The Scientific Basis of Flocculation

Author: K.J. Ives
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400999381
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

K.J. Ives Professor of Public Health Engineering University College London The aggregation of small particles in liquids, to form flocs which are large enough to settle, or to be filtered, is a common operation in industrial processes, and water and wastewater treatment. This aggregation, given the general title flliocculation in this book, may be brought about by the addition of chemicals to reduce the stability of the original suspension, by neutralising electrical forces of repulsion, by the addition of chemicals (polymers) to link particles by bridging action, by the addition of chemicals which form particles to increase collision proba bilities, and by the input of energy leading to hydrodynamically induced collisions. The particles undergoing flocculation may range from colloidal in the nanometer size range, through micro scopic (micron) size, up to visible particles in the millimeter size range; that is a total size range of six orders of magnitude. Consequently the colloid chemist and the hydrodynamicist are both concerned with the interactions that take place, and to them the engineer must turn, to obtain the fundamental information ne cessary for the process design and its associated hardware.

Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design

Author: John J. McKetta Jr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824724917
Release Date: 1992-08-20
Genre: Science

"Written by engineers for engineers (with over 150 International Editorial Advisory Board members),this highly lauded resource provides up-to-the-minute information on the chemical processes, methods, practices, products, and standards in the chemical, and related, industries. "

Unit Operations Handbook

Author: John J. McKetta Jr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 082478670X
Release Date: 1992-09-24
Genre: Science

Emphasizes the design, control, and functioning of various unit operations - offering shortcut methods of calculation along with computer and nomographic solution techniques. Provides practical sections on conversion to and from SI units and cost indexes for quick updating of all cost information.;This book should be of interest to mechanical, chemical, process design, project, and materials engineers and continuing-education courses in these disciplines.

Mathematical Models and Design Methods in Solid Liquid Separation

Author: A. Rushton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400950917
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

The separation of finely-divided solids from liquids constitutes an important stage in many industrial processes. Separation of mixtures ranging from highly concentrated slurries to slightly turbid liquids must be effected in circumstances where the solids, liquid or both phases may have value. Separations may be achieved by use of a membrane or filter medium which, positioned in the path of a flowing suspension, will allow passage of the fluid whilst retaining solids on the surface or within the medium. Alternatively the two phases may be separated by sedimentation processes involving gravitational or centrifugal force. In either mode, separation difficulties are sometimes experienced with the result that solid-liquid separation is often a bottleneck in commercial plants. Operational difficulties and plant failures are associated with the random nature of the particles being separated; variations in size, shape, states of aggregation, compressibility, etc. , produce a wide range of problems. Plugging of the filter medium or the collapse of the solids under applied stress lead to slow flowrates of liquid. The colloidal nature of some precipitates makes separation by settling virtually impossible without the use of chemical agents to enhance the size of basic units and to reduce repulsive surface forces. Unit operations such as filtration, comminution, etc. , involve a seemingly bewildering array of machines which makes plant selection a difficult step and reflects the uncer tainties attaching to operations involving the solid )hase. Many types of pressure, vacuum and centrifugal filter are available.

Physical Processes in Estuaries

Author: Job Dronkers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642736919
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

In Physical Processes in Estuaries the present day knowledge of the physics of transport phenomena in estuaries and their mathematical treatment is summarized: It is divided into following parts: - Water movements in estuaries - Estuarine fronts and river plumes - Internal waves and interface stability - Fine sediment transport, aggregation of particles, settling velocity of mud flocs - Sedimentation and erosion of fine sediments. For each topic an up-to-date review and recommendations for future research are given, followed by results of original studies. Since estuarine environments are the first to be threatened by urbanization and industrial exploitation this book is an important tool for students and researchers of environmental problems as well as for consultants and water authorities.

Paper Chemistry

Author: J.C. Roberts
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401106054
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Although the title of this book is Paper Chemistry, it should be considered as a text about the chemistry of the formation of paper from aqueous suspensions of fibre and other additives, rather than as a book about the chemistry of the raw material itself. It is the subject of what papermakers call wet-end chemistry. There are many other excellent texts on the chemistry of cellulose and apart from one chapter on the accessibility of cellulose, the subject is not addressed here. Neither does the book deal with the chemistry of pulp preparation (from wood, from other plant sources or from recycled fibres), for there are also many excellent texts on this subject. The first edition of this book was a great success and soon became established as one of the Bibles of the industry. Its achievement then was to collect the considerable advances in understanding which had been made in the chemistry of papermaking in previous years, and provide, for the first time, a sound physico chemical basis of the subject. This new edition has been thoroughly updated with much new material added. The formation of paper is a continuous filtration process in which cellulosic fibres are formed into a network which is then pressed and dried. The important chemistry involved in this process is firstly the retention of col loidal material during filtration and secondly the modification of fibre and sheet properties so as to widen the scope for the use of paper and board products.

Surface and Colloid Science

Author: Egon Matijevic
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461332046
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Ever since the first volume appeared in 1969, this series has received good reviews in a variety of periodicals published in different corners of the world. It would seem that the work has fulfilled its purpose as outlined in the Preface to Volume 1. The rapidly increasing interest in surface and colloid science by people engaged in industrial research and development, and in environmental, ecological, medical, pharmaceutical, and other areas, justifies the continuation of such an effort. The Surface and Colloid Science series originated with John Wiley and Sons and has been continued with Plenum Press. This volume is the third with the present publisher, and is the best assurance of our mutual interest to proceed with this work. Some books in the series, as was the case with Volume 11, may appear under the editorship of other workers in the field. For reasons of continuity, a sequential numbering system will be maintained. This editor hopes to provide the scientific and technical community with high-quality contributions in surface and colloid science in the future. He invites specialists to submit definitive chapters on any topic within the broad area of our discipline for inclusion in this series.

Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science

Author: Arthur T. Hubbard
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824707575
Release Date: 2002-07-18
Genre: Science

This comprehensive reference collects fundamental theories and recent research from a wide range of fields including biology, biochemistry, physics, applied mathematics, and computer, materials, surface, and colloid science-providing key references, tools, and analytical techniques for practical applications in industrial, agricultural, and forensic processes, as well as in the production of natural and synthetic compounds such as foods, minerals, paints, proteins, pharmaceuticals, polymers, and soaps.

Flotation Science and Engineering

Author: K.A. Matis
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824792645
Release Date: 1994-09-29
Genre: Science

"Discusses the origin of flotation in mineral processing, describes the application of new flotation theories, and considers various alternative techniques, including flocculation and solvent sublation. Contains authoritative contributions from more than 45 international experts."

Water Treatment Unit Processes

Author: David W. Hendricks
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824706951
Release Date: 2006-01-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The unit process approach, common in the field of chemical engineering, was introduced about 1962 to the field of environmental engineering. An understanding of unit processes is the foundation for continued learning and for designing treatment systems. The time is ripe for a new textbook that delineates the role of unit process principles in environmental engineering. Suitable for a two-semester course, Water Treatment Unit Processes: Physical and Chemical provides the grounding in the underlying principles of each unit process that students need in order to link theory to practice. Bridging the gap between scientific principles and engineering practice, the book covers approaches that are common to all unit processes as well as principles that characterize each unit process. Integrating theory into algorithms for practice, Professor Hendricks emphasizes the fundamentals, using simple explanations and avoiding models that are too complex mathematically, allowing students to assimilate principles without getting sidelined by excess calculations. Applications of unit processes principles are illustrated by example problems in each chapter. Student problems are provided at the end of each chapter; the solutions manual can be downloaded from the CRC Press Web site. Excel spreadsheets are integrated into the text as tables designated by a "CD" prefix. Certain spreadsheets illustrate the idea of "scenarios" that emphasize the idea that design solutions depend upon assumptions and the interactions between design variables. The spreadsheets can be downloaded from the CRC web site. The book has been designed so that each unit process topic is self-contained, with sidebars and examples throughout the text. Each chapter has subheadings, so that students can scan the pages and identify important topics with little effort. Problems, references, and a glossary are found at the end of each chapter. Most chapters contain downloadable Excel spreadsheets integrated into the text and appendices with additional information. Appendices at the end of the book provide useful reference material on various topics that support the text. This design allows students at different levels to easily navigate through the book and professors to assign pertinent sections in the order they prefer. The book gives your students an understanding of the broader aspects of one of the core areas of the environmental engineering curriculum and knowledge important for the design of treatment systems.