With detailed essays on the Arctic's environment, wildlife, climate, history, exploration, resources, economics, politics, indigenous cultures and languages, conservation initiatives and more, this Encyclopedia is the only major work and comprehensive reference on this vast, complex, changing, and increasingly important part of the globe. Including 305 maps. This Encyclopedia is not only an up-to-date interdisciplinary work of reference for all those involved in teaching or researching Arctic issues, but a fascinating and comprehensive resource for residents of the Arctic, and all those concerned with global environmental issues, sustainability, science, and human interactions with the environment.
Author: Ed Couzens
Release Date: 2013-11-07
Whales and elephants are iconic giants of the marine and terrestrial animal world. Both are conspicuous representatives of wildlife conservation. The issues of whaling and the ivory trade are closely linked, both legally and politically, in many ways; some obvious, and some surprising. The treatment of both whales and elephants will be politically and legally contentious for years to come, and is of great significance to conservation in general. This book examines the current state of international environmental law and wildlife conservation through a comparative analysis of the treatment of whales and elephants. In particular, it describes the separate histories of international governance of both whales and elephants, presenting the various treaties through which conservation has been implemented. It is shown that international environmental law is influenced and shaped by important political actors – many with opposing views on how best conservation, and sustainable development, principles are to be implemented. Modern environmental treaties are changing as weaknesses and loopholes are exposed in older, and possibly outdated, treaties such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW). Such weaknesses can be seen in the efforts made by some states to circumvent or weaken CITES and the International Whaling Commission and to resume commercial whaling, and further in the efforts of countries to resume trade in ivory. The argument is made that the Convention on Biological Diversity could be used to begin reconciling opposed views and to focus conservation efforts. The argument is made that effective conservation of species cannot be achieved through individual treaties, but only through a synergistic approach involving multilateral environmental agreements – 'ecosystems of legal instruments'.
Author: Elizabeth Hallam
Publisher: Reaktion Books
Release Date: 2016-06-15
The wild success of the traveling Body Worlds exhibition is testimony to the powerful allure that human bodies can have when opened up for display in gallery spaces. But while anatomy museums have shown their visitors much about bodies, they themselves are something of an obscure phenomenon, with their incredible technological developments and complex uses of visual images and the flesh itself remaining largely under researched. This book investigates anatomy museums in Western settings, revealing how they have operated in the often passionate pursuit of knowledge that inspires both fascination and fear. Elizabeth Hallam explores these museums, past and present, showing how they display the human body—whether naked, stripped of skin, completely dissected, or rendered in the form of drawings, three-dimensional models, x-rays, or films. She identifies within anatomy museums a diverse array of related issues—from the representation of deceased bodies in art to the aesthetics of science, from body donation to techniques for preserving corpses and ritualized practices for disposing of the dead. Probing these matters through in-depth study, Anatomy Museum unearths a strange and compelling cultural history of the spaces human bodies are made to occupy when displayed after death.
Author: Elizabeth Hallam
Publisher: Reaktion Books
Release Date: 2008
Anatomy museums around the world showcase preserved corpses in service of education and medical advancement, but they are little-known and have been largely hidden from the public eye. Elizabeth Hallam here investigates the anatomy museum and how it reveals the fascination and fears that surround the dead body in Western societies. Hallam explores the history of these museums and how they operate in the current cultural environment. Their regulated access increasingly clashes with evolving public mores toward the exposed body, as demonstrated by the international popularity of the Body Worlds exhibition. The book examines such related topics as artistic works that employ the images of dead bodies and the larger ongoing debate over the disposal of corpses. Issues such as aesthetics and science, organ and body donations, and the dead body in Western religion and ritual are also discussed here in fascinating depth. The Anatomy Museum unearths a strange and compelling cultural history that investigates the ideas of preservation, human rituals of death, and the spaces that our bodies occupy in this life and beyond.
Author: Tom F. Cunningham
Publisher: Mainstream Publishing Company
Release Date: 2001
During 1999 a major story in the news was the 'Orkney Homecoming'. The Orkney Homecoming was a celebration in Scotland which attracted a large number of visitors from all over the world, with a powerful contingent from the First Nations of northern Canada, claiming descent from Hudson Bay Company employees recruited in the Orkneys. Unfamiliar faces, but with incongruously familiar last names. A new bond of friendship between two very different peoples has clearly been forged. This event is merely the latest manifestation of a more ancient bond between two kindred peoples - the Scots and the Native Americans - linked forever by parallel histories (in which a bitter legacy of massacres, subjugation, forced removals and enforced acculteration have all had their part), an affinity of spirits, and a unique coincidence of destinies. This book seeks out to catalogue the many links which exist between the Scots and the Native Americans, placing special emphasis upon those interactions which have taken place on Scottish soil, and on those Native Americans who, swimming against the tide of mass emigrations in the opposite direction, have in the course of several centuries made their way to Scotland, for different reasons.
Author: A. D. Morrison-Low
Publisher: National Museums of Scotland
Release Date: 2010
The Scottish coastline remains one of the most dangerous in the world. The story of how her margins were lit is one of determined engineering endeavour and heroic struggle against the elements. The Northern Lighthouse Board, formed in 1786, continues to assist mariners and live up to its motto 'In Salutem Omnium', for the safety of all. The story begins in Egypt, with one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, for all lighthouse builders have learned from their predecessors. Using the collections of National Museums Scotland, this account shows how the world's first rock lighthouse in the dangerous English Channel at the Eddystone Reef off Plymouth was first destroyed by storm and then by fire, before being made in stone, and outlasting the rock itself. The lessons learned there were absorbed by the young Robert Stevenson, whose apprenticeship with his stepfather Thomas Smith allowed him to experience at first hand the darkness and the dangers of Scotland's perilous coastline. Stevenson's building of a lighthouse on the dangerous Inchcape Reef, or Bell Rock, 11 miles from Arbroath, would prove to be his most important engineering success. Robert Stevenson's family was associated with lighthouse construction for a further three generations, not only in Scotland, but in Newfoundland, Burma, Japan and New Zealand. This account, drawn from their writings and illustrated by the unmatched collection of light-house artefacts; often made for exhibition at the nineteenth century international trade fairs in London and Paris, now held by National Museums Scotland, is brought up to date with how the Northern Lighthouse Board operates today.