Author: Jeswald W. Salacuse
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2013-02-14
Genre: Business & Economics
There are three legal frameworks applicable to international investments: the laws of the host state and the investor's country, the contract between the host state and the investor, and the rules of international investment law. This book assesses how these three bodies of law interact in investment agreements and dispute arbitration.
States reject inequality when they choose to ratify the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), but to date the ICESCR has not yet figured prominently in the policy calculus behind States' international economic decisions. This book responds to the modern challenge of operationalizing the ICESCR, particularly in the context of States' decisions within international trade, finance, and investment. Differentiating between public policy mechanisms and institutional functional mandates in the international trade, finance, and investment systems, this book shows legal and policy gateways for States to feasibly translate their fundamental duties to respect, protect, and fulfil economic, social and cultural rights into their trade, finance, and investment commitments, agreements, and contracts. It approaches the problem of harmonizing social protection objectives under the ICESCR with a State's international economic treaty obligations, from the designing and interpreting international treaty texts, up to the institutional monitoring and empirical analysis of ICESCR compliance. In examining public policy options, the book takes into account around five decades of States' implementation of social protection commitments under the ICESCR; its normative evolution through the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and the Committee's expanded fact-finding and adjudicative competences under the Optional Protocol to the ICESCR; as well as the critical, dialectical, and deliberative roles of diverse functional interpretive communities within international trade, finance, and investment law. Ultimately, the book shoes how States' ICESCR commitments operate as the normative foundation of their trade, finance, and investment decisions.
Author: Zachary Douglas
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-05-01
International investment law is one of the fastest growing areas of international law. It has led to the signing of thousands of agreements, mostly in the form of investment contracts and bilateral investment treaties. Also, in the last two decades, there has been an exponential growth in the number of disputes being resolved by investment arbitration tribunals. Yet the legal principles at the basis of international investment law and arbitration remain in a state of flux. Perhaps the best illustration of this phenomenon is the wide disagreement among investment tribunals on some of the core concepts underpinning the regime, such as investment, property, regulatory powers, scope of jurisdiction, applicable law, or the interactions with other areas of international law. The purpose of this book is to revisit these conceptual foundations in order to shed light on the practice of international investment law. It is an attempt to bridge the growing gap between the theory and the practice of this thriving area of international law. The first part of the book focuses on the 'infrastructure' of the investment regime or, more specifically, on the structural arrangements that have been developed to manage foreign investment transactions and the potential disputes arising from them. The second part of the book identifies the common conceptual bases of an array of seemingly unconnected practical problems in order to clarify the main stakes and offer balanced solutions. The third part addresses the main sources of 'regime stress' as well as the main legal mechanisms available to manage such challenges to the operation of the regime. Overall, the book offers a thorough investigation of the conflicting theoretical positions underlying international investment law, testing their worth by reference to concrete issues that have arisen in the jurisprudence. It demonstrates that many of the most important practical questions arising in practice can be addressed by a carefully dosed resort to theory.
Author: M. Sornarajah
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2017-08-11
Following the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), the demonstrations against investor-state arbitration and the wide discussion during the 2016 US presidential election, the climate surrounding foreign investment law is one of controversy and change, and with implications for human rights and environmental protection, foreign investment law has gained widespread public attention and visibility. Addressing the pressing need to examine foreign investment law in the context of public international law, the role of the multinational corporation in foreign investment and issues of liability for environmental and other damage, this new edition analyses contractual and treaty-based methods of investment protection and examines the effectiveness of bilateral and regional investment treaties. By offering thought-provoking analysis of the law in historical, political and economic contexts, this fully updated edition of Sornarajah's classic text captures leading trends and charts the possible course of future developments. Suitable for postgraduate and undergraduate students, The International Law on Foreign Investment is essential reading for anyone specialising in the law of foreign investments.
Author: Jeswald W. Salacuse
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2015-06-04
The rapid growth in investment treaties has led to a burgeoning number of international arbitration decisions that have applied and interpreted treaty provisions in disputes between investors and states concerning their respective rights. This flurry of treaties and arbitral decisions has seen the creation of a new branch of international law- the law of investment claims. In this revised edition, Jeswald Salacuse examines the law of international investment treaties, specifically in relation to its origins, structure, content, and effect, as well as their impact on international investors and investments, and the governments that are parties to them. Investment treaty law is a rapidly evolving field and since publication of the first edition, the law of international investment treaties has both experienced considerable growth and generated extensive controversy. 2011 saw the highest number of new treaty-based arbitration filed under international investment agreements to date, and in July 2014, the Yukos Universal Limited (Isle of Man) v The Russian Federation culminated with awards of over US$50 billion; a historic record for any arbitration. Controversy in this field has primarily revolved around the investor-state dispute settlement process, which as thus far involved at least 98 states as respondents. Salacuse captures these developments in this updated edition, examining not only the significant growth in treaties, but the trends that have followed, and their effect on the content and evolution of the law of investment treaties. Specific topics include conditions for the entry of foreign investment and general standards of treatment of foreign investments; monetary transfers; operational conditions; protection against expropriation; dispossession and compensation for losses; dispute settlement, including negotiation, arbitration, and conciliation; and judicial proceedings.
Author: Bajar Scharaw
Release Date: 2017-12-06
This book analyses the adequacy of Mongolia’s legal system for foreign investment protection by conducting a multi-level assessment of international investment treaties, domestic legislation of the host State, and investor-State contracts from an international comparative perspective. The investigation distinguishes between three legal dimensions, each of which offers both substantive legal guarantees for the protection of investments in the host State and provisions for the settlement of investment disputes by arbitration. In the first dimension of Public International Law (PIL), Mongolia is bound by international investment treaties, which offer investors an international law setting. In the second dimension, a special domestic investment law defines the domestic framework for the establishment, promotion and protection of investments, but also for the conclusion of investor-State contracts. These contracts in turn open a third legal dimension, which represents a cross-section through the PIL and domestic-law dimensions of investment protection. Following the development of a multi-level system with legal dimensions that are not isolated but rather interrelated and mutually reinforcing, the book examines whether Mongolia’s international investment treaties and domestic investment law reflect globally shared international and domestic standards of treatment and protection of foreign investments. Lastly, the author inquires whether the domestic laws applicable to investor-State contracts in Mongolia allow investors and the Mongolian Government to agree on protective terms according to the (not uncontroversial) standards of international contract practice.
Author: Stephan W. Schill
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
Release Date: 2015-12-18
International investment law has often been seen as an obstacle to sustainable development. While the connections between investment and development are plain, for a long time there has been relatively little scholarship exploring them. Combining critical reflection and detailed analysis, this book addresses the relationship between contemporary investment law and development. The book is organized around two competing visions of investment and development - as working either harmoniously or in conflict with one another. The expert contributors reflect on both of these views and analyse the social dimensions of development and its impact on investment law. Coverage includes in-depth discussion on such issues as human rights, poverty reduction, labor standards, and indigenous peoples. Students and scholars of international investment law will benefit from the informed analysis of the links between investment and development. This book will also be of use to practitioners and experts of development law who are looking for an up-to-date perspective of the field.
Author: Rudolf Dolzer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2012-11-15
This book outlines the principles behind the international law of foreign investment. The main focus is on the law governed by bilateral and multilateral investment treaties. It traces the purpose, context, and evolution of the clauses and provisions characteristic of contemporary investment treaties, and analyses the case law, interpreting the issues raised by standard clauses. Particular consideration is given to broad treaty-rules whose understanding in practice has mainly been shaped by their interpretation and application by international tribunals. In addition, the book introduces the dispute settlement mechanisms for enforcing investment law, outlining the operation of Investor vs State arbitration. Combining a systematic analytical study of the texts and principles underlying investment law with a jurisprudential analysis of the case law arising in international tribunals, this book offers an ideal introduction to the principles of international investment law and arbitration, for students or practitioners alike.
Author: Jan Ole Voss
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Release Date: 2010-12-10
In the field of investment treaty arbitration, the co-existence of contracts and treaties has generated an increasingly divided jurisprudence on central aspects of treaty interpretation. This book comprehensively examines the legal problems surrounding the relationship of these two instruments. ?????
Author: Andrew Paul Newcombe
Publisher: Kluwer Law International
Release Date: 2009
Foreign investors enjoy the protection of a vast network of international investment agreements (IIAs) supplemented by the general rules of international law. Under IIAs, states must accord foreign investors substantive standards of promotion and protection. In addition, IIAs provide an investor-state arbitration mechanism that allows foreign investors to enforce these standards against host states. In response to disputes arising under the IIA regime, since the early 1990s a significant body of arbitral jurisprudence has developed. This book provides a comprehensive and systematic explanation of these standards of treatment, taking into account developments in treaty practice and arbitral jurisprudence. Where possible, the authors critically examine the applicable principles emerging from treaty practice and jurisprudence. The book focuses on the substantive protections accorded to foreign investors and investments. Among the many specific issues and topics that arise in the course of the analysis are the following: the origins and evolution of the international investment treaty framework; the interaction between international and national law in the resolution of IIA disputes and the interpretation of IIAs; the role IIAs play in investment liberalization and their interaction with other areas of international economic law; the relationship between treaty and customary international law standards; the development of norms of non-discrimination and minimum standards of treatment, including fair and equitable treatment; the meaning of expropriation and conditions for lawful expropriations; the rules relating to transfer of funds, performance requirements and transparency; and exceptions and defences to investment treaty obligations. International business and other investors will greatly appreciate the in-depth information and insightful guidance in this solidly useful book. It will also be welcomed by jurists and students as a significant milestone in the articulation of principles in a quickly growing field of international law.
Author: Pascal Liu
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Social Science
Substantial increases in agricultural investments in developing countries are needed to combat poverty and realize food security and nutrition goals. There is evidence that agricultural investments can generate a wide range of developmental benefits, but these benefits cannot be expected to arise automatically and some forms of large-scale investment carry risks for host countries. Although there has been much debate about the potential benefits and risks of international investment, there is no systematic evidence on the actual impacts on the host country and their determinants. In order to acquire an in-depth understanding of potential benefits, constraints and costs of foreign investment in agriculture and of the business models that are more conducive to development, FAO has undertaken research in developing countries.This publication summarizes the results of this research, in particular through the presentation of the main findings of case studies in nine developing countries. It presents case studies on policies to attract foreign investment in agriculture and their impacts on national economic development in selected countries in Africa, Asian and Latin America.
Author: Anna De Luca
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2014-05-29
Signatory States have the right to take action in order to maintain their financial stability, stimulate economic development or further their non-economic interests (such as health, the environment and food security). However, such measures can potentially conflict with the rights of foreign investors. Regulators and policy makers must take States' international commitments toward foreign investors into account when making decisions. They must also avoid resorting to protectionism in drafting new treaties. With this tension in mind, this book offers a balanced reappraisal of bilateral treaties and regional agreements on foreign investments. The sensitive issues are examined in the light of the case law of arbitral investment tribunals and other international courts, and the analysis highlights how cross-fertilisation between trade and investment can assist in resolving conflicts.
The law of foreign investment is at a crossroads. In the wake of an unprecedented global financial crisis and a sharp surge of investment arbitration cases, states around the world are reflecting on the pros and cons of the current liberal investment regime and exploring new ways ahead. This book brings together leading investment lawyers from more than 20 main jurisdictions of the world to tackle the challenge of producing a first comparative study of foreign investment law. Based on the General and National Reports presented at the 'Protection of Foreign Investment' Session at the 18th International Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law (Washington DC, July 2010), the book is a unique resource for investment lawyers. Part I of the book presents a comparative overview of key aspects of foreign investment protection in the world today, including admission, investment contracts, treatment standards, tax regime and incentives, performance requirement, property and expropriation, monetary transfer and dispute settlement. Part II presents in-depth and detailed accounts of the investment laws of more than 20 jurisdictions, including Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Macau, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, Turkey, the UK and the USA. The book will be an invaluable guide to legal and business communities with an interest in the law and practice of foreign investment in the world in general and in these jurisdictions in particular.
This book addresses the topical question on how national and international environmental concerns could be adequately integrated into international investment law. It covers the question whether international investment law restricts state sovereignty in an unacceptable way - in particular, the freedom of host states to develop national policies and regulation for the improvement of the environment. The book first analyzes the interaction between international investment law and the protection of the environment, on the basis of concepts such as sustainable development, fair and equitable treatment, and international responsibility. Secondly, several chapters discuss challenges which are encountered in attempts to integrate environmental concerns in investment policies in specific sectors and regions (e.g. climate change, water pollution, renewable and nuclear energy, and the European Union region). And, finally, specific case studies illustrate the legal and policy tensions between investment law and environmental protection, namely Vattenfall's disputes with Germany, legal clashes between Chevron and Ecuador, and multinational mining companies' conflicts in Indonesia. The contributions are written by international experts and will be of interest to policy makers and practitioners. *** Librarians: ebook available (Series: Legal Perspectives for Global Challenges - Vol. 4) [Subject: International Law, Investment Law, Environmental Law]