Author: Robert John Weston Evans
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 2002-01-01
These essays arose out of lectures given in Oxford to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the 1848 revolutions in Europe. Authoritative, yet readable and colourful, they comprise judicicious summaries of the existing stte of knowledge, as well as new insights and unfamiliar information. The book also seeks to place the revolutionary events in their wider context: apart from chapters covering the main centres of disturbance in France, Germany, Italy, and the Habsburg lands, there are discussions of the situation in Britain and Russia, which were affected but not convulsed by the disorders elsewhere; of reactions in the United States of America; of the symbolism of 1848 for the later democratic, radical, and socialist movements. 1848 marked the first breakdown of traditional authority across much of the continent, and as such is of profound significance in the development of modern European politics as a whole.
Author: Timothy Mason Roberts
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
Release Date: 2009-06-03
Distant Revolutions: 1848 and the Challenge to American Exceptionalism is a study of American politics, culture, and foreign relations in the mid-nineteenth century, illuminated through the reactions of Americans to the European revolutions of 1848. Flush from the recent American military victory over Mexico, many Americans celebrated news of democratic revolutions breaking out across Europe as a further sign of divine providence. Others thought that the 1848 revolutions served only to highlight how America’s own revolution had not done enough in the way of reform. Still other Americans renounced the 1848 revolutions and the thought of trans-atlantic unity because they interpreted European revolutionary radicalism and its portents of violence, socialism, and atheism as dangerous to the unique virtues of the United States. When the 1848 revolutions failed to create stable democratic governments in Europe, many Americans declared that their own revolutionary tradition was superior; American reform would be gradual and peaceful. Thus, when violence erupted over the question of territorial slavery in the 1850s, the effect was magnified among antislavery Americans, who reinterpreted the menace of slavery in light of the revolutions and counter-revolutions of Europe. For them a new revolution in America could indeed be necessary, to stop the onset of authoritarian conditions and to cure American exemplarism. The Civil War, then, when it came, was America’s answer to the 1848 revolutions, a testimony to America’s democratic shortcomings, and an American version of a violent, nation-building revolution.
Author: Michael Broers
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Release Date: 1996
This work tackles a complex but vital period of European history. The book seeks to unravel the different strands of modern European political culture at a crucial but neglected stage of their development. The study approaches the period not through a narrative history, but by analyzing and comparing the major political ideologies it produced including: conservatism; liberalism; reaction; radicalism; socialism; and nationalism, and sets them in their relationship to each other, and within the context of their times.
Author: Henry Kissinger
Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing
Release Date: 2017-04-07
Originally published in 1957—years before he was Secretary of State and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize—, Henry Kissinger wrote A World Restored, to understand and explain one of history’s most important and dramatic periods; a time when Europe went from political chaos to a balanced peace that lasted for almost a hundred years. After the fall of Napoleon, European diplomats gathered in a festive Vienna with the task of restoring stability following the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The central figures at the Congress of Vienna were the Foreign Secretary of the United Kingdom, Viscount Castlereagh and the Foreign Minister of Austria Klemens Wenzel von Mettern Metternich. Castlereagh was primarily concerned with maintaining balanced powers, while Metternich based his diplomacy on the idea of legitimacy—that is, establishing and working with governments that citizens accept without force. The peace they brokered lasted until the outbreak of World War I. Through trenchant analysis of the history and forces that create stability, A World Restored gives insight into how to create long-lasting geopolitical peace-lessons that Kissinger saw as applicable to the period immediately following World War II, when he was writing this book. But the lessons don’t stop there. Like all good insights, the book’s wisdom transcends any single political period. Kissinger’s understanding of coalitions and balance of power can be applied to personal and professional situations, such as dealing with a tyrannical boss or co-worker or formulating business or organizational tactics. Regardless of his ideology, Henry Kissinger has had an important impact on modern politics and few would dispute his brilliance as a strategist. For anyone interested in Western history, the tactics of diplomacy, or political strategy, this volume will provide deep understanding of a pivotal time.
Author: Adam Zamoyski
Publisher: Basic Books
Release Date: 2015-02-10
After the French Revolution, conservative governments from Britain to Russia created bulwarks to protect their power against the threat of further rebellions. They repressed and spied on their citizens, policing both speech and actions. In nations across Europe, politicians and cultural leaders from Edmund Burke to Mary Shelley chose sides, either propelling or resisting the counter-revolutionary spirit embodied in these omnipotent central states. These years of paranoia not only witnessed the first stirrings of modern totalitarian regimes, but gave birth to the political contest between the privileged and the underprivileged—a legacy that haunts us to this day. In Phantom Terror, award-winning historian Adam Zamoyski reveals that the years after the French Revolution were the crux upon which the rest of European history would turn—a moment when desperate monarchs took the world down the path of revolution, terror, and world war.
Author: Paul Dukes
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Release Date: 2004-05-05
The development of Europe accelerated from the middle of the seventeenth century with the formation of the nation states and the growth of empires. By the beginning of the twentieth century, European empires dominated most of the world's surface - however, the two world wars brought the continent down from its peak of power. From 1945 to 1989, Europe lost its empires and fell under the influence of the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR; but with the decline and fall of the latter, Europe has since moved towards a new unity. Paths to a New Europe considers the development of the continent from its origins through premodern to postmodern times, and provides a balanced treatment of Europe and of its wider global setting. Within the overall division of East and West Europe, each section is given due attention and Paul Dukes shows how cultural traditions, along with socio-economic differences and realignments of political power, have evolved over the centuries, still exerting influence as Europe moves towards unity after the collapse of the Eastern bloc and the end of the Cold War.
Author: Eric Hobsbawm
Publisher: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Release Date: 2010-12-16
The first in Eric Hobsbawm's dazzling trilogy on the history of the nineteenth century. Between 1789 and 1848 the world was transformed both by the French Revolution and also by the Industrial Revolution that originated in Britain. This 'Dual Revolution' created the modern world as we know it. Eric Hobsbawm traces with brilliant analytical clarity the transformation brought about in every sphere of European life by the Dual Revolution - in the conduct of war and diplomacy; in new industrial areas and on the land; among peasantry, bourgeoisie and aristocracy; in methods of government and of revolution; in science, philosophy and religion; in literature and the arts. But above all he sees this as the period when industrial capitalism established the domination over the rest of the world it was to hold for a century. Eric Hobsbawm's enthralling and original account is an impassioned but objective history of the most significant sixty years in the history of Europe.
Author: Ian D. Armour
Publisher: A&C Black
Release Date: 2012-11-22
A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation provides a comprehensive, authoritative account of the region during a troubled period that finished with the First World War. Ian Armour focuses on the three major themes that have defined Eastern Europe in the modern period - empire, nationhood and modernisation - whilst chronologically tracing the emergence of Eastern Europe as a distinct concept and place. Detailed coverage is given to the Habsburg, Ottoman, German and Russian Empires that struggled for dominance during this time. In this exciting new edition, Ian Armour incorporates findings from new research into the nature and origins of nationalism and the attempts of supranational states to generate dynastic loyalties as well as concepts of empire. Armour's insightful guide to early Eastern Europe considers the important figures and governments, analyses the significant events and discusses the socio-economic and cultural developments that are crucial to a rounded understanding of the region in that era. Features of this new edition include: * A fully updated and enlarged bibliography and notes * Eight useful maps * Updated content throughout the text A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918 is the ideal textbook for students studying Eastern European history.
Author: Giuseppe Motta
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release Date: 2014-03-25
Less than Nations: Central-Eastern European Minorities after WWI represents the result of research that the author has carried over recent years, and was facilitated by the 2008 PRIN project (Programmi di Ricerca di Rilevante Interesse Nazionale) and the 2010 Sapienza Research funds. The book analyses the conditions of national minorities after World War I, when the geo-political map of Central-Eastern Europe was redefined by international diplomacy. The new settlements were based on the principle of national self-determination and were conditioned by the geographic reality of Central-Eastern Europe, where states and nations rarely coincided. As a consequence, the minority question emerged as one of the most troublesome issues during the interwar period, and affected international relations and the internal conditions of many states. The minority question was discussed by historiography and by international observers, and became an integral part of the system which was centred around the League of Nations. This work begins with the study of the relationships between the states and their minorities, and of the international dimension of this question, which animated the fight between revisionist and anti-revisionist states. The documents of the Italian Army’s General Staff and of the League of Nations represent the main historical sources of this book, which carries out a complete study of the difficult situation of 1918–1920, when the new states annexed many “contested regions” within their frontiers, and of the numerous controversies concerning the application of international treaties and national regulations in relation to the protection of minorities. The second volume of the book analyses some special aspects of this question and focuses on the interpretation of some particular cases, which had an outstanding role in the definition of the international framework. The massacres of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire and of the Jews in Eastern Europe, for example, alarmed the international community and contributed to the 1919 “emergency” of minority rights. The role of Kin States such as Germany and Hungary, instead, characterized the entire interwar period and conditioned the stability of Europe and the League of Nations. Finally, special cases like those of Slovakia and Bosnia are also helpful in understanding the ideas of nation and minority, and how conceptualisations of the latter have changed throughout the last century.
Author: Priscilla Smith Robertson
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 1952
This social history of Europe during 1848 selects the most crucial centers of revolt and shows by a vivid reconstruction of events what revolution meant to the average citizen and how fateful a part he had in it. A wealth of material from contemporary sources, much of which is unavailable in English, is woven into a superb narrative which tells the story of how Frenchmen lived through the first real working-class revolt, how the students of Vienna took over the city government, how Croats and Slovenes were roused in their first nationalistic struggle, how Mazzini set up his ideal republic Rome.
Author: Jonathan Sperber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 1994-01-28
The European Revolutions, 1848-1851 is a student textbook, designed to introduce, in an accessible manner, all the principal themes and problems of this sometimes bewildering period in European history. Professor Sperber's account, which is supplemented by extensive notes for further reading and potted biographies of the principal individuals involved, incorporates the very latest scholarship on the revolution as a social and political mass movement. It describes the events of the various national revolutions (both in 1848, and the subsequent, often-neglected period 1849-51), analyses the contrasting social and political tensions underlying the outbreak of revolution, explores the different varieties of revolutionary experience, and compares the events of 1848-51 both with the previous wave of 1789-95 and the successor of 1917-23.
Author: Charles Breunig
Publisher: W. W. Norton
Release Date: 1977
The French Revolution of 1789 is a watershed in European history; no country escaped its impact, which shattered long-standing traditions and set forth new ideals that powerfully affected succeeding generations. In this edition, Charles Breunig incorporates the most recent scholarship in his account of the Revolution and the events it unleashed: the near-conquest of Europe by Napoleon, the "Concert of Europe" established at the Congress of Vienna, the era of Restoration during which efforts were made to preserve the status quo against sporadic outbursts that culminated in the revolutions of 1848. He expands significantly his treatment of the emergence of new classes and the profound economic and cultural changes that were set in motion by the Industrial Revolution.
Author: Theda Skocpol
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2015-09-29
Genre: Political Science
State structures, international forces, and class relations: Theda Skocpol shows how all three combine to explain the origins and accomplishments of social-revolutionary transformations. Social revolutions have been rare but undeniably of enormous importance in modern world history. States and Social Revolutions provides a new frame of reference for analyzing the causes, the conflicts, and the outcomes of such revolutions. It develops a rigorous, comparative historical analysis of three major cases: the French Revolution of 1787 through the early 1800s, the Russian Revolution of 1917 through the 1930s, and the Chinese Revolution of 1911 through the 1960s. Believing that existing theories of revolution, both Marxist and non-Marxist, are inadequate to explain the actual historical patterns of revolutions, Skocpol urges us to adopt fresh perspectives. Above all, she maintains that states conceived as administrative and coercive organizations potentially autonomous from class controls and interests must be made central to explanations of revolutions.
Author: William Simpson
Release Date: 2015-06-01
The third edition of Europe 1783-1914 provides a comprehensive overview of Europe from the outbreak of the French Revolution to the origins of the First World War. William Simpson and Martin Jones combine accounts of the most important countries, notably France, Germany and Russia, with the wider political, economic, social and cultural developments affecting Europe as a whole. These include: A survey of Europe c.1780: the social and economic background, forms of government, and the Enlightenment The impact of the French Revolution and Napoleon on Europe The spread of nationalism: the 1848 Revolutions and the unification of Italy and Germany Changes in the world of ideas: religious belief, romanticism, and cultural achievements in art, literature and music The age of imperialism: the expansion of Europe, Marxism and left-wing movements, international relations, 1870-1914 The reciprocal relationship between Europe and the United States Europe in 1914: shifts in the intellectual climate through the works of Darwin and Freud, scientific discoveries and the impact of new technologies, and changes in society and the position of women. Each chapter features a list of key dates, concise background information and suggestions for further reading, as well as a concluding ‘Topics for Debate’ section which contains relevant contemporary sources and outlines the contrasting views of recent historians on the key issues. The suggestions for further reading have been updated in every chapter by the addition of relevant and significant new books, published up to and including 2014. Extensively illustrated throughout with maps, contemporary cartoons and portraits, Europe 1783–1914 is a clear, detailed and highly accessible analysis of this turbulent and formative period of European history.
Author: John Merriman
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Release Date: 2009-09-29
Available in both one-volume and two-volume paperback editions, A History of Modern Europe presents a panoramic survey of modern Europe from the Renaissance to the present day. A single author lends a unified approach and consistent style throughout, with an emphasis on the connections of events and people over time. The Third Edition, like the two before it, is authoritative and up-to-date. New to the Third Edition is the theme of empire. From the imperial rivalries between France and Spain in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, through the rise and fall of the Ottoman Turkish empire, and on into the imperial history of the twentieth century—decolonization, the spread of the Soviet empire, and the imperial power of the United States—the theme of empire helps students find commonalities among the events of European history.