Author: Michael John-Hopkins
Release Date: 2016-12-01
This book responds to ongoing calls for clarification and consensus regarding the meaning, scope and interplay of humanitarian law and human rights law in the ‘grey zones’ of unconventional operational environments such as counterterrorism and counterinsurgency operations. It contributes to the debate in this area by developing objective criteria for determining where the shift from the legal framework of law enforcement to that of non-international armed conflict occurs in relation to targeting law and weaponry law; by developing improved objective criteria for determining what constitutes direct participation in hostilities and de facto membership in an organised armed group; by taking stock of how existing targeting and weaponry rules are being applied to unconventional conflicts within civilian populated areas by key state players as well as by international and regional human rights mechanisms; by arguing for the progressive realisation of targeting and weaponry law so that they are more fitting for operational environments that are increasingly urbanised and civilianised; by seeking to understand how global networked connectivity may affect our understanding of the operational theatre of war and the geographical reach of the legal framework of non-international armed conflict.
This book explores the whole of the large and controversial subject of the use of force in international law; it examines not only the use of force by states but also the role of the UN in peacekeeping and enforcement action, and the growing importance of regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security. Since the publication of the second edition of International Law and the Use of Force the law in this area has continued to undergo a fundamental reappraisal. Operation Enduring Freedom carries on against Al Qaida and the Taliban in Afghanistan six years after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001. Can this still be justified as self-defence in the 'war on terror'? Is there now a wide right of pre-emptive self-defence against armed attacks by non-state actors? The 2006 Israel/Lebanon conflict and the recent intervention of Ethiopia in Somalia raise questions about whether the 'war on terror' has brought major changes in the law on self-defence and on regime change. The 2003 invasion of Iraq gave rise to serious divisions between states as to the legality of this use of force and to talk of a crisis of collective security for the UN. In response the UN initiated major reports on the future of the Charter system; these rejected amendment of the Charter provisions on the use of force. They also rejected any right of pre-emptive self-defence. They advocated a 'responsibility to protect' in cases of genocide or massive violations of human rights; the events in Darfur show the practical difficulties with the implementation of such a duty.
The premise of this report is based on Kenya's policy blueprint, Vision 2030, which places rule of law at the center of its goals. It was commenced at the same time as the nation was recuperating from the post-election poll, which resulted in many Kenyans expressing disappointment at the nation's democratic institutions. The study, produced by AfriMAP and the Open Society Initiative for Eastern Africa, examines and makes recommendations for the following topics: justice sector and rule of law; legal and institutional framework; government track record in respect to rule of law; management of the justice system; independence of the bench and bar; criminal justice; access to justice; and the role of donor agencies.
Author: M. J. C. Vile
Release Date: 1998-01-01
Vile traces the history of the doctrine from its rise during the English Civil War, through its development in the eighteenth century -- through subsequent political thought and constitution-making in Britain, France, and the United States.
Author: John Gray
Publisher: Granta Books (UK)
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Capital market
In the midst of the current financial crisis, John Gray revisits his polemic against the forces of global capitalism and deregulation. In a substantial new chapter he considers how the economic landscape has shifted in the last decade and asks the question: where do we go from here?
Inhabitants of poor, rural areas in the Global South heavily depend on natural resources in their immediate vicinity. Conflicts over and exploitation of these resources – whether it is water, fish, wood fuel, minerals, or land – severely affect their livelihoods. The contributors to this volume leave behind the polarised debate, previously surrounding the relationship between natural resources and conflict, preferring a more nuanced approach that allows for multiple causes at various levels. The contributions cover a wide array of resources, geographical contexts (Africa, Asia and Latin America), and conflict dynamics. Most are of a comparative nature, exploring experiences of conflict as well as cooperation in multiple regions. This volume finds its origin in an innovative research programme with the acronym CoCooN, steered by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/WOTRO) and involving universities and civil society partners in many countries. It presents the conceptual approaches adhered to by each of seven interdisciplinary projects, ranging from green criminology and political ecology to institutional analysis, legal pluralism and identity politics. The volume will be of interest to academics and practitioners concerned with an understanding of conflict as well as cooperation over natural resources.
Author: Bart Van Vooren
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2013-01-17
For years the European Union has been looked on as a potential model for cosmopolitan governance, and enjoyed considerable influence on the global stage. The EU has a uniquely strong and legally binding mission statement to pursue international relations on a multilateral basis, founded on the progressive development of international law. The political vision was for the EU to export its values of the rule of law and sophisticated governance mechanisms to the international sphere. Globalization and the financial crisis have starkly illustrated the limits of this vision, and the EU's dependence on global forces partially beyond the control of traditional provinces of law. This book takes stock of the EU's role in global governance. It asks: to what extent can and does the EU shape and influence the on-going re-ordering of legal processes, principles, and institutions of global governance, in line with its optimistic mission statement? With this ambitious remit it covers the legal-institutional and substantive aspects of global security, trade, environmental, financial, and social governance. Across these topics 23 contributors have taken the central question of the extent of the EU's influence on global governance, providing a broad view across the key areas as well as a detailed analysis of each. Through comparison and direct engagement with each other, the different chapters provide a distinctive contribution to legal scholarship on global governance, from a European perspective.
Surveys the online social habits of American teens and analyzes the role technology and social media plays in their lives, examining common misconceptions about such topics as identity, privacy, danger, and bullying.
Author: Rudiger Wolfrum
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2013-03-28
This index to the definitive reference work on international law contains detailed references to over 1,600 articles covering the full history and breadth of public international law, as well as other information to facilitate its use, such as tables and citation lists.
Provides a pan-African synthesis of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM), drawing on multiple authors and a wide range of documented experiences from Southern, Eastern, Western and Central Africa. This title discusses the degree to which CBNRM has met poverty alleviation, economic development and nature conservation objectives.
Author: World Health Organization
Release Date: 2011
The World Report on Disability suggests more than a billion people totally experience disability. They generally have poorer health, lower education and fewer economic opportunities and higher rates of poverty than people without disabilities. This report provides the best available evidence about what works to overcome barriers to better care and services.
Publisher: United Nations Developement library
Release Date: 2008
Genre: Business & Economics
Post-conflict economic recovery aims to establish sustainable economic growth and human development while addressing the factors that could lead to a recurrence of conflict. Post-conflict recovery is not about restoring pre-war economic or institutional arrangements. It is about transformation, requiring a mix of far-reaching economic, institutional, legal, and policy reforms that allow war-torn countries to re-establish the foundations for self-sustaining development.