The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

Author: Gordon M. Shepherd
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195159561
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Medical

This is a thorough revision of the standard text on local circuits in the different regions of the brain. In this fifth edition, the results of the mouse and human genome projects are incorporated for the first time. Also for the first time, the reader is oriented to supporting neuroscience databases. Among the new advances covered are 2-photon confocal laser microscopy of dendrites and dendritic spines, biochemical analyses, and dual patch and multielectrode recordings, applied together with an increasing range of behavioral and gene-targeting methods.

Handbook of Brain Microcircuits

Author: Gordon Shepherd, Sten Grillner
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199780334
Release Date: 2010-09-22
Genre: Medical

Microcircuits are the specific arrangements of cells and their connections that carry out the operations unique to each brain region. This resource summarizes succinctly these circuits in over 40 regions - enabling comparisons of principles across both vertebrates and invertebrates. It provides a new foundation for understanding brain function that will be of interest to all neuroscientists. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.

Cortical Circuits

Author: WHITE
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781468487213
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical

This elegant book presents current evidence on the organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex. The focus on synapses and their function provides the basis for understanding how this critical part of the brain could work. Dr. White and his colleague Dr. Keller have collated an impressive mass of material. This makes the crucial information accessible and coherent. Dr. White pioneered an area of investigation that to most others, and occasionally to himself, seemed a bottomless pit of painstaking at tention to detail for the identification and enumeration of cortical syn apses. I do not recall that he or anyone else suspected, when he began to publish his now classic papers, that the work would be central to an accelerating convergence of information and ideas from neurobiology and computer science, especially artificial intelligence (AI) (Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986). The brain is the principal organ responsible for the adaptive capacities of animals. What has impressed students of biology, of medicine, and, to an extent, of philosophy is the correlation between the prominence of the cerebral cortex and the adaptive "complexity" of a particular spe cies. Most agree that the cortex is what sets Homo sapiens apart from other species quantitatively and qualitatively (Rakic, 1988). This is summarized in the first chapter.

Concepts and Challenges in Retinal Biology

Author: John E. Dowling
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0444514848
Release Date: 2003-09-25
Genre: Medical

In August 2000 a Festschrift was held at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts to celebrate the career of Professor John E. Dowling on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Containing contributions from more than 50 of John's colleagues, representing a Who's Who of the vision research community, this work not only provides a memento of the occasion, but will hopefully serve as a basic reference for future researchers in retinal biology. The volume is divided somewhat arbitrarily into seven areas of retinal research containing chapters that present in some cases a broad overview of a particular topic, and in others an account of current research and studies in progress. These chapters exemplify the richness, diversity, and excitement of contemporary retinal research. They also remind us of how much more needs to be done before we understand fully the interrelationship between retinal neurons, the complex interactions between neurons and glial cells, and the mechanisms that govern retinal development. A final chapter contributed by John Dowling provides an overview of past accomplishments, and offers some future perspectives on retinal research in the 21st century.


Author: Gordon M. Shepherd
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195088433
Release Date: 1994
Genre: Medical

This updated text will continue to serve the needs of students in introductory neuroscience courses. Among topics highlighted in the 3rd edition are the superfamily of molecules responsible for membrane signalling, and the molecular basis of sensory perception.

Synaptic Self

Author: Joseph LeDoux
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 144065042X
Release Date: 2003-01-28
Genre: Psychology

In 1996 Joseph LeDoux's The Emotional Brain presented a revelatory examination of the biological bases of our emotions and memories. Now, the world-renowned expert on the brain has produced with a groundbreaking work that tells a more profound story: how the little spaces between the neurons—the brain's synapses—are the channels through which we think, act, imagine, feel, and remember. Synapses encode the essence of personality, enabling each of us to function as a distinctive, integrated individual from moment to moment. Exploring the functioning of memory, the synaptic basis of mental illness and drug addiction, and the mechanism of self-awareness, Synaptic Self is a provocative and mind-expanding work that is destined to become a classic.

Some Current Concepts of Synaptic Organization

Author: D.G. Jones
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642670695
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical

The accumulation of literature dealing with the structure and function of synapses presents the synaptologist with a formidable problem. The diverse interests now en compassed by synaptology, and the many facets of neurobiology mirrored in these interests, make the task of reviewing synaptic organization a major one. Selection must be made and, if the reader is not to be misled, biases must be exposed. My frame of reference is the presynaptic terminal, that is, the enlarged termination of the axon (Figs. 1 and 2). This includes the specialized presynaptic membrane run ning alongside the cleft region and associated with the dense projections and presyn- tic vesicular grid (Figs. 1 and 8). Within the cytoplasm of the terminal are the synaptic and coated vesicles, mitochondria, the micromamentous presynaptic network and possibly microtubules. My approach to the presynaptic terminal will rely principally on mor phological concepts, although biochemical features of the composition of the ju- tional region are essential for a basic understanding of synaptic organization and ref erence to these will also be made.

Plastic Reason

Author: Tobias Rees
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520288126
Release Date: 2016-05-03
Genre: Social Science

Throughout the twentieth century, neuronal researchers knew the adult human brain to be a thoroughly fixed and immutable cellular structure, devoid of any developmental potential. Plastic Reason is a study of the efforts of a few Parisian neurobiologists to overturn this rigid conception of the central nervous system by showing that basic embryogenetic processes—most spectacularly the emergence of new cellular tissue in the form of new neurons, axons, dendrites, and synapses—continue in the mature brain. Furthermore, these researchers sought to demonstrate that the new tissues are still unspecific and hence literally plastic, and that this cellular plasticity is constitutive of the possibility of the human. Plastic Reason, grounded in years of fieldwork and historical research, is an anthropologist’s account of what has arguably been one of the most sweeping events in the history of brain research—the highly contested effort to consider the adult brain in embryogenetic terms. A careful analysis of the disproving of an established truth, it reveals the turmoil that such a disruption brings about and the emergence of new possibilities of thinking and knowing.


Author: Gordon Shepherd
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231159111
Release Date: 2013-07-16
Genre: Science

Challenging the belief that the sense of smell diminished during human evolution, Shepherd argues that this sense, which constitutes the main component of flavor, is far more powerful and essential than previously believed. --from publisher description

Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems

Author: A.G. Brown
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447102373
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Medical

It is now about 10 years since the first edition of Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems was published. There have been many important advances across the whole field of neuro science since 1990 and it was obvious that the first edition had become much less useful than when it was published. Hence this new edition. I have attempted to keep to the aims of the first edition by presenting the general principles of neuroscience in the context of experimental evidence. As with the first edition, the selection of material to include, or exclude, has been difficult and invariably reflects my personal biases. I hope that not too many readers will be disappointed with the selections. I have unashamedly retained material, and, in particular, illustrations where I think they remain of importance to an understanding of the field and to its historical development. As before, I have attempted as reasonable a coverage as possible within the confines of a book that should be easy to carry around, to handle and, I hope, to read. The book should be useful for anyone studying the nervous system at both undergraduate and immediate postgraduate levels. In particular, under graduates reading neuroscience or any course containing a neuroscience component, such as physiology, pharmacology, biomedical sciences or psychology, as well as medicine and veterinary medicine should find the book helpful.


Author: Gordon M. Shepherd
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 354055596X
Release Date: 1993-04-23
Genre: Medical

Aus der Feder eines der weltweit renommiertesten Neurobiologen ist ein Lehrbuch entstanden, das seinesgleichen sucht: umfassend, spannend zu lesen und bestens illustriert! Die amerikanische Ausgabe hat in Forschung und Lehre schon lange einen hervorragenden Ruf. Nun liegt mit der kompetenten deutschen Übersetzung eine nochmals stark überarbeitete Fassung vor - selbstverständlich unter Berücksichtigung der neuesten Forschungsergebnisse. Das Buch bietet eine Einführung in eines der am schnellsten fortschreitenden und damit spannendsten Forschungsgebiete. Dabei wird ein Bogen gespannt von den molekular- und zellbiologischen Grundlagen über neuronale Netzwerke bis hin zu komplexen Verhaltensfunktionen. Neben der Vermittlung von Fakten werden Konzepte und zusammenfassende Theorien erklärt, indem Arbeitshypothesen und grundlegende Experimente bedeutender Pioniere der Neuroforschung beschrieben werden. Eine weitere Besonderheit des Buches ist die integrierte Darstellung von Struktur und Funktion des Nervensystems. Der systematische Vergleich der Nervensysteme von Wirbeltieren und Wirbellosen vermittelt allgemeingültige Regeln der Arbeitsweise von Nervensystemen. Für medizinisch Interessierte bietet die Berücksichtigung pathologischer Aspekte der Hirnfunktionen Ansatzpunkte zum besseren Verständnis neurologischer Zusammenhänge. Jedem, der sich einen vollständigen und fundierten Überblick über die Neurobiologie verschaffen möchte - insbesondere Biologiestudenten und Neurowissenschaftlern - sei dieses klar und kompetent geschriebene und zudem reich illustrierte Lehrbuch empfohlen.

Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience

Author: Eugene M. Izhikevich
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262090438
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Medical

In order to model neuronal behavior or to interpret the results of modeling studies, neuroscientists must call upon methods of nonlinear dynamics. This book offers an introduction to nonlinear dynamical systems theory for researchers and graduate students in neuroscience. It also provides an overview of neuroscience for mathematicians who want to learn the basic facts of electrophysiology. Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience presents a systematic study of the relationship of electrophysiology, nonlinear dynamics, and computational properties of neurons. It emphasizes that information processing in the brain depends not only on the electrophysiological properties of neurons but also on their dynamical properties. The book introduces dynamical systems, starting with one- and two-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley-type models and continuing to a description of bursting systems. Each chapter proceeds from the simple to the complex, and provides sample problems at the end. The book explains all necessary mathematical concepts using geometrical intuition; it includes many figures and few equations, making it especially suitable for non-mathematicians. Each concept is presented in terms of both neuroscience and mathematics, providing a link between the two disciplines. Nonlinear dynamical systems theory is at the core of computational neuroscience research, but it is not a standard part of the graduate neuroscience curriculum—or taught by math or physics department in a way that is suitable for students of biology. This book offers neuroscience students and researchers a comprehensive account of concepts and methods increasingly used in computational neuroscience. An additional chapter on synchronization, with more advanced material, can be found at the author's website,

The Molecular Foundations of Psychiatry

Author: Steven E. Hyman
Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub
ISBN: 0880483539
Release Date: 1993
Genre: Medical

This text offers a comprehensive introduction to molecular biology, genetics, and neurobiology relevant to psychiatry. Generously illustrated chapters are organized to be read at both an introductory and a more advanced level. Both beginners and advanced professionals will benefit from this text's discussion of how psychotropic drugs work and how gene-environment interactions may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. The authors demonstrate how molecular investigations in psychiatry will revolutionize the field by leading to improved diagnostic testing, to new and more effective treatments, and ultimately to the development of preventive measures for mental illness.

Transcranial Brain Stimulation

Author: Carlo Miniussi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439875711
Release Date: 2012-12-03
Genre: Science

Since the discovery of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), these non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques have been used to investigate the state of cortical excitability, and the excitability of the cortico-cortical and corticospinal pathways. In addition, these techniques have been found to induce neuroplasticity—a significant breakthrough in our understanding of the brain at work. Transcranial Brain Stimulation presents a wide range of possible brain stimulation applications and discusses what new information can be gained from using this technique on the dynamics of brain functions, hierarchical organization, and effective connectivity. Implications of recent findings related to the therapeutic application are discussed by an international group of leading experts, who present practical guidance on the use of each technique, and catalog the results of numerous TMS and tES studies on biological and behavioral effects.