The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

Author: Gordon M. Shepherd
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195159561
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Medical

This is a thorough revision of the standard text on local circuits in the different regions of the brain. In this fifth edition, the results of the mouse and human genome projects are incorporated for the first time. Also for the first time, the reader is oriented to supporting neuroscience databases. Among the new advances covered are 2-photon confocal laser microscopy of dendrites and dendritic spines, biochemical analyses, and dual patch and multielectrode recordings, applied together with an increasing range of behavioral and gene-targeting methods.

Concepts and Challenges in Retinal Biology

Author: John E. Dowling
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0444514848
Release Date: 2003-09-25
Genre: Medical

In August 2000 a Festschrift was held at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts to celebrate the career of Professor John E. Dowling on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Containing contributions from more than 50 of John's colleagues, representing a Who's Who of the vision research community, this work not only provides a memento of the occasion, but will hopefully serve as a basic reference for future researchers in retinal biology. The volume is divided somewhat arbitrarily into seven areas of retinal research containing chapters that present in some cases a broad overview of a particular topic, and in others an account of current research and studies in progress. These chapters exemplify the richness, diversity, and excitement of contemporary retinal research. They also remind us of how much more needs to be done before we understand fully the interrelationship between retinal neurons, the complex interactions between neurons and glial cells, and the mechanisms that govern retinal development. A final chapter contributed by John Dowling provides an overview of past accomplishments, and offers some future perspectives on retinal research in the 21st century.

Some Current Concepts of Synaptic Organization

Author: D.G. Jones
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642670695
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical

The accumulation of literature dealing with the structure and function of synapses presents the synaptologist with a formidable problem. The diverse interests now en compassed by synaptology, and the many facets of neurobiology mirrored in these interests, make the task of reviewing synaptic organization a major one. Selection must be made and, if the reader is not to be misled, biases must be exposed. My frame of reference is the presynaptic terminal, that is, the enlarged termination of the axon (Figs. 1 and 2). This includes the specialized presynaptic membrane run ning alongside the cleft region and associated with the dense projections and presyn- tic vesicular grid (Figs. 1 and 8). Within the cytoplasm of the terminal are the synaptic and coated vesicles, mitochondria, the micromamentous presynaptic network and possibly microtubules. My approach to the presynaptic terminal will rely principally on mor phological concepts, although biochemical features of the composition of the ju- tional region are essential for a basic understanding of synaptic organization and ref erence to these will also be made.

Synaptic Self

Author: Joseph LeDoux
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 144065042X
Release Date: 2003-01-28
Genre: Psychology

In 1996 Joseph LeDoux's The Emotional Brain presented a revelatory examination of the biological bases of our emotions and memories. Now, the world-renowned expert on the brain has produced with a groundbreaking work that tells a more profound story: how the little spaces between the neurons—the brain's synapses—are the channels through which we think, act, imagine, feel, and remember. Synapses encode the essence of personality, enabling each of us to function as a distinctive, integrated individual from moment to moment. Exploring the functioning of memory, the synaptic basis of mental illness and drug addiction, and the mechanism of self-awareness, Synaptic Self is a provocative and mind-expanding work that is destined to become a classic.

Neurogastronomy

Author: Gordon Shepherd
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231159111
Release Date: 2013-07-16
Genre: Science

Challenging the belief that the sense of smell diminished during human evolution, Shepherd argues that this sense, which constitutes the main component of flavor, is far more powerful and essential than previously believed. --from publisher description

Transcranial Brain Stimulation

Author: Carlo Miniussi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439875711
Release Date: 2012-12-03
Genre: Science

Since the discovery of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), these non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been used to investigate the state of cortical excitability, and the excitability of the cortico-cortical and corticospinal pathways. In addition, these techniques have been found to induce neuroplasticity—a significant breakthrough in our understanding of the brain at work. Transcranial Brain Stimulation presents a wide range of possible brain stimulation applications and discusses what new information can be gained from using this technique on the dynamics of brain functions, hierarchical organization, and effective connectivity. Implications of recent findings related to the therapeutic application are discussed by an international group of leading experts, who present practical guidance on the use of each technique, and catalog the results of numerous TMS and tES studies on biological and behavioral effects.

Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience

Author: Eugene M. Izhikevich
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262090438
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Medical

In order to model neuronal behavior or to interpret the results of modeling studies, neuroscientists must call upon methods of nonlinear dynamics. This book offers an introduction to nonlinear dynamical systems theory for researchers and graduate students in neuroscience. It also provides an overview of neuroscience for mathematicians who want to learn the basic facts of electrophysiology. Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience presents a systematic study of the relationship of electrophysiology, nonlinear dynamics, and computational properties of neurons. It emphasizes that information processing in the brain depends not only on the electrophysiological properties of neurons but also on their dynamical properties. The book introduces dynamical systems, starting with one- and two-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley-type models and continuing to a description of bursting systems. Each chapter proceeds from the simple to the complex, and provides sample problems at the end. The book explains all necessary mathematical concepts using geometrical intuition; it includes many figures and few equations, making it especially suitable for non-mathematicians. Each concept is presented in terms of both neuroscience and mathematics, providing a link between the two disciplines. Nonlinear dynamical systems theory is at the core of computational neuroscience research, but it is not a standard part of the graduate neuroscience curriculum—or taught by math or physics department in a way that is suitable for students of biology. This book offers neuroscience students and researchers a comprehensive account of concepts and methods increasingly used in computational neuroscience. An additional chapter on synchronization, with more advanced material, can be found at the author's website, www.izhikevich.com.

The Molecular Foundations of Psychiatry

Author: Steven E. Hyman
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 0880483539
Release Date: 1993
Genre: Medical

This text offers a comprehensive introduction to molecular biology, genetics, and neurobiology relevant to psychiatry. Generously illustrated chapters are organized to be read at both an introductory and a more advanced level. Both beginners and advanced professionals will benefit from this text's discussion of how psychotropic drugs work and how gene-environment interactions may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. The authors demonstrate how molecular investigations in psychiatry will revolutionize the field by leading to improved diagnostic testing, to new and more effective treatments, and ultimately to the development of preventive measures for mental illness.

The Human Brain E Book

Author: John Nolte
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 9780323064750
Release Date: 2008-09-01
Genre: Medical

Already known as the reference of choice for expert coverage on the structure and function of the human brain and the nervous system, Nolte’s The Human Brain continues to impress with essential updates throughout this new edition. It includes a new chapter on formation, modification, and repair of connections, with coverage of learning and memory, as well as the coming revolution of ways to fix damaged nervous systems, trophic factors, stem cells, and more. 550 full-color illustrations—more than 650 in all—support the text and depict every nuance of brain function. But, best of all, your purchase now includes access to Student Consult, including all of the book’s illustrations, video clips, and additional software, plus many other exclusive features at www.studentconsult.com. Features a single-authored approach for a more consistent, readable text. Discusses all key topics in functional neuroanatomy and neuroscience, giving you well-rounded coverage of this complex subject. Includes clinical examples throughout for a real-life perspective. Uses summary statement headings that speed you to the information you need. Presents chapter outlines that encourage you to stay organized and focused. Incorporates 3-dimensional brain images and more than 650 illustrations that add increased visual clarity and a greater understanding of every concept. Includes a glossary of key terms that elucidates every part of the text. Features updates throughout, as well as many new illustrations using the most current neuroimaging techniques, reflecting recent developments and changes in understanding to acquaint you with the very latest knowledge in the field. Discusses the hot topic of neural plasticity in a new chapter on formation, modification, and repair of connections, with coverage of learning and memory, as well as the coming revolution in ways to fix damaged nervous systems, trophic factors, stem cells, and more. Uses chapter outlines, offering you a focused approach to study. Offers unlimited access to the Student Consult, withvideo clips and additional software at www.studentconsult.com, so you can consult it anywhere you go...perform quick searches...add your own notes and bookmarks...follow Integration Links to related bonus content from other Student Consult titles...and reference all of the other Student Consult titles you own online, too—all in one place!

Neurotransmitter Actions in the Vertebrate Nervous System

Author: Michael Rogawski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781468449617
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical

Intercellular communication via bioactive substances occurs in virtually all multicellular systems. Chemical neurotransmission in the vertebrate nervous system represents a form of signaling of this type. The biology of chemical neurotransmission is complex, involving transmitter synthesis, transport, and release by the presynaptic neuron; signal generation in the target tissue; and mechanisms for termination of the response. The focus of this book is on one aspect of this scheme: the diverse electrophysiological effects induced by different neurotransmitters on targets cells. In recent years, astonishing progress has been made in elucidating the specific physiological signals mediated by neurotransmitters in the verte brate nervous system, yet, in our view, this has not been adequately recog nized, perhaps because the new concepts have yet to filter into neuroscience textbooks. Nevertheless, the principles of neurotransmitter action are critical to advances in many areas of neuroscience, including molecular neurobiol ogy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, physiological psychology, and clinical neuroscience. It was the need for a sourcebook that prompted us to engage a group of neurophysiologists to prepare the chapters in this volume. However, there was an additional reason for this book: more and more it seemed that the field, if not yet having reached maturity, at least was ap proaching adolescence, with strengths in some areas and healthy conflicts in others. At this stage of development a textbook can help to define a field, clarify problems to be resolved, and identify areas for future investigation.

Neuropsychological Assessment

Author: Muriel Deutsch Lezak
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195090314
Release Date: 1995-03-02
Genre: Psychology

The 12 chapters in the second section contain nearly all of the tests and assessment techniques covered in the previous editions plus many additional ones, including newly developed neuropsychological tests, tests from other branches of psychology, research techniques that have only recently been introduced into clinical neuropsychology, tests originating in Europe and elsewhere, and a few measures - as yet untried by neuropsychology - that appear to be potentially useful for neuropsychological purposes. Thus, the third edition of Neuropsychological Assessment maintains its multipurpose functions as an authoritative textbook, reference work, and practitioner's manual

Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution

Author: Agustín González
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 9782889193066
Release Date: 2014-10-27
Genre:

The brain of each animal shows specific traits that reflect its phylogenetic history and its particular lifestyle. Therefore, comparing brains is not just a mere intellectual exercise, but it helps understanding how the brain allows adaptive behavioural strategies to face an ever-changing world and how this complex organ has evolved during phylogeny, giving rise to complex mental processes in humans and other animals. These questions attracted scientists since the times of Santiago Ramon y Cajal one of the founders of comparative neurobiology. In the last decade, this discipline has undergone a true revolution due to the analysis of expression patterns of morphogenetic genes in embryos of different animals. The papers of this e-book are good examples of modern comparative neurobiology, which mainly focuses on the following four Grand Questions: a) How are different brains built during ontogeny? b) What is the anatomical organization of mature brains and how can they be compared? c) How do brains work to accomplish their function of ensuring survival and, ultimately, reproductive success? d) How have brains evolved during phylogeny? The title of this e-book, Adaptive Function and Brain Evolution, stresses the importance of comparative studies to understand brain function and, the reverse, of considering brain function to properly understand brain evolution. These issues should be taken into account when using animals in the research of mental function and dysfunction, and are fundamental to understand the origins of the human mind.

Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems

Author: A.G. Brown
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540760903
Release Date: 2001-06-14
Genre: Medical

It is now about 10 years since the first edition of Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems was published. There have been many important advances across the whole field of neuro science since 1990 and it was obvious that the first edition had become much less useful than when it was published. Hence this new edition. I have attempted to keep to the aims of the first edition by presenting the general principles of neuroscience in the context of experimental evidence. As with the first edition, the selection of material to include, or exclude, has been difficult and invariably reflects my personal biases. I hope that not too many readers will be disappointed with the selections. I have unashamedly retained material, and, in particular, illustrations where I think they remain of importance to an understanding of the field and to its historical development. As before, I have attempted as reasonable a coverage as possible within the confines of a book that should be easy to carry around, to handle and, I hope, to read. The book should be useful for anyone studying the nervous system at both undergraduate and immediate postgraduate levels. In particular, under graduates reading neuroscience or any course containing a neuroscience component, such as physiology, pharmacology, biomedical sciences or psychology, as well as medicine and veterinary medicine should find the book helpful.

Surgical Treatment of Parkinson s Disease and Other Movement Disorders

Author: Daniel Tarsy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781592593125
Release Date: 2002-10-14
Genre: Medical

In Surgical Treatment of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, a panel of highly experienced neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, neuropsychologists, and neuroanatomists join forces to create an integrated, cutting-edge survey all of the methodologies necessary for successful surgical treatment.