The Skeptic Way

Author: Sextus (Empiricus.)
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195092139
Release Date: 1996
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Outlines of Pyrrhonism by the 2nd century A.D. Greek physician Sextus Empiricus was immensely influential in the history of Western philosophy. The rediscovery and publication of this work in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries led directly to the skepticism of Montaigne, Gassendi, Bayle, Descartes, Berkeley, Hume, and others, and eventually to the preoccupation of modern philosophy with attempts to refute or otherwise combat philosophical skepticism. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that Pyrrhonism--the form of skepticism professed by Sextus--is in several important respects quite different from the modern forms of skepticism to which the writings of Sextus have given rise. Some of these differences are of particular philosophic interest because they seem to render the ancient form immune to many of the standard responses to skepticism that are made today. In this book, which incorporates a new translation of the Outlines in their entirety, Benson Mates presents Pyrrhonism not as a mere historical curiosity, as has often been done, but as a philosophical position eminently worthy of serious philosophical consideration here and now. His thorough introduction sets the stage by explaining what Pyrrhonism is and what it is not, and by contrasting it in the relevant respects with modern skepticism. He gives particular attention to explicating a number of quasi-technical terms that occur frequently in the Outlines and have decisive bearing on the philosophical content. By rendering these terms more accurately and uniformly in his translation, he seeks to make the essential feautres of Sextus's Pyrrhonism more evident to the reader. The latter part of the book consists of a detailed Commentary, which endeavors to discuss and explain the work, section by section, from a philosophical (as contrasted with a philological) point of view.

Sextus Empiricus Outlines of Scepticism

Author: Sextus Empiricus
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521778093
Release Date: 2000-07-20
Genre: Philosophy

Outlines of Scepticism, by the Greek philosopher Sextus Empiricus, is a work of major importance for the history of Greek philosophy. It is the fullest extant account of ancient scepticism, and it is also one of our most copious sources of information about the other Hellenistic philosophies. Its first part contains an elaborate exposition of the Pyrrhonian variety of scepticism; its second and third parts are critical and destructive, arguing against 'dogmatism' in logic, epistemology, science and ethics - an approach that revolutionized the study of philosophy when Sextus' works were rediscovered and published in the sixteenth century. This volume presents the accurate and readable translation which was first published in 1994, together with a substantial new historical and philosophical introduction by Jonathan Barnes.

Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie Begr ndet von Friedrich Die Philosophie der Antike

Author: Christoph Riedweg
Publisher: Schwabe AG
ISBN: 9783796537189
Release Date: 2018-11-13
Genre: History

Mehr als fünfzig weltweit auf ihrem Gebiet führende Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler präsentieren in diesem Band, der die Reihe "Die Philosophie der Antike" abschliesst, das überaus facettenreiche pagane, jüdische und frühchristliche philosophische Erbe der ersten Jahrhunderte nach Christus, in denen die Grundlagen nicht nur der abendländischen und byzantinischen, sondern auch der islamischen Denktradition gelegt worden sind. Mit den detaillierten und umfassenden Darstellungen, die den neuesten Stand der philosophiegeschichtlichen Forschung reflektieren, erhebt das Werk den Anspruch, für die Philosophie der Kaiserzeit und der Spätantike auf lange Sicht die erste Anlaufstelle für Forschende nicht allein der Altertumswissenschaften, sondern auch der Theologie, der Philosophie, der Judaistik und der Islamwissenschaft sowie allgemein der Geisteswissenschaften zu bilden. Der Anlage des Bandes liegt die Überzeugung zugrunde, dass mit der paganen und der jüdisch-christlichen Philosophie nicht etwa zwei grosse weltanschauliche Blöcke gegeneinander abzugrenzen und somit isoliert zu betrachten sind, sondern dass es angemessener ist, diese in ihrem lebendigen Austausch miteinander darzustellen. Entsprechend wurde für den Bandaufbau ein Mischprinzip gewählt, bei dem die chronologische Folge die zentrale Rolle spielt, zu zudem aber auch das Lehrer-Schüler-Verhältnis, die Schulzugehörigkeit eines Autors und - in sekundärer Weise - auch seine Religionszugehörigkeit und seine geographische Situierung berücksichtigt werden. So gelingt es, die zum Teil überraschenden Interdependenzen zwischen Autoren und Schulen, die durchaus religionsübergreifend festzustellen sind, deutlich herausarbeiten. Die faszinierende, bis heute in unserer Kultur stark nachwirkende Epoche wird auf diese Art äusserst plastisch beschrieben und dadurch verständlich gemacht.

Argument und literarische Form in antiker Philosophie

Author: Michael Erler
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 9783110338942
Release Date: 2013-10-14
Genre: Philosophy

In der modernen Universität werden Literatur, Philologie und Philosophie als unterschiedliche Bereiche betrachtet. Damit wird eine im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert zunehmende Entfremdung zwischen der Erforschung antiker Philosophie und Philologie manifest, die den ursprünglichen Gegebenheiten in der Antike keineswegs gerecht wird. Denn die Philosophie entwickelt sich in Griechenland und Rom in enger Verbindung mit und oft in einem Spannungsverhältnis zu unterschiedlichen literarischen Genres. Dies hat zur Folge, dass die Autoren und Interpreten infolge der Wahl bestimmter Gattungen als Medium philosophischer Botschaften neben der eigentlichen Argumentation auch Darstellungsformen der jeweiligen Gattungen zu würdigen haben. Dieses oft spannungsvolle Verhältnis von philosophischem Argument und literarischer Form auszuleuchten hatte sich der 3. Kongress der Gesellschaft für antike Philosophie vorgenommen. In Vorträgen und Diskussionsrunden von Philosophen und Philologen wurde diese Frage unter verschiedenen Aspekten mit Blick auf antike Philosophen verschiedener Epochen lebendig diskutiert. Dieser Band, der den Großteil dieser Beiträge versammelt, mag einen Eindruck von der Diskussion vermitteln und Philologen, Philosophen und an der Antike Interessierte zu weiteren Überlegungen anregen.

Backgrounds of Early Christianity

Author: Everett Ferguson
Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing
ISBN: 0802822215
Release Date: 2003
Genre: History

New to this expanded & updated edition are revisions of Ferguson's original material, updated bibliographies, & a fresh dicussion of first century social life, the Dead Sea Scrolls & much else.

Skeptizismus und Protestantismus

Author: Rochus Leonhardt
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 3161478649
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Philosophy

English summary: Rochus Leonhardt discusses the relationship between Protestantism and scepticism in a critical analysis of the philosophical approach used by Odo Marquard. He shows that the most important goal of Marquard's philosophy was to establish a pluralism in hermeneutics. In view of this fact, the author questions the extent to which such a pluralism is related to the Protestant emphasis on the Scriptures. German description: Rochus Leonhardt diskutiert das Verhaltnis von Protestantismus und Skeptizismus anhand einer kritischen Analyse des philosophischen Ansatzes von Odo Marquard. Als Pointe des Marquardschen Skeptizismus stellt er die Forderung nach einer pluralisierenden Hermeneutik heraus und konfrontiert diese Forderung mit dem protestantischen Schriftprinzip. Dessen originare Gestalt, Luthers Betonung der uneingeschrankten Schriftautoritat ( sola scriptura ), schliesst zwar einen hermeneutischen Pluralismus kategorisch aus, aber die immer drangendere eKrise des Schriftprinzips' macht die Problematik dieser esingularisierenden Hermeneutik' deutlich. Im Gesprach mit wichtigen Vertretern der zeitgenossischen evangelischen Theologie pladiert der Autor daher fur eine Integration der in der Literaturwissenschaft langst etablierten pluralisierenden Hermeneutik in die Bibelauslegung - und damit fur eine Ubernahme des hermeneutischen Skeptizismus in die Theologie.

Animals and the Moral Community

Author: Gary Steiner
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231512602
Release Date: 2008-09-15
Genre: Nature

Gary Steiner argues that ethologists and philosophers in the analytic and continental traditions have largely failed to advance an adequate explanation of animal behavior. Critically engaging the positions of Marc Hauser, Daniel Dennett, Donald Davidson, John Searle, Martin Heidegger, and Hans-Georg Gadamer, among others, Steiner shows how the Western philosophical tradition has forced animals into human experiential categories in order to make sense of their cognitive abilities and moral status and how desperately we need a new approach to animal rights. Steiner rejects the traditional assumption that a lack of formal rationality confers an inferior moral status on animals vis-à-vis human beings. Instead, he offers an associationist view of animal cognition in which animals grasp and adapt to their environments without employing concepts or intentionality. Steiner challenges the standard assumption of liberal individualism according to which humans have no obligations of justice toward animals. Instead, he advocates a "cosmic holism" that attributes a moral status to animals equivalent to that of people. Arguing for a relationship of justice between humans and nature, Steiner emphasizes our kinship with animals and the fundamental moral obligations entailed by this kinship.

New Essays on Ancient Pyrrhonism

Author: Diego E. Machuca
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9789004207769
Release Date: 2011-07-12
Genre: Philosophy

Scholarship on ancient Pyrrhonism has made tremendous advances over the past three decades, thanks especially to the careful reexamination of Sextus Empiricus’ extant corpus. Building on this momentum, the authors of the eight essays collected here examine some of the most vexed and intriguing exegetical and philosophical questions posed by Sextus’ presentation of this form of skepticism. The essays explore in a new light the skeptical interpretation of Plato, the differences between Pyrrhonism and Cyrenaicism, the Pyrrhonist’s stance on ordinary life, religion, language, and ethics, Sextus’ discussion of our access to our own mental states, and the relationship between Pyrrhonism and epistemic internalism and externalism. These new essays represent a substantial contribution to the advancement of scholarship on Pyrrhonian skepticism.

Between Logic and Reality

Author: Majda Trobok
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400723903
Release Date: 2011-11-23
Genre: Philosophy

Is reality logical and is logic real? What is the origin of logical intuitions? What is the role of logical structures in the operations of an intelligent mind and in communication? Is the function of logical structure regulative or constitutive or both in concept formation? This volume provides analyses of the logic-reality relationship from different approaches and perspectives. The point of convergence lies in the exploration of the connections between reality – social, natural or ideal – and logical structures employed in describing or discovering it. Moreover, the book connects logical theory with more concrete issues of rationality, normativity and understanding, thus pointing to a wide range of potential applications. The papers collected in this volume address cutting-edge topics in contemporary discussions amongst specialists. Some essays focus on the role of indispensability considerations in the justification of logical competence, and the wide range of challenges within the philosophy of mathematics. Others present advances in dynamic logical analysis such as extension of game semantics to non-logical part of vocabulary and development of models of contractive speech act.

Skepsis und Lebenspraxis

Author: Katja M. Vogt
Publisher: Verlag Herder GmbH
ISBN: 9783495807958
Release Date: 2016-07-12
Genre: Philosophy

Der pyrrhonische Skeptiker nach Sextus Empiricus verzichtet auf Meinungen, er enthält sich jeglichen Urteils. Es stellen sich Fragen der Konsistenz: Wie kann der Skeptiker sprechen? Wie kann er sich verhalten, wie ein normales Leben führen? In der Darstellung seiner Philosophie muss der Pyrrhoneer sich mit der scharfsinnigen Kritik seiner stoischen Gegner auseinandersetzen. Die Untersuchung analysiert Sextus' Entwurf einer Sprache ohne Behauptungscharakter sowie eines Lebens, in dem der Skeptiker sich von "Erscheinungen" leiten lässt. Vogt fragt, wer in der Diskussion zwischen Stoikern und Skeptikern "gewinnt" – in vielen Hinsichten, so ihr Vorschlag, die Skeptiker.

Philosophic Classics Ancient philosophy

Author: Forrest E. Baird
Publisher:
ISBN: 0130213144
Release Date: 2000
Genre: Philosophy

An anthology of writings of the most important Greek philosophers, along with selections from some of their Roman followers, covering the period before Socrates through Socrates, Plato, and Hellenistic and Roman philosophy. Wherever possible, selections are complete works or complete sections of wor

Moral Skepticisms

Author: Walter Sinnott-Armstrong
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199884889
Release Date: 2006-01-26
Genre: Philosophy

All contentious moral issues--from gay marriage to abortion and affirmative action--raise difficult questions about the justification of moral beliefs. How can we be justified in holding on to our own moral beliefs while recognizing that other intelligent people feel quite differently and that many moral beliefs are distorted by self-interest and by corrupt cultures? Even when almost everyone agrees--e.g. that experimental surgery without consent is immoral--can we know that such beliefs are true? If so, how? These profound questions lead to fundamental issues about the nature of morality, language, metaphysics, justification, and knowledge. They also have tremendous practical importance in handling controversial moral questions in health care ethics, politics, law, and education. Sinnott-Armstrong here provides an extensive overview of these difficult subjects, looking at a wide variety of questions, including: Are any moral beliefs true? Are any justified? What is justified belief? The second half of the book explores various moral theories that have grappled with these issues, such as naturalism, normativism, intuitionism, and coherentism, all of which are attempts to answer moral skepticism. Sinnott-Armstrong argues that all these approaches fail to rule out moral nihilism--the view that nothing is really morally wrong or right, bad or good. Then he develops his own novel theory,--"moderate Pyrrhonian moral skepticism"--which concludes that some moral beliefs can be justified out of a modest contrast class but no moral beliefs can be justified out of an extreme contrast class. While explaining this original position and criticizing alternatives, Sinnott-Armstrong provides a wide-ranging survey of the epistemology of moral beliefs.