Structure and Function of Oxidation–Reduction Enzymes is a collection of papers presented at the Wenner-Gren Symposium held at the Wenner-Gren Center, Stockholm on August 23-27, 1970. It provides important understanding of the structure and function of oxidation-reduction enzymes: iron, flavin, and nicotinamide enzymes. This book discusses the functional differences among varying structures such cytochrome c, haemoglobins, dehydrogenases, flavins, oestrogens, and peroxidases. It concludes by presenting future expectations, including some questions that need to be addressed. This volume will be of great value to those interested in the present-day research on oxidation-reduction enzymes.
Author: Bruce Alberts
Publisher: Garland Science
Release Date: 2017-08-07
As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.
For a long time, enzymes have been studied by measuring their activity, which has led to the advancement of "enzyme kinetics." In recent years, the mechanism of enzyme reaction has been explained in detail on the basis of the 3D structure. Genetic engineering and the 3D structural analysis of enzymes contribute to these advancements in enzymology. This book starts with an introduction to various enzymes to show how interesting enzymes are, which is followed by historical kinetic studies on enzymes and the overall and rapid-reaction kinetics. The subsequent topics describe the basics of protein structure, the control of enzyme activity, and the purification of enzymes. A case on the kinetic and structural studies of l-phenylalanine oxidase is also presented. There are many good books on enzyme kinetics, but few describe their kinetic and structural aspects. This book deals with both and contains many references that can be good sources for further reading. It is handy and is especially helpful for beginners. A number of figures, including some with stereo expression, facilitate observing the 3D structure of enzymes.
Structure–Function Relationships of Proteolytic Enzymes provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of proteolytic enzymes. This book presents the historical role of proteolytic enzyme as a group in protein and enzyme chemistry. Organized into 23 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the results obtained from investigation on the chymotrypsinogens of porcine origin. This text then examines the differences of amino acid sequence between chymotrypsin, trypsin, and elastase that affect the substrate binding site, which reflect the specificity differences between these enzymes. Other chapters consider the kinetic parameters related to the trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of several model peptides. This book discusses as well the acetylation of trypsin, which result in functional consequences varying from complete inactivation to promotion of activity. The final chapter deals with the physical properties of stem bromelain in comparison with the data for three other sulfhydryl proteases of plant origin. This book is a valuable resource for enzymologists, microbiologists, and biochemists.
Author: Thomas E. Crowley
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2014-01-11
Experiments in the Purification and Characterization of Enzymes: A Laboratory Manual provides students with a working knowledge of the fundamental and advanced techniques of experimental biochemistry. Included are instructions and experiments that involve purification and characterization of enzymes from various source materials, giving students excellent experience in kinetics analysis and data analysis. Additionally, this lab manual covers how to evaluate and effectively use scientific data. By focusing on the relationship between structure and function in enzymes, Experiments in the Purification and Characterization of Enzymes: A Laboratory Manual provides a strong research foundation for students enrolled in a biochemistry lab course by outlining how to evaluate and effectively use scientific data in addition to offering students a more hands-on approach with exercises that encourage them to think deeply about the content and to design their own experiments. Instructors will find this book useful because the modular nature of the lab exercises allows them to apply the exercises to any set of proteins and incorporate the exercises into their courses as they see fit, allowing for greater flexibility in the use of the material. Written in a logical, easy-to-understand manner, Experiments in the Purification and Characterization of Enzymes: A Laboratory Manual is an indispensable resource for both students and instructors in the fields of biochemistry, molecular biology, chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and related molecular life sciences such as cell biology, neurosciences, and genetics. Offers project lab formats for students that closely simulate original research projects Provides instructional guidance for students to design their own experiments Includes advanced analytical techniques Contains adaptable modular exercises that allow for the study proteins other than FNR, LuxG and LDH Includes access to a website with additional resources for instructors
Author: Robert A. Copeland
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2004-04-07
Fully updated and expanded-a solid foundation for understanding experimental enzymology. This practical, up-to-date survey is designed for a broad spectrum of biological and chemical scientists who are beginning to delve into modern enzymology. Enzymes, Second Edition explains the structural complexities of proteins and enzymes and the mechanisms by which enzymes perform their catalytic functions. The book provides illustrative examples from the contemporary literature to guide the reader through concepts and data analysis procedures. Clear, well-written descriptions simplify the complex mathematical treatment of enzyme kinetic data, and numerous citations at the end of each chapter enable the reader to access the primary literature and more in-depth treatments of specific topics. This Second Edition of Enzymes: A Practical Introduction to Structure, Mechanism, and Data Analysis features refined and expanded coverage of many concepts, while retaining the introductory nature of the book. Important new features include: A new chapter on protein-ligand binding equilibria Expanded coverage of chemical mechanisms in enzyme catalysis and experimental measurements of enzyme activity Updated and refined discussions of enzyme inhibitors and multiple substrate reactions Coverage of current practical applications to the study of enzymology Supplemented with appendices providing contact information for suppliers of reagents and equipment for enzyme studies, as well as a survey of useful Internet sites and computer software for enzymatic data analysis, Enzymes, Second Edition is the ultimate practical guide for scientists and students in biochemical, pharmaceutical, biotechnical, medicinal, and agricultural/food-related research.
Biomolecular Structure and Function covers the proceedings of the 1977 -Cellular Function and Molecular Structure: Biophysical Approaches to Biological Problems- symposium. It summarizes the application of several biophysical techniques to molecular research in biology. This book starts by describing the use of deuterium-labeled lipids, as monitors of the degree of organization of membrane lipids. It also describes the use of carbon-13-labeled lipids, as indicators of molecular mobility. It explains the lipid-protein interactions involving two integral membrane proteins, mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase and calcium-dependent ATPase of muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. The book goes on to present NMR studies on the organization and conformation of phospholipids, chloroplast membranes, and erythrocyte membranes. It also presents the ESR study of spectrin-phospholipid associations. It discusses the use of fluorescence probes, electrokinetics, neutron diffraction and ion theory studies of phospholipid-protein association, hormone disease, and senescence effects on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Moreover, this book presents the experiments and phosphorus-31 NMR methodology to simultaneously monitor the intracellular pH and phosphate metabolism in a beating heart, functioning kidney, or an intact living microorganism. This book then describes physical probing of intracellular fluidity and structural changes attending tissue or cell cycles. It also relates relatively narrow lines in the hydrogen-1 NMR spectrum of the extremely viscous complex of the muscle protein troponin and highly polymerized tropomyosin. Structure-function studies of fibrous proteins, such as collagen, actin, and myosin, and active site analysis of enzymes are also presented. Finally, a wide variety of methodologies and technologies is exemplified. This includes proton, carbon, fluorine, phosphorus, and lithium NMR spectroscopy; spin labeling and EPR spectroscopy; chemical studies; light scattering and fluorescence; and electron microscopy.
Author: Alan Fersht
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2017-06-28
This book is a guide for advanced undergraduates, post-graduates and researchers to the fundamental principles in studying kinetics and mechanism of processes concerning proteins. It provides a rare broad overview that concentrates on fundamental principles and understanding underlying the physics and chemistry. It is a single author text by someone who has direct experience in all of the areas covered.
Author: A.N. Martonosi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
In the first edition of The Enzymes of Biological Membranes, published in four volumes in 1976, we collected the mass of widely scattered information on membrane-linked enzymes and metabolic processes up to about 1975. This was a period of transition from the romantic phase of membrane biochemistry, preoccupied with conceptual developments and the general properties of membranes, to an era of mounting interest in the specific properties of membrane-linked enzymes analyzed from the viewpoints of modem enzymology. The level of sophistication in various areas of membrane research varied widely; the structures of cytochrome c and cytochrome b5 were known to atomic detail, while the majority of membrane-linked enzymes had not even been isolated. In the intervening eight years our knowledge of membrane-linked enzymes ex panded beyond the wildest expectations. The purpose of the second edition of The Enzymes of Biological Membranes is to record these developments. The first volume describes the physical and chemical techniques used in the analysis of the structure and dynamics of biological membranes. In the second volume the enzymes and met abolic systems that participate in the biosynthesis of cell and membrane components are discussed. The third and fourth volumes review recent developments in active transport, oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis.
Author: Gouxiong Xue
Publisher: World Scientific
Release Date: 2001-06-22
This archival volume is an invaluable collection of rigorously reviewed articles by experts in the fields of gene families, DNA, RNA and proteins, to commemorate the passing of a giant of science — Professor Clement L Markert (1917–1999). In 1959, Clement Markert and Freddy Moller developed the concept of the isozyme, which paved the way for extensive studies of enzyme, protein and gene multiplicity across all living organisms. This important scientific discovery has had a profound influence on the biological sciences for more than 40 years, and has provided the basis for regular international meetings to discuss the biological and biomedical implications of enzyme multiplicity. More recently, this concept has been extended to a wide range of gene families of DNA, RNA, proteins and enzymes. Contents: Clement Markert (G L Hammond)Identification of Novel Gene Family Members Based on Efficient Full-Length cDNA Cloning (J Gu et al.)Aldehyde Dehydrogenases of Human Corneal and Lens Epithelial Cells (R S Holmes)X-Chromosome Inactivation During Spermatogenesis: The Original Dosage Compensation Mechanism in Mammals? (J R Mc Carrey)Probing for the Basis of the Low Activity of the Oriental Variant of Liver Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (B Wei & H Weiner)The Roles of Carbonic Anhydrase Isozymes in Cancer (W R Chegwidden et al.)MHC Class II Suppression by Trophoblast cDNAs (G L Hammond et al.)Molecular Information Fusion for Metabolic Networks (R Hofestädt et al.)Effect of Heterogeneous Sperm and Hybridization of DNA Fragment in Allogynogenetic Silver Crucian Carp (D Xia et al.)Gene Expression During Carrot Somatic Embryogenesis (N Wu)and other papers Readership: Graduate students, post-docs and experts interested in gene families. Keywords:Genes;Gene Families;Genetics;DNA;RNA;Enzymes;Proteins;Clement L Market;Isozyme;Freedy Moller
Author: Dominic W.S. Wong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 1995-12-31
Food Enzymes: Structure and Mechanism is the first volume to bring together current information on the structures and mechanisms of important food enzymes. It provides an in-depth discussion of the dynamic aspects of enzyme structures and their relationship to the chemistry of catalysis. The book emphasizes aspects of the chemistry of enzyme structure and mechanism seldom covered in the food science literature. It includes a thorough discussion of the genetic modification of enzyme structures and functions with reference to specific food enzymes. More than 100 illustrations enhance the clarity of important concepts. Comprehensive references reflect the current state of knowledge on enzyme actions.
Author: Christine Orengo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2013-11-08
New insights into the evolution and nature of proteins Exploring several distinct approaches, this book describes the methods for comparing protein sequences and protein structures in order to identify homologous relationships and classify proteins and protein domains into evolutionary families. Readers will discover the common features as well as the key philosophical differences underlying the major protein classification systems, including Pfam, Panther, SCOP, and CATH. Moreover, they'll discover how these systems can be used to understand the evolution of protein families as well as understand and predict the degree to which structural and functional information are shared between relatives in a protein family. Edited and authored by leading international experts, Protein Families offers new insights into protein families that are important to medical research as well as protein families that help us understand biological systems and key biological processes such as cell signaling and the immune response. The book is divided into three sections: Section I: Concepts Underlying Protein Family Classification reviews the major strategies for identifying homologous proteins and classifying them into families. Section II: In-Depth Reviews of Protein Families focuses on some fascinating super protein families for which we have substantial amounts of sequence, structural and functional data, making it possible to trace the emergence of functionally diverse relatives. Section III: Review of Protein Families in Important Biological Systems examines protein families associated with a particular biological theme, such as the cytoskeleton. All chapters are extensively illustrated, including depictions of evolutionary relationships. References at the end of each chapter guide readers to original research papers and reviews in the field. Covering protein family classification systems alongside detailed descriptions of select protein families, this book offers biochemists, molecular biologists, protein scientists, structural biologists, and bioinformaticians new insight into the evolution and nature of proteins.
This invaluable volume, written by an international group of scientists, presents an overview of the AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, with special emphasis on structure-function relationships. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is the second most commonly used enzyme cofactor after ATP. The AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases act on a wide variety of target molecules, including DNA, RNA, protein, polysaccharides, lipids and a range of small molecules. The well-conserved architecture of these enzymes, and the implications of this conservation for their evolutionary history, are major themes of this book. The thirteen chapters describe in detail the structures, enzyme kinetics and biological roles of the AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases from a wide range of cell types: plant, animal, bacterial and archaeal.
Author: Michael P. Coughlan
Release Date: 2014-06-28
Molybdenum and Molybdenum-Containing Enzymes is a collection of papers that deals with the various concerns with molybdenum-containing enzymes. The text first covers the organometallic chemistry of molybdenum, and then proceeds to tackling molybdenum-containing enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulphite oxidase. The text also discusses the advancement in the understanding of molybdenum-containing enzymes. The remaining chapters deal with the genetics of molybdoenzymes and the nutritional aspects of molybdenum. The book will be of great use to students, researchers, and practitioners of biochemistry.