everyday life in the clandestine, improvised communities, what happened to the women after the war, and their present attitudes toward the work they did on the bomb are also included."--Jacket.
Author: Cynthia C. Kelly
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2006
Genre: Biography & Autobiography
2004 marked the centennial of the birth of J Robert Oppenheimer, and brought historians and scholars, former students, nuclear physicists, and politicians together to celebrate this event. Oppenheimer's life and work became central to 20th century history as he spearheaded the development of the atomic bomb that ended World War II. This book provides a spectrum of interpretations of Oppenheimer's life and scientific achievements. It approaches the extraordinary scientist and teacher from many perspectives, chronicling the years from his boyhood through his role as director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory and afterwards. The book also discusses Oppenheimer's connection to New Mexico, which hosted two of the Manhattan Project's most crucial sites, and addresses his lasting impact on contemporary science, international politics, and the postwar age.
Author: Eric Schlosser
Release Date: 2013-09-30
Genre: Political Science
Arkansas, 18. September 1980, abends: Bei Routinearbeiten an einer gefechtsbereiten Titan-II-Rakete rutscht einem Arbeiter ein Schraubenschlüssel aus der Hand. »O Mann, das ist nicht gut”, ist sein erster Gedanke. Das Missgeschick führt zu einer Kettenreaktion, der größte je gebaute Atomsprengkopf droht zu explodieren ... Weltweit sind Tausende von Atomsprengköpfen stationiert. Viele von ihnen werden rund um die Uhr gefechtsbereit gehalten, damit sie innerhalb einer Minute starten und eine unvorstellbare Verwüstung anrichten können. Was das für die Soldaten in den unterirdischen Bunkern heißt und welche Gefahren von den scharfen Atomwaffen ausgehen, ist uns kaum bewusst. Der Journalist und Bestseller-Autor Eric Schlosser deckt in diesem zeithistorischen Thriller auf der Grundlage von geheimen Unterlagen des Verteidigungsministeriums und Interviews mit Augenzeugen einen dramatischen Unfall in einem Atomwaffensilo der USA auf, der um ein Haar mehrere amerikanische Großstädte vernichtet hätte. In diesen Krimi einer am Ende gerade noch gelungenen Rettung flicht er die Geschichte der amerikanischen Atomrüstung ein. Er erzählt, wie Raketen und Sprengköpfe rund um die Uhr abschussbereit gehalten werden und wie die Menschen ticken, die ihr Leben für die Sicherheit der Massenvernichtungswaffen einsetzen. Eine spektakuläre Geschichte des Kalten Krieges und der Atomrüstung «von unten»: aus der Sicht der Soldaten in den Silos, die mit einem falschen Handgriff die Apokalypse auslösen können. «Atemberaubend, ... mitreißend ... Eric Schlosser verbindet profunde Informationen mit der Erzählung haarsträubender Details zu zahlreichen Unfällen und zeigt, dass auch die besten Kontrollsysteme nicht menschlichen Fehlern, Missgeschicken und der wachsenden technologischen Komplexität gewachsen sind.» Publisher’s Weekly »Ebenso anschaulich wie erschütternd ... Eine umfassende und beunruhigende Untersuchung über die Illusion der Sicherheit von Atomwaffen.” Kirkus Reviews «Die weltweiten Atwomwaffenarsenale sind nicht so sicher, wie sie sein sollten – das ist die Botschaft dieses faszinierenden und aufwühlenden Buches.» Lee H. Hamilton, ehemaliger Kongress-Abgeordneter der USA und Co-Vorsitzender der Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future
Author: Cynthia C. Kelly
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2005-01-27
During World War II, nations raced to construct the worldOCOs first nuclear weapon that would determine the future of the world. The Manhattan Project, one of the most significant achievements of the 20th century, was the culmination of AmericaOCOs war effort. Today, although the issue of nuclear weapons frequently dominates world politics, few are aware of the history behind its development. Part I of this book, comprised of papers from the Atomic Heritage FoundationOCOs Symposium on the Manhattan Project, recounts the history of this remarkable effort and reflects upon its legacy. Most of the original structures of the Manhattan Project have been inaccessible to the public and in recent years, have been stripped of their equipment and slated for demolition. Part II proposes a strategy for preserving these historical artifacts for the public and future generations."
Author: General Leslie R. Groves
Publisher: Hachette UK
Release Date: 2009-06-16
General Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer were the two men chiefly responsible for the building of the first atomic bomb at Los Alamos, code name "The Manhattan Project." As the ranking military officer in charge of marshalling men and material for what was to be the most ambitious, expensive engineering feat in history, it was General Groves who hired Oppenheimer (with knowledge of his left-wing past), planned facilities that would extract the necessary enriched uranium, and saw to it that nothing interfered with the accelerated research and swift assembly of the weapon.This is his story of the political, logistical, and personal problems of this enormous undertaking which involved foreign governments, sensitive issues of press censorship, the construction of huge plants at Hanford and Oak Ridge, and a race to build the bomb before the Nazis got wind of it. The role of groves in the Manhattan Project has always been controversial. In his new introduction the noted physicist Edward Teller, who was there at Los Alamos, candidly assesses the general's contributions—and Oppenheimer's—while reflecting on the awesome legacy of their work.
Author: Jeff A. Hughes
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2003
In the twentieth century, almost every aspect of science changed: it spread from insular universities to government, industry, and the military; new disciplines emerged, the boundaries between old ones blurred; and a dizzying array of new products and processes changed people's lives. But perhaps the greatest change was science's growth in scale, scope, and cost, as it was transformed from an activity in which small groups or individuals conducted experiments into "Big Science" -- a large-scale enterprise that is carried out by multidisciplinary and multinational groups of researchers, costs enormous sums, demands massive institutions of its own, and often represents a significant fraction of national budgets. These changes have often been ascribed to the Manhattan Project, the allies'project during the Second World War to build the atomic bomb. Established at Los Alamos and several other sites, the Manhattan Project brought together American, British, Canadian, and refugee European scientists to design and build the bombs that ultimately destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. At its height, the project was equivalent in size to the entire American automobile industry, employing 130,000 people and costing a total of $2 billion. Its outcome conferred new prestige to science and scientists, and it is widely deemed responsible for the massive growth and militarization of postwar science. But the Manhattan Project did not represent a radical break in the development of twentieth-century science. According to Jeff Hughes, it accelerated developments already underway. Drawing on recent scholarship, Hughes offers a lively reinterpretation of these epic events and considers the dramatic role the military and industry played in shaping not just the Manhattan Project, but the whole of twentieth-century science.
Author: Al Cimino
Publisher: Arcturus Publishing
Release Date: 2015-07-14
The ramifications of the Manhattan Project are with us to this day. The atomic bombs that came out of it brought an end to the war in the Pacific, but at a heavy loss of life in Japan and the opening of a Pandora's box that has tested international relations. This book traces the history of the Manhattan Project, from the first glimmerings of the possibility of such a catastrophic weapon to the aftermath of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It profiles the architects of the bomb and how they tried to reconcile their personal feelings with their ambition as scientists. It looks at the role of the politicians and it includes first-hand accounts of those who experienced the effects of the bombings.
Author: John Canaday
Publisher: University of New Mexico Press
Release Date: 2017-09-15
With technical mastery and remarkable empathy, Canaday introduces readers to the people involved in the creation and testing of the first atomic bomb, from initial theoretical conversations to the secretive work at Los Alamos. Critical Assembly also includes brief biographies, notes, and a bibliography for further exploration about this critical event in world history.
Maerad ist eine Sklavin in einer kleinen, unwirtlichen Siedlung. Hier lebt sie schon, seit ihre Familie im Krieg ums Leben gekommen ist. Über ihre Herkunft weiß sie nicht viel. Als eines Tages ein geheimnisvoller Fremder in die Siedlung kommt, ändert sich Maerads Leben für immer. Der Mann bietet ihr an, sie zu befreien, und das nicht ohne Grund. Maerad weiß nicht, dass eine mächtige Gabe in ihr schlummert und dass ihr Name in einer schrecklichen Prophezeiung erwähnt ist. Sie tritt eine gefährliche Reise an, einem unbeschreiblichen, namenlosen Grauen entgegen ...