The Role of the Individual in History was first published in 1898, and occupies a very prominent place among those of Plekhanov's works in which he substantiates and defends Marxism and advocates the Marxian theory of social development. Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (1856-1918) was one of the leaders of Russian populism and after his emigration to Western Europe in 1880 became the foremost Russian Marxist abroad. He founded in 1883, together with Pavel Axelrod, the 'Group for the Liberation of Labor', the first Russian social democratic party, and in 1900 together with Lenin the 'Iskra', the first Russian Marxist newspaper, but a few years later broke with Lenin and sided with the Mensheviks.
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Release Date: 2013-09-02
Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Author: Nathan Rotenstreich
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
There are several characteristics of Nathan Rotenstreich's work which are striking: his thoughtful writings are both subtle and deep; they are steeped in his critical appreciation of other thinkers of this and preceding times, an appreciation which is formed by his learned understanding of the history of philosophy; and with all this, he has an original and independent intelligence. He has from time to time brought his skills to bear upon historical scholarship, most notably perhaps in his book Between Past and Present (1958, 2nd edition, 1973), his interpretive essays in the philosophy of history Philosophy, History and Politics (1976) and his scholarly work concerned with the influence of historical development upon modern Jewish thought, Tradition and Reality (1972). Related to these, and equally works of that philosophical humanity which Professor Rotenstreich embodies, are his Humanism in the Contemporary Era (1963), Spirit and Man: An Essay on Being and Value (1963) and Reflection and Action (1983). Rotenstreich combines both the naturalistic and the phenomenological attitudes in an interesting and illuminating way through the full spectrum of issues in the philosophy of history in this century. Surely he sets boundaries to any doubtful extrapolation. Not only would he bring the understanding of history back from those who claim it as only a positive science but equally would he prevent the transformation of that understanding into merely speculative inquiry.
Author: Spencer E. Roberts
Release Date: 2012-12-06
The taste for history is the most ariswcratic of all tastes. Ernest Rerum "Our century is pre-eminently an historical century . . . . Even art has now become pre-eminently historical. The historical novel and drama interest each and everyone more at present than do similar works belonging to the realm of pure fiction. "! Although Belinskii was writing in 1841, his statement could equally well apply to the Russia of a century later, when the interest in historical fiction had become, if anything, more intense. In fact, the abundance of Soviet historical novels and plays tempts one to believe Heine, when he said that the people want their history handed to them by the poet, not the historian. The infatuation with history to which Belinskii referred was not, however, indigenous to Russia; it was part of a rage, largely inspired by Waiter Scott, which had swept western Europe in the early nine teenth century, and which soon spread to Russia. Today, Scott's star has been eclipsed in the West, but it still burns brightly in the Soviet Union. Indeed, it can be said that the West has not only rejected Scott, but, to a considerable extent, the historical novel and playas well. As one writer recently put it: "The reading public, brought up on a strict diet of sex and science, prefers to take its history undiluted in the form of unexpurgated memoirs and frank biographies.
Author: Alisa Lebow
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2012-05-29
Genre: Performing Arts
When a filmmaker makes a film with herself as a subject, she is already divided as both the subject matter of the film and the subject making the film. The two senses of the word are immediately in play – the matter and the maker—thus the two ways of being subjectified as both subject and object. Subjectivity finds its filmic expression, not surprisingly, in very personal ways, yet it is nonetheless shaped by and in relation to collective expressions of identity that can transform the cinema of 'me' into the cinema of 'we'. Leading scholars and practitioners of first-person film are brought together in this groundbreaking collection to consider the theoretical, ideological, and aesthetic challenges wrought by this form of filmmaking in its diverse cultural, geographical, and political contexts.
Author: Matt Perry
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Release Date: 2002-03-11
Marxism and History examines Marxism's enormous impact on the way historians approach their subject. Tackling current historiographical questions in a lively, jargon-free way, Matt Perry offers a concise introduction to: Marxist views of history; key Marxist historians and thinkers; and the relevance of Marxist theory and history to students' own work.
In this definitive study of the intra-Asian trade in Japanese copper trade by the Dutch East India Company, the author argues that the trade in this commodity reaped high profits. Despite the huge imports of British copper by the English East India Company during the eighteenth century, the Dutch Company successfully continued to sell Japanese copper in South Asia at higher prices. Compared to the capital-intensive development of British mines in the age of the Industrial Revolution, the copper production in Tokugawa Japan was characterized by a labour-intensive 'revolution' which also made a big impact on the local economy.
Author: Richard J. Evans
Publisher: Granta Books
Release Date: 2012-11-01
The classic explanation of the craft of history and the vital worth of historians to civilization In this volume, English historian Richard Evans offers a defence of the importance of his craft. At a time when fact and historical truth are under unprecedented assault, Evans shows us why history is necessary. Taking us into the historians' workshop to show us just how good history gets written, he demolishes the wilder claims of postmodern historians, who deny the possibility of any realistic grasp of history, and explains the deadly political dangers of losing a historical perspective on the way we live our lives.
Author: S. A. Smith
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-01-09
The impact of Communism on the twentieth century was massive, equal to that of the two world wars. Until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, historians knew relatively little about the secretive world of communist states and parties. Since then, the opening of state, party, and diplomatic archives of the former Eastern Bloc has released a flood of new documentation. The thirty-five essays in this Handbook, written by an international team of scholars, draw on this new material to offer a global history of communism in the twentieth century. In contrast to many histories that concentrate on the Soviet Union, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism is genuinely global in its coverage, paying particular attention to the Chinese Revolution. It is 'global', too, in the sense that the essays seek to integrate history 'from above' and 'from below', to trace the complex mediations between state and society, and to explore the social and cultural as well as the political and economic realities that shaped the lives of citizens fated to live under communist rule. The essays reflect on the similarities and differences between communist states in order to situate them in their socio-political and cultural contexts and to capture their changing nature over time. Where appropriate, they also reflect on how the fortunes of international communism were shaped by the wider economic, political, and cultural forces of the capitalist world. The Handbook provides an informative introduction for those new to the field and a comprehensive overview of the current state of scholarship for those seeking to deepen their understanding.
Author: Jonathan Hughes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 1986-06-19
Genre: Business & Economics
The Vital Few, a study of the contribution of entrepreneurs to the American economy, provides portraits of the men and women whose individual enterprise has helped to establish the character of the American businessperson and to carry our economy forward from colonial times. Examining such legendary figures as William Penn, Eli Whitney, Henry Ford, and J. Pierpont Morgan in their social and economic environment, Jonathan Hughes illuminates each period of American economic history and provides insights into the workings of American business and the special qualities required of its super-achievers. Taking into account such dramatic changes in the economy as the explosive growth of government and the puzzling effects of "stagflation," Hughes has now expanded his original volume. The new edition includes two additional biographies and a short essay on the nature of bureaucracy in both the government and the private sector. Both biographies are of "bureaucratic entrepreneurs", whose work in the federal government represents the two most prominent trends in government economics. Mary Switzer's 48-year career demonstrates the ways in which the modern welfare state has developed. First a catalyst then a major force in establishing social programs and institutions, she is in large part responsible for the existence of the American welfare state. Marriner Eccles's career, on the other hand, shows the evolution of "compensatory" fiscal and monetary policies from the New Deal to the Korean War. A self-made millionaire who was appointed to a high-level job in the federal government, Eccles quit his post after 1950, convinced that American economic policy was hopelessly inflationary and economically destructive. With these new additions, The Vital Few, long a source of inspiration and economic interest, is more accessible and useful than ever.
Author: Tibor R. Machan
Release Date: 2003-07-13
In Classical Individualism, Tibor R. Machan argues that individualism is far from being dead. Machan identifies, develops and defends what he calls classical individualism - an individualism humanised by classical philosophy, rooted in Aristotle rather than Hobbes. This book does not reject the social nature of human beings, but finds that every one has a self-directed agent who is responsible for what he or she does. Machan rejects all types of collectivism, including communitarianism, ethnic solidarity, racial unity, and gender identity. The ideas expressed here have important social and political implications, and will be of interest to anyone concerned with the notion of individuality and individual responsibility.