Utilizing high speed computational methods to extrapolate to the rest of the protein universe, the knowledge accumulated on a subset of examples, protein bioinformatics seeks to accomplish what was impossible before its invention, namely the assignment of functions or functional hypotheses for all known proteins. The Ten Most Wanted Solutions in Protein Bioinformatics considers the ten most significant problems occupying those looking to identify the biological properties and functional roles of proteins. - Problem One considers the challenge involved with detecting the existence of an evolutionary relationship between proteins. - Two and Three studies the detection of local similarities between protein sequences and analysis in order to determine functional assignment. - Four, Five, and Six look at how the knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins can be experimentally determined or inferred, and then exploited to understand the role of a protein. - Seven and Eight explore how proteins interact with each other and with ligands, both physically and logically. - Nine moves us out of the realm of observation to discuss the possibility of designing completely new proteins tailored to specific tasks. - And lastly, Problem Ten considers ways to modify the functional properties of proteins. After summarizing each problem, the author looks at and evaluates the current approaches being utilized, before going on to consider some potential approaches.
Demonstrating that many useful resources, such as databases, can benefit most bioinformatics projects, the Handbook of Hidden Markov Models in Bioinformatics focuses on how to choose and use various methods and programs available for hidden Markov models (HMMs). The book begins with discussions on key HMM and related profile methods, including the HMMER package, the sequence analysis method (SAM), and the PSI-BLAST algorithm. It then provides detailed information about various types of publicly available HMM databases, such as Pfam, PANTHER, COG, and metaSHARK. After outlining ways to develop and use an automated bioinformatics workflow, the author describes how to make custom HMM databases using HMMER, SAM, and PSI-BLAST. He also helps you select the right program to speed up searches. The final chapter explores several applications of HMM methods, including predictions of subcellular localization, posttranslational modification, and binding site. By learning how to effectively use the databases and methods presented in this handbook, you will be able to efficiently identify features of biological interest in your data.
Guiding readers from the elucidation and analysis of a genomic sequence to the prediction of a protein structure and the identification of the molecular function, Introduction to Bioinformatics describes the rationale and limitations of the bioinformatics methods and tools that can help solve biological problems. Requiring only a limited mathematical and statistical background, the book shows how to efficiently apply these approaches to biological data and evaluate the resulting information. The author, an expert bioinformatics researcher, first addresses the ways of storing and retrieving the enormous amount of biological data produced every day and the methods of decrypting the information encoded by a genome. She then covers the tools that can detect and exploit the evolutionary and functional relationships among biological elements. Subsequent chapters illustrate how to predict the three-dimensional structure of a protein. The book concludes with a discussion of the future of bioinformatics. Even though the future will undoubtedly offer new tools for tackling problems, most of the fundamental aspects of bioinformatics will not change. This resource provides the essential information to understand bioinformatics methods, ultimately facilitating in the solution of biological problems.
Author: Darren J. Wilkinson
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2006-04-18
Although stochastic kinetic models are increasingly accepted as the best way to represent and simulate genetic and biochemical networks, most researchers in the field have limited knowledge of stochastic process theory. The stochastic processes formalism provides a beautiful, elegant, and coherent foundation for chemical kinetics and there is a wealth of associated theory every bit as powerful and elegant as that for conventional continuous deterministic models. The time is right for an introductory text written from this perspective. Stochastic Modelling for Systems Biology presents an accessible introduction to stochastic modelling using examples that are familiar to systems biology researchers. Focusing on computer simulation, the author examines the use of stochastic processes for modelling biological systems. He provides a comprehensive understanding of stochastic kinetic modelling of biological networks in the systems biology context. The text covers the latest simulation techniques and research material, such as parameter inference, and includes many examples and figures as well as software code in R for various applications. While emphasizing the necessary probabilistic and stochastic methods, the author takes a practical approach, rooting his theoretical development in discussions of the intended application. Written with self-study in mind, the book includes technical chapters that deal with the difficult problems of inference for stochastic kinetic models from experimental data. Providing enough background information to make the subject accessible to the non-specialist, the book integrates a fairly diverse literature into a single convenient and notationally consistent source.
Mathematical Models of Plant-Herbivore Interactions addresses mathematical models in the study of practical questions in ecology, particularly factors that affect herbivory, including plant defense, herbivore natural enemies, and adaptive herbivory, as well as the effects of these on plant community dynamics. The result of extensive research on the use of mathematical modeling to investigate the effects of plant defenses on plant-herbivore dynamics, this book describes a toxin-determined functional response model (TDFRM) that helps explains field observations of these interactions. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in mathematical biology and ecology.
From economics and business to the biological sciences to physics and engineering, professionals successfully use the powerful mathematical tool of optimal control to make management and strategy decisions. Optimal Control Applied to Biological Models thoroughly develops the mathematical aspects of optimal control theory and provides insight into the application of this theory to biological models. Focusing on mathematical concepts, the book first examines the most basic problem for continuous time ordinary differential equations (ODEs) before discussing more complicated problems, such as variations of the initial conditions, imposed bounds on the control, multiple states and controls, linear dependence on the control, and free terminal time. In addition, the authors introduce the optimal control of discrete systems and of partial differential equations (PDEs). Featuring a user-friendly interface, the book contains fourteen interactive sections of various applications, including immunology and epidemic disease models, management decisions in harvesting, and resource allocation models. It also develops the underlying numerical methods of the applications and includes the MATLAB® codes on which the applications are based. Requiring only basic knowledge of multivariable calculus, simple ODEs, and mathematical models, this text shows how to adjust controls in biological systems in order to achieve proper outcomes.
With more and more interest in how components of biological systems interact, it is important to understand the various aspects of systems biology. Kinetic Modelling in Systems Biology focuses on one of the main pillars in the future development of systems biology. It explores both the methods and applications of kinetic modeling in this emerging field. The book introduces the basic biological cellular network concepts in the context of cellular functioning, explains the main aspects of the Edinburgh Pathway Editor (EPE) software package, and discusses the process of constructing and verifying kinetic models. It presents the features, user interface, and examples of DBSolve as well as the principles of modeling individual enzymes and transporters. The authors describe how to construct kinetic models of intracellular systems on the basis of models of individual enzymes. They also illustrate how to apply the principles of kinetic modeling to collect all available information on the energy metabolism of whole organelles, construct a kinetic model, and predict the response of the organelle to changes in external conditions. The final chapter focuses on applications of kinetic modeling in biotechnology and biomedicine. Encouraging readers to think about future challenges, this book will help them understand the kinetic modeling approach and how to apply it to solve real-life problems. CD-ROM Features Extensively used throughout the text for pathway visualization and illustration, the EPE software is available on the accompanying CD-ROM. The CD also includes pathway diagrams in several graphical formats, DBSolve installation with examples, and all models from the book with dynamic visualization of simulation results, allowing readers to perform in silico simulations and use the models as templates for further applications.
Author: Arthur Lesk
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2010-03-25
Introduction to Protein Science provides a broad introduction to the contemporary study of proteins in health and disease, suitable for students on biological, biochemical, and biomedical degrees internationally. The book relates the study of proteins to the context of modern high-throughput data streams of genomics and proteomics.
Author: F. J. Burkowski
Publisher: Chapman & Hall
Release Date: 2009
As the field of bioinformatics grows, the progression of topics in the field reflects separate concerns for sequence data and structure data. This book presents key algorithms - some developed within the artificial intelligence community - and their applications to problems in structural biology and drug discovery.
Author: Shui Qing Ye
Publisher: Chapman and Hall/CRC
Release Date: 2008
An emerging, ever-evolving branch of science, bioinformatics has paved the way for the explosive growth in the distribution of biological information to a variety of biological databases, including the National Center for Biotechnology Information. For growth to continue in this field, biologists must obtain basic computer skills while computer specialists must possess a fundamental understanding of biological problems. Bridging the gap between biology and computer science, Bioinformatics: A Practical Approach assimilates current bioinformatics knowledge and tools relevant to the omics age into one cohesive, concise, and self-contained volume. Written by expert contributors from around the world, this practical book presents the most state-of-the-art bioinformatics applications. The first part focuses on genome analysis, common DNA analysis tools, phylogenetics analysis, and SNP and haplotype analysis. After chapters on microarray, SAGE, regulation of gene expression, miRNA, and siRNA, the book presents widely applied programs and tools in proteome analysis, protein sequences, protein functions, and functional annotation of proteins in murine models. The last part introduces the programming languages used in biology, website and database design, and the interchange of data between Microsoft Excel and Access. Keeping complex mathematical deductions and jargon to a minimum, this accessible book offers both the theoretical underpinnings and practical applications of bioinformatics.
Quantitative methods have a particular knack for improving any field they touch. For biology, computational techniques have led to enormous strides in our understanding of biological systems, but there is still vast territory to cover. Statistical physics especially holds great potential for elucidating the structural-functional relationships in biomolecules, as well as their static and dynamic properties. Breaking New Ground Computational Biology: A Statistical Mechanics Perspective is the first book dedicated to the interface between statistical physics and bioinformatics. Introducing both equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in a manner tailored to computational biologists, the author applies these methods to understand and model the properties of various biomolecules and biological networks at the systems level. Unique Vision, Novel Approach Blossey combines his enthusiasm for uniting the fields of physics and computational biology with his considerable experience, knowledge, and gift for teaching. He uses numerous examples and tasks to illustrate and test understanding of the concepts, and he supplies a detailed keyword list for easy navigation and comprehension. His approach takes full advantage of the latest tools in statistical physics and computer science to build a strong set of tools for confronting new challenges in computational biology. Making the concepts crystal clear without sacrificing mathematical rigor, Computational Biology: A Statistical Mechanics Perspective is the perfect tool to broaden your skills in computational biology.
In today's data driven biology, programming knowledge is essential in turning ideas into testable hypothesis. Based on the author’s extensive experience, Python for Bioinformatics, Second Edition helps biologists get to grips with the basics of software development. Requiring no prior knowledge of programming-related concepts, the book focuses on the easy-to-use, yet powerful, Python computer language. This new edition is updated throughout to Python 3 and is designed not just to help scientists master the basics, but to do more in less time and in a reproducible way. New developments added in this edition include NoSQL databases, the Anaconda Python distribution, graphical libraries like Bokeh, and the use of Github for collaborative development.
Author: Rikard Johansson
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
Release Date: 2017-10-12
Genre: Electronic books
The utilization of mathematical tools within biology and medicine has traditionally been less widespread compared to other hard sciences, such as physics and chemistry. However, an increased need for tools such as data processing, bioinformatics, statistics, and mathematical modeling, have emerged due to advancements during the last decades. These advancements are partly due to the development of high-throughput experimental procedures and techniques, which produce ever increasing amounts of data. For all aspects of biology and medicine, these data reveal a high level of inter-connectivity between components, which operate on many levels of control, and with multiple feedbacks both between and within each level of control. However, the availability of these large-scale data is not synonymous to a detailed mechanistic understanding of the underlying system. Rather, a mechanistic understanding is gained first when we construct a hypothesis, and test its predictions experimentally. Identifying interesting predictions that are quantitative in nature, generally requires mathematical modeling. This, in turn, requires that the studied system can be formulated into a mathematical model, such as a series of ordinary differential equations, where different hypotheses can be expressed as precise mathematical expressions that influence the output of the model. Within specific sub-domains of biology, the utilization of mathematical models have had a long tradition, such as the modeling done on electrophysiology by Hodgkin and Huxley in the 1950s. However, it is only in recent years, with the arrival of the field known as systems biology that mathematical modeling has become more commonplace. The somewhat slow adaptation of mathematical modeling in biology is partly due to historical differences in training and terminology, as well as in a lack of awareness of showcases illustrating how modeling can make a difference, or even be required, for a correct analysis of the experimental data. In this work, I provide such showcases by demonstrating the universality and applicability of mathematical modeling and hypothesis testing in three disparate biological systems. In Paper II, we demonstrate how mathematical modeling is necessary for the correct interpretation and analysis of dominant negative inhibition data in insulin signaling in primary human adipocytes. In Paper III, we use modeling to determine transport rates across the nuclear membrane in yeast cells, and we show how this technique is superior to traditional curve-fitting methods. We also demonstrate the issue of population heterogeneity and the need to account for individual differences between cells and the population at large. In Paper IV, we use mathematical modeling to reject three hypotheses concerning the phenomenon of facilitation in pyramidal nerve cells in rats and mice. We also show how one surviving hypothesis can explain all data and adequately describe independent validation data. Finally, in Paper I, we develop a method for model selection and discrimination using parametric bootstrapping and the combination of several different empirical distributions of traditional statistical tests. We show how the empirical log-likelihood ratio test is the best combination of two tests and how this can be used, not only for model selection, but also for model discrimination. In conclusion, mathematical modeling is a valuable tool for analyzing data and testing biological hypotheses, regardless of the underlying biological system. Further development of modeling methods and applications are therefore important since these will in all likelihood play a crucial role in all future aspects of biology and medicine, especially in dealing with the burden of increasing amounts of data that is made available with new experimental techniques. Användandet av matematiska verktyg har inom biologi och medicin traditionellt sett varit mindre utbredd jämfört med andra ämnen inom naturvetenskapen, såsom fysik och kemi. Ett ökat behov av verktyg som databehandling, bioinformatik, statistik och matematisk modellering har trätt fram tack vare framsteg under de senaste decennierna. Dessa framsteg är delvis ett resultat av utvecklingen av storskaliga datainsamlingstekniker. Inom alla områden av biologi och medicin så har dessa data avslöjat en hög nivå av interkonnektivitet mellan komponenter, verksamma på många kontrollnivåer och med flera återkopplingar både mellan och inom varje nivå av kontroll. Tillgång till storskaliga data är emellertid inte synonymt med en detaljerad mekanistisk förståelse för det underliggande systemet. Snarare uppnås en mekanisk förståelse först när vi bygger en hypotes vars prediktioner vi kan testa experimentellt. Att identifiera intressanta prediktioner som är av kvantitativ natur, kräver generellt sett matematisk modellering. Detta kräver i sin tur att det studerade systemet kan formuleras till en matematisk modell, såsom en serie ordinära differentialekvationer, där olika hypoteser kan uttryckas som precisa matematiska uttryck som påverkar modellens output. Inom vissa delområden av biologin har utnyttjandet av matematiska modeller haft en lång tradition, såsom den modellering gjord inom elektrofysiologi av Hodgkin och Huxley på 1950?talet. Det är emellertid just på senare år, med ankomsten av fältet systembiologi, som matematisk modellering har blivit ett vanligt inslag. Den något långsamma adapteringen av matematisk modellering inom biologi är bl.a. grundad i historiska skillnader i träning och terminologi, samt brist på medvetenhet om exempel som illustrerar hur modellering kan göra skillnad och faktiskt ofta är ett krav för en korrekt analys av experimentella data. I detta arbete tillhandahåller jag sådana exempel och demonstrerar den matematiska modelleringens och hypotestestningens allmängiltighet och tillämpbarhet i tre olika biologiska system. I Arbete II visar vi hur matematisk modellering är nödvändig för en korrekt tolkning och analys av dominant-negativ-inhiberingsdata vid insulinsignalering i primära humana adipocyter. I Arbete III använder vi modellering för att bestämma transporthastigheter över cellkärnmembranet i jästceller, och vi visar hur denna teknik är överlägsen traditionella kurvpassningsmetoder. Vi demonstrerar också frågan om populationsheterogenitet och behovet av att ta hänsyn till individuella skillnader mellan celler och befolkningen som helhet. I Arbete IV använder vi matematisk modellering för att förkasta tre hypoteser om hur fenomenet facilitering uppstår i pyramidala nervceller hos råttor och möss. Vi visar också hur en överlevande hypotes kan beskriva all data, inklusive oberoende valideringsdata. Slutligen utvecklar vi i Arbete I en metod för modellselektion och modelldiskriminering med hjälp av parametrisk ”bootstrapping” samt kombinationen av olika empiriska fördelningar av traditionella statistiska tester. Vi visar hur det empiriska ”log-likelihood-ratio-testet” är den bästa kombinationen av två tester och hur testet är applicerbart, inte bara för modellselektion, utan också för modelldiskriminering. Sammanfattningsvis är matematisk modellering ett värdefullt verktyg för att analysera data och testa biologiska hypoteser, oavsett underliggande biologiskt system. Vidare utveckling av modelleringsmetoder och tillämpningar är därför viktigt eftersom dessa sannolikt kommer att spela en avgörande roll i framtiden för biologi och medicin, särskilt när det gäller att hantera belastningen från ökande datamängder som blir tillgänglig med nya experimentella tekniker.
Covering theory, algorithms, and methodologies, as well as data mining technologies, Data Mining for Bioinformatics provides a comprehensive discussion of data-intensive computations used in data mining with applications in bioinformatics. It supplies a broad, yet in-depth, overview of the application domains of data mining for bioinformatics to help readers from both biology and computer science backgrounds gain an enhanced understanding of this cross-disciplinary field. The book offers authoritative coverage of data mining techniques, technologies, and frameworks used for storing, analyzing, and extracting knowledge from large databases in the bioinformatics domains, including genomics and proteomics. It begins by describing the evolution of bioinformatics and highlighting the challenges that can be addressed using data mining techniques. Introducing the various data mining techniques that can be employed in biological databases, the text is organized into four sections: Supplies a complete overview of the evolution of the field and its intersection with computational learning Describes the role of data mining in analyzing large biological databases—explaining the breath of the various feature selection and feature extraction techniques that data mining has to offer Focuses on concepts of unsupervised learning using clustering techniques and its application to large biological data Covers supervised learning using classification techniques most commonly used in bioinformatics—addressing the need for validation and benchmarking of inferences derived using either clustering or classification The book describes the various biological databases prominently referred to in bioinformatics and includes a detailed list of the applications of advanced clustering algorithms used in bioinformatics. Highlighting the challenges encountered during the application of classification on biological databases, it considers systems of both single and ensemble classifiers and shares effort-saving tips for model selection and performance estimation strategies.