How Enzymes Work

Author: Haruo Suzuki
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789814463935
Release Date: 2015-02-05
Genre: Medical

For a long time, enzymes have been studied by measuring their activity, which has led to the advancement of "enzyme kinetics." In recent years, the mechanism of enzyme reaction has been explained in detail on the basis of the 3D structure. Genetic engineering and the 3D structural analysis of enzymes contribute to these advancements in enzymology. This book starts with an introduction to various enzymes to show how interesting enzymes are, which is followed by historical kinetic studies on enzymes and the overall and rapid-reaction kinetics. The subsequent topics describe the basics of protein structure, the control of enzyme activity, and the purification of enzymes. A case on the kinetic and structural studies of l-phenylalanine oxidase is also presented. There are many good books on enzyme kinetics, but few describe their kinetic and structural aspects. This book deals with both and contains many references that can be good sources for further reading. It is handy and is especially helpful for beginners. A number of figures, including some with stereo expression, facilitate observing the 3D structure of enzymes.

Food Enzymes Structure and Mechanism

Author: Dominic W.S. Wong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0412056917
Release Date: 1995-12-31
Genre: Science

Food Enzymes: Structure and Mechanism is the first volume to bring together current information on the structures and mechanisms of important food enzymes. It provides an in-depth discussion of the dynamic aspects of enzyme structures and their relationship to the chemistry of catalysis. The book emphasizes aspects of the chemistry of enzyme structure and mechanism seldom covered in the food science literature. It includes a thorough discussion of the genetic modification of enzyme structures and functions with reference to specific food enzymes. More than 100 illustrations enhance the clarity of important concepts. Comprehensive references reflect the current state of knowledge on enzyme actions.

S adenosylmethionine dependent Methyltransferases

Author: Xiaodong Cheng
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9810238703
Release Date: 1999
Genre: Science

This invaluable volume, written by an international group of scientists, presents an overview of the AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases, with special emphasis on structure-function relationships. S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is the second most commonly used enzyme cofactor after ATP. The AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases act on a wide variety of target molecules, including DNA, RNA, protein, polysaccharides, lipids and a range of small molecules. The well-conserved architecture of these enzymes, and the implications of this conservation for their evolutionary history, are major themes of this book. The thirteen chapters describe in detail the structures, enzyme kinetics and biological roles of the AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases from a wide range of cell types: plant, animal, bacterial and archaeal.

Computational Approaches to Biochemical Reactivity

Author: Gábor Náray-Szabó
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 140200415X
Release Date: 2002-03-31
Genre: Science

A quantitative description of the action of enzymes and other biological systems is both a challenge and a fundamental requirement for further progress in our und- standing of biochemical processes. This can help in practical design of new drugs and in the development of artificial enzymes as well as in fundamental understanding of the factors that control the activity of biological systems. Structural and biochemical st- ies have yielded major insights about the action of biological molecules and the mechanism of enzymatic reactions. However it is not entirely clear how to use this - portant information in a consistent and quantitative analysis of the factors that are - sponsible for rate acceleration in enzyme active sites. The problem is associated with the fact that reaction rates are determined by energetics (i. e. activation energies) and the available experimental methods by themselves cannot provide a correlation - tween structure and energy. Even mutations of specific active site residues, which are extremely useful, cannot tell us about the totality of the interaction between the active site and the substrate. In fact, short of inventing experiments that allow one to measure the forces in enzyme active sites it is hard to see how can one use a direct experimental approach to unambiguously correlate the structure and function of enzymes. In fact, in view of the complexity of biological systems it seems that only computers can handle the task of providing a quantitative structure-function correlation.

Supramolecular Structure and Function 7

Author: Greta Pifat-Mrzljak
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306466724
Release Date: 2001-12-31
Genre: Science

This book is the proceedings of the 7th International Summer School on Biophysics: Supramolecular Structure and Function, held September 14-26, 2000, in Rovinj, Croatia. An enormous amount of new knowledge on the molecular basis of biological phenomena has emerged in the rapidly expanding field of biophysics. The principles and methods of modern biophysics now provide a strong foundation for all of the biosciences, and serve as a rational common language for scientists from various disciplines. The series of books on Supramolecular Structure and Function was inspired by the International Summer School on Biophysics, established under the sponsorship of IUPAB, UNESCO, and ICGEB, held in Rovinj, in 2001, and follows the successful interdisciplinary approach. This volume covers some powerful methods, such as analytical centrifugation, mass spectrometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance, for the study of complex biological structures, and discusses useful physical concepts as applied to biological and biochemical systems. Case-orientated studies concentrating on particular methodologies are presented and examples are given, addressing some of the most important aspects of structure-function relationship in biological assemblies. Biophysics nowadays collaborates closely with molecular biology and bioinformatics as well as with neurosciences, and this is also demonstrated in this book. The book should be of interest both to experienced researchers wishing to widen their insight into molecular structure and function, and to younger scientists at the doctoral and postdoctoral level interested in the molecular nature of fundamental biological entities and phenomena.

Encyclopedia of Food and Health

Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123849533
Release Date: 2015-08-26
Genre: Technology & Engineering

The Encyclopedia of Food and Health provides users with a solid bridge of current and accurate information spanning food production and processing, from distribution and consumption to health effects. The Encyclopedia comprises five volumes, each containing comprehensive, thorough coverage, and a writing style that is succinct and straightforward. Users will find this to be a meticulously organized resource of the best available summary and conclusions on each topic. Written from a truly international perspective, and covering of all areas of food science and health in over 550 articles, with extensive cross-referencing and further reading at the end of each chapter, this updated encyclopedia is an invaluable resource for both research and educational needs. Identifies the essential nutrients and how to avoid their deficiencies Explores the use of diet to reduce disease risk and optimize health Compiles methods for detection and quantitation of food constituents, food additives and nutrients, and contaminants Contains coverage of all areas of food science and health in nearly 700 articles, with extensive cross-referencing and further reading at the end of each chapter

The Structure of Biological Membranes Third Edition

Author: Philip L. Yeagle
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439809587
Release Date: 2011-07-18
Genre: Medical

Biological membranes provide the fundamental structure of cells and viruses. Because much of what happens in a cell or in a virus occurs on, in, or across biological membranes, the study of membranes has rapidly permeated the fields of biology, pharmaceutical chemistry, and materials science. The Structure of Biological Membranes, Third Edition provides readers with an understanding of membrane structure and function that is rooted in the history of the field and brought to the forefront of current knowledge. The first part of the book focuses on the fundamentals of lipid bilayers and membrane proteins. Three introductory chapters supply those new to the field with the tools and conceptual framework with which to approach the state-of-the-art chapters that follow. The second part of the book presents in-depth analyses of focused subjects within the study of membranes, covering topics that include: Phase behavior of lipid bilayers Lipid bilayers as an isolated structure Cholesterol’s role in cell biology Lateral organization of membranes The role of membrane lipids in initial membrane protein folding Membrane protein synthesis and assembly of oligomeric membrane proteins Membrane protein stability with relationships to function and protein turnover Membrane protein function using a transport protein Interactions between membrane proteins and membrane lipids A final chapter pulls together many of the topics, examining in detail the complexity inherent in the synthesis and assembly of lipids and proteins in mitochondrial membranes. With contributions from leading researchers, this completely revised and updated third edition reflects recent advances in the field of biological membranes. It offers a valuable resource for students, as well as structural biologists, biophysicists, cell biologists, biochemists, and researchers in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. What’s New in This Edition: Three accessible chapters introduce students to the field of biological membranes Completely revised and updated chapters present current topics in membrane research

Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry

Author: T. D. H. Bugg
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118348994
Release Date: 2012-05-29
Genre: Science

Enzymes are giant macromolecules which catalyse biochemical reactions. They are remarkable in many ways. Their three-dimensional structures are highly complex, yet they are formed by spontaneous folding of a linear polypeptide chain. Their catalytic properties are far more impressive than synthetic catalysts which operate under more extreme conditions. Each enzyme catalyses a single chemical reaction on a particular chemical substrate with very high enantioselectivity and enantiospecificity at rates which approach “catalytic perfection”. Living cells are capable of carrying out a huge repertoire of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions, some of which have little or no precedent in organic chemistry. The popular textbook Introduction to Enzyme and Coenzyme Chemistry has been thoroughly updated to include information on the most recent advances in our understanding of enzyme action, with additional recent examples from the literature used to illustrate key points. A major new feature is the inclusion of two-colour figures, and the addition of over 40 new figures of the active sites of enzymes discussed in the text, in order to illustrate the interplay between enzyme structure and function. This new edition provides a concise but comprehensive account from the perspective of organic chemistry, what enzymes are, how they work, and how they catalyse many of the major classes of enzymatic reactions, and will continue to prove invaluable to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of organic, bio-organic and medicinal chemistry, chemical biology, biochemistry and biotechnology.

Structural and Mechanistic Enzymology

Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128118771
Release Date: 2017-07-17
Genre: Medical

Structural and Mechanistic Enzymology, Volume 109, the latest release in the Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology series, is an essential resource for protein chemists. Chapters in this new volume include Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinase Structure–Function Relationships: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Studies, Computational Glycobiology: Mechanistic Studies of Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes and Implication for Inhibitor Design, Computational Biochemistry─Enzyme Mechanisms Explored, and A Paradigm for C─H Bond Cleavage: Structural and Functional Aspects of Transition State Stabilization by Mandelate Racemase. This series presents new information on protocols and analysis of proteins, with each volume guest edited by leading experts in a broad range of protein-related topics. This volume presents state-of-the-art contributions, providing insights into the relationship between enzyme structure, catalysis, and function. Provides cutting-edge developments in protein chemistry and structural biology Features new information about protocols and analysis of proteins Contains chapters written by authorities in their respective fields Targeted to a wide audience of researchers, specialists and students

The Enzymes of Biological Membranes

Author: A.N. Martonosi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781468445985
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

In the first edition of The Enzymes of Biological Membranes, published in four volumes in 1976, we collected the mass of widely scattered information on membrane-linked enzymes and metabolic processes up to about 1975. This was a period of transition from the romantic phase of membrane biochemistry, preoccupied with conceptual developments and the general properties of membranes, to an era of mounting interest in the specific properties of membrane-linked enzymes analyzed from the viewpoints of modem enzymology. The level of sophistication in various areas of membrane research varied widely; the structures of cytochrome c and cytochrome b5 were known to atomic detail, while the majority of membrane-linked enzymes had not even been isolated. In the intervening eight years our knowledge of membrane-linked enzymes ex panded beyond the wildest expectations. The purpose of the second edition of The Enzymes of Biological Membranes is to record these developments. The first volume describes the physical and chemical techniques used in the analysis of the structure and dynamics of biological membranes. In the second volume the enzymes and met abolic systems that participate in the biosynthesis of cell and membrane components are discussed. The third and fourth volumes review recent developments in active transport, oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis.

NMR in Biological Systems

Author: K.V.R. Chary
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402066795
Release Date: 2008-04-08
Genre: Science

During teaching NMR to students and researchers, we felt the need for a text-book which can cover modern trends in the application of NMR to biological systems. This book covers the entire area of NMR in Biological Sciences (Biomolecules, cells and tissues, animals, plants and drug design). As well as being useful to researchers, this is an excellent book for teaching a course on NMR in Biological Systems.

From Protein Structure to Function with Bioinformatics

Author: Daniel John Rigden
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402090585
Release Date: 2008-12-11
Genre: Science

Proteins lie at the heart of almost all biological processes and have an incredibly wide range of activities. Central to the function of all proteins is their ability to adopt, stably or sometimes transiently, structures that allow for interaction with other molecules. An understanding of the structure of a protein can therefore lead us to a much improved picture of its molecular function. This realisation has been a prime motivation of recent Structural Genomics projects, involving large-scale experimental determination of protein structures, often those of proteins about which little is known of function. These initiatives have, in turn, stimulated the massive development of novel methods for prediction of protein function from structure. Since model structures may also take advantage of new function prediction algorithms, the first part of the book deals with the various ways in which protein structures may be predicted or inferred, including specific treatment of membrane and intrinsically disordered proteins. A detailed consideration of current structure-based function prediction methodologies forms the second part of this book, which concludes with two chapters, focusing specifically on case studies, designed to illustrate the real-world application of these methods. With bang up-to-date texts from world experts, and abundant links to publicly available resources, this book will be invaluable to anyone who studies proteins and the endlessly fascinating relationship between their structure and function.