Author: Michael J. Kurtz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2006-03-06
The Nazi war on European culture produced the greatest dislocation of art, archives, and libraries in the history of the world. In the ruins of the Reich, Allied occupiers found millions of paintings, books, manuscripts, and pieces of sculpture, from the mediocre to the priceless, hidden in thousands of secret hideaways. This book tells the story of how the American Military Government in Germany, spearheaded by a few dozen dedicated Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives (MFA&A) officers and enlisted men, coped with restoring Europe's cultural heritage.
Author: Ana Filipa Vrdoljak
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2006-07-13
While the question of the return of cultural objects is by no means a new one, it has become the subject of increasingly intense debate in recent years. This important book explores the removal and the return of cultural objects from occupied communities during the last two centuries and analyses the concurrent evolution of international cultural heritage law. The book focuses on the significant influence exerted by British, U.S. and Australian governments and museums on international law and museum policy in response to restitution claims. It shows that these claims, far from heralding the long-feared dissolution of museums and their collections, provide museums with a vital, new role in the process of self-determination and cultural identity. Compelling and thought-provoking throughout, this book is essential reading for archaeologists, international lawyers and all those involved in cultural resource management.
Author: International Debate Education Association
Release Date: 2004-01
"An invaluable resource for debaters, The Debatabase Book provides background, arguments and resources on more than 125 debate topics in areas as diverse as business, science and technology, environment, politics, religion, culture, and education. All topics have been updated and 15 new topics added for the revised edition." "Each entry presents: an introduction placing the topic in context; arguments pro and con; sample motions; and Web links and print resources for further research. Organized in a handy A-Z format, the book also includes a topical index for easy searching."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Author: Irini A. Stamatoudi
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2011-01-01
Genre: Political Science
This invaluable book, for the first time, brings together the international and European Union legal framework on cultural property law and the restitution of cultural property. Drawing on the author's extensive experience of international disputes, it provides a very comprehensive and useful commentary. Theories of cultural nationalism and cultural internationalism and their founding principles are explored. Irini Stamatoudi also draws on soft law sources, ethics, morality, public feeling and the role of international organisations to create a complete picture of the principles and trends emerging today.
Among the most debated archaeological problems is the repatriation of cultural objects that have been removed from the country of origin and then dispersed in Museums around the world. The need for the return of cultural objects to their homelands is not only derived from the people they belong to, but also from those they appreciate their value and have archaeological interest in them. However, there are a number of problems revolved around most cases, which prohibit the cultural repatriation to be achieved. The case of the Parthenon Marbles is one of the best-known claims for the repatriation of cultural property, as its sculptures, which constitute an integral part of it, have been removed from the temple and are stored in different Museums. Towards the problem of cultural repatriation, Parthenon Marbles case study is used to research to what extent the Internet can be introduced as a means of providing a form of cultural repatriation through the idea of a Virtual Museum. The argument is supported by the conception, design and construction of a Virtual Museum for the Parthenon Marbles. The web site is a pilot application implementing some sides of the temple, while providing guidelines and techniques for completion of the rest. The development of the web site also provided an opportunity for evaluating tools and techniques used in virtual museums. Finally, the VR Museum concept as a means of repatriation is evaluated, discussing the areas where such an application would be beneficial and also the level of information that can provide for the specified repatriated object(s) according to specific user groups and needs.
Author: Wayne Sandholtz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2007-12-31
For much of history, the rules of war decreed that "to the victor go the spoils." The winners in warfare routinely seized for themselves the artistic and cultural treasures of the defeated; plunder constituted a marker of triumph. By the twentieth century, international norms declared the opposite, that cultural monuments should be shielded from destruction or seizure. Prohibiting Plunder traces and explains the emergence of international rules against wartime looting of cultural treasures, and explores how anti-plunder norms have developed over the past 200 years. The book covers highly topical events including the looting of thousands of antiquities from the Iraqi National Museum in Baghdad, and the return of "Holocaust Art" by prominent museums, including the highly publicized return of five Klimt paintings from the Austrian Gallery to a Holocaust survivor. The historical narrative includes first-hand reports, official documents, and archival records. Equally important, the book uncovers the debates and negotiations that produced increasingly clear and well-defined anti-plunder norms. The historical accounts in Prohibiting Plunder serve as confirming examples of an important dynamic of international norm change. Rules evolve in cycles; in each cycle, specific actions trigger arguments about the meaning and application of rules, and those arguments in turn modify the rules. International norms evolve through a succession of such cycles, each one drawing on previous developments and each one reshaping the normative context for subsequent actions and disputes. Prohibiting Plunder shows how historical episodes interlinked to produce modern, treaty-based rules against wartime plunder of cultural treasures.
Author: Hyung Il Pai
Publisher: University of Washington Press
Release Date: 2014-01-01
Imperial tombs, Buddhist architecture, palaces, and art treasures in Korea and Japan have attracted scholars, collectors, and conservators�and millions of tourists. As iconic markers of racial and cultural identity at home and abroad, they are embraced as tangible sources of immense national pride and popular �must-see� destinations. This book provides the first sustained account to highlight how the forces of modernity, nationalism, colonialism, and globalization have contributed to the birth of museums, field disciplines, tourist industry, and heritage management policies. Its chapters trace the history of explorations, preservations, and reconstructions of archaeological monuments from an interregional East Asian comparative perspective in the past century.
Author: Tiffany Jenkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2016-02-25
The fabulous collections housed in the world's most famous museums are trophies from an imperial age. Yet the huge crowds that each year visit the British Museum in London, the Louvre in Paris, or the Metropolitan in New York have little idea that many of the objects on display were acquired by coercion or theft. Now the countries from which these treasures came would like them back. The Greek demand for the return of the Elgin Marbles is the tip of an iceberg that includes claims for the Benin Bronzes from Nigeria, sculpture from Turkey, scrolls and porcelain taken from the Chinese Summer Palace, textiles from Peru, the bust of Nefertiti, Native American sacred objects and Aboriginal human remains. In Keeping Their Marbles, Tiffany Jenkins tells the bloody story of how western museums came to acquire these objects. She investigates why repatriation claims have soared in recent decades and demonstrates how it is the guilt and insecurity of the museums themselves that have stoked the demands for return. Contrary to the arguments of campaigners, she shows that sending artefacts back will not achieve the desired social change nor repair the wounds of history. Instead, this ground-breaking book makes the case for museums as centres of knowledge, demonstrating that no object has a single home and no one culture owns culture.
A journey across four continents to the heart of the conflict over who should own the great works of ancient art Why are the Elgin Marbles in London and not on the Acropolis? Why do there seem to be as many mummies in France as there are in Egypt? Why are so many Etruscan masterworks in America? For the past two centuries, the West has been plundering the treasures of the ancient world to fill its great museums, but in recent years, the countries where ancient civilizations originated have begun to push back, taking museums to court, prosecuting curators, and threatening to force the return of these priceless objects. Where do these treasures rightly belong? Sharon Waxman, a former culture reporter for The New York Times and a longtime foreign correspondent, brings us inside this high-stakes conflict, examining the implications for the preservation of the objects themselves and for how we understand our shared cultural heritage. Her journey takes readers from the great cities of Europe and America to Egypt, Turkey, Greece, and Italy, as these countries face down the Louvre, the Metropolitan Museum, the British Museum, and the J. Paul Getty Museum. She also introduces a cast of determined and implacable characters whose battles may strip these museums of some of their most cherished treasures. For readers who are fascinated by antiquity, who love to frequent museums, and who believe in the value of cultural exchange, Loot opens a new window on an enduring conflict.
Author: John Henry Merryman
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Release Date: 2009
The new edition of this insightful work begins with a critical reexamination of the rival Greek and British claims to the Elgin Marbles. That case study identifies the questions that continue to dominate the growing international debate about cultural property policy and which are subsequently explored in a newly expanded array of essays. The work goes on to pay particular attention to the law and policy relating to cultural property export controls and the evolution and development of the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on the Return of Stolen and Illegally Exported Cultural Property. The second part of this highly regarded book addresses a number of contemporary art law issues in essays on counterfeit art, the moral rights of artists, the artist's resale right (droit de suite),the litigation over the Mark Rothko estate, and problems of museum trustee negligence, conflict of interests, and misuse of inside information.
Author: Paul Torremans
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Release Date: 2000-01-01
Genre: Political Science
Three years ago the Faculty of Law and Administration of the University of Silesia and the Faculty of Law of the University of Leicester embarked on a joint research and academic co-operation programme with the support of the British Council in Warsaw. The programme resulted in the organisation of two academic conferences, one in Leicester and one in Katowice. This book is the tangible result of these conferences. The content of the book reflects the wide-ranging nature of the collaboration between the two Faculties. Environmental law, public international law, intellectual and cultural property law are the main areas that are covered, but certain issues of constitutional law, European law, social law, company law and legal education are also addressed. The main strength of this book is found in its breadth of coverage and the detailed examination of key issues such as the rights of minorities; the transboundary movement of waste in Europe and the environmental problems which it creates; the theft and illegal exportation of cultural property; and the convergence of the droit d'auteur and copyright traditions.
Author: Brett Williams
Publisher: Smithsonian Inst Pr
Release Date: 1991
The Smithsonian Institution Press publishes a series of significant volumes in anthropology. Each volume collects papers by leading scholars on aspects of a central topic. Using U.S., African, and Nicaraguan examples, this provocative collection explores the ways that people invent and mystify culture to claim political power.