This collection of essays examines the question of theory from the perspective of the history of chemistry. Through the lens of a number of different periods, the authors provide a historical analysis of the question of theory in the history of chemical practice. The consensus picture that emerges is that the history of science tells us a much more complex story about theory choice. A glimpse at scientific practice at the time shows that different, competing as well as non-competing, theories were used in the context of the scientific practice at the various times and sometimes played a pivotal pedagogical role in training the next generation of chemists. This brief brings together a history of chemical practice, and in so doing reveals that theory choice is conceptually more problematic than was originally conceived. This volume was produced as part of the Ad HOC chemistry research group hosted by University College London and University of Cambridge.
Author: Alan J. Rocke
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-01-21
Hermann Kopp (1817–1892) is best remembered today as a historian of chemistry, but during his lifetime he was one of the most eminent chemists of his day, and one of the earliest pioneers of physical chemistry. Late in his career he wrote an endearing fantasy about personified molecules. Published in 1882, Aus der Molecular-Welt (From the Molecular World) portrayed the intimate details of what might actually be happening in the sub-microscopic world; the atoms and molecules we meet there have agency, personalities, sometimes even dialog. Filled with appealing tropes, humor, and whimsical asides, Kopp’s short book provided an examination of the chemistry and physics of his day that was always light-hearted on the surface, but often surprisingly profound. Properly interpreted, the book provides a revealing tour of nineteenth-century debates concerning chemical theory. It is here translated into English, richly annotated, and equipped with an illuminating preface by a leading historian of chemistry. It provides entertaining reading to practicing chemists, as well as new insights to historians of science.
Author: Mary Virginia Orna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-10-05
In this brief, Mary Virginia Orna details the history of color from the chemical point of view. Beginning with the first recorded uses of color and ending in the development of our modern chemical industry, this rich, yet concise exposition shows us how color pervades every aspect of our lives. Our consciousness, our perceptions, our useful appliances and tools, our playthings, our entertainment, our health, and our diagnostic apparatus – all involve color and are based in no small part on chemistry.
Author: David Lewis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-04-05
The organic chemists of Russia during the pre-revolutionary period included some of the most creative and talented chemists of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Indeed, this is attested by the number of reactions and empirical rules bearing their names. This volume is of interest for both historians of chemistry and organic chemists wishing to discover more about the historical development of their discipline in Russia. From the founding of the Russian Academy of Sciences by Peter the Great in 1725 to the early years of the nineteenth century, Russian organic chemistry was largely in the hands of foreign scientists. However, the Russification of organic chemistry in Russia had begun before the middle of the nineteenth century, and reached its zenith during the last half of the same century, by which time vibrant schools of chemistry had arisen in the eastern city of Kazan', at Moscow and at St. Petersburg. By the end of the century, the Chairs of organic chemistry at universities throughout the Russian empire were occupied by Russian chemists, almost half of them trained at Kazan'. This volume discusses the contributions of these organic chemists which include: the structural theory of organic chemistry, empirical rules for addition and elimination, reactions involving carbon nucleophiles, such as the aldol reaction and alcohol synthesis using organozinc nucleophiles, the discovery of sulfoxides and sulfonium salts, and a range of important redox reactions.
This brief offers a novel vision of the city of Florence, tracing the development of chemistry via the biographies of its most illustrious chemists. It documents not only important scientific research that came from the hands of Galileo Galilei and the physicists who followed in his footsteps, but also the growth of new disciplines such as chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, and biochemistry. It recounts how, in the Middle Ages, chemistry began as an applied science that served to bolster the Florentine economy, particularly in the textile dyeing industry. Later, important scientific collections founded by the ruling Medici family served as the basis of renowned museums that now house priceless artifacts and instruments. Also described in this text are the chemists such as Hugo Schiff, Angelo Angeli, and Luigi Rolla, who were active over the course of the following century and a quarter. The authors tell the story of the evolution of the Royal University of Florence, which ultimately became the University of Florence. Of interest to historians and chemists, this tale is told through the lives and work of the principal actors in the university’s department of chemistry.
This brief draws on the first modern book about Carl Wilhelm Scheele which was published in Swedish in 2015. Following an introduction and bibliography of Scheele’s published works, the author analyses Scheele’s publications paragraph by paragraph, explaining the procedures and the results in modern terms, and summarising and elucidating Scheele’s conclusions. Up until now the original works by Scheele have only in part been translated into English, and to get a complete view of Scheele’s work, knowledge of both Swedish and German was required. This brief opens up the important work of Carl Wilhelm Scheele to an international audience of historians of chemistry, students of history of chemistry and interested chemists.
Author: Joe S. Jeffers
Release Date: 2017-03-14
In this Brief, Joe Jeffers uncovers the life and works of two-time Nobel Laureate Frederick Sanger. Following Sanger’s early life to retirement, Jeffers describes how this celebrated British biochemist became the first person to determine the amino acid sequence of a protein for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1958. Highlighting Sanger’s remarkable career, Jeffers describes Sanger’s later change in research direction to investigate deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA), work for which Sanger also received the Nobel Prize jointly with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert in 1980. Joe Jeffers conducted twelve interviews with Sanger over the period of 1999-2009 and he has also spoken to more than 40 of Sanger’s colleagues and family members. This brief provides a rigorous yet concise view of Sanger on a personal and scientific level and is suitable for biochemists, historians or the interested layperson.
In this book the authors go back to basics to describe the structural differences between dyes and pigments, their mechanisms of action, properties and applications. They set the scene by explaining the reasons behind these differences and show how dyes are predominately organic compounds that dissolve or react with substrates, whereas pigments are (predominantly) finely ground inorganic substances that are insoluble and therefore have a different mode of coloring. They also describe the role of functional groups and their effect on dyeing ability, contrasting this with the way in which pigments cause surface reflection (or light absorption) depending on their chemical and crystalline structure and relative particle size. The book explores the environmental impact of dyes in a section that covers the physical, chemical, toxicological, and ecological properties of dyes and how these are used to assess their effect on the environment and to estimate whether a given product presents a potential hazard. Lastly, it assesses how, in addition to their traditional uses in the textile, leather, paper, paint and varnish industries, dyes and pigments are indispensable in other fields such as microelectronics, medical diagnostics, and in information recording techniques.
Author: Ursula Klein
Publisher: MIT Press
Release Date: 2007
A history of raw materials and chemical substances from the late seventeenth to theearly nineteenth centuries that scrutinizes the modes of identification and classification used bychemists and learned practitioners of the period, examining the ways in which their practices andunderstanding of the material objects changed.
Author: Michaela Wirth
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-09-18
Lázlo Zechmeister was one of the pioneers in chromatology. He recognized the potential of the chromatographic method and made extensive use of it for his research about natural products. In 1938 he founded the book series "Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products" which includes review articles on contemporary research by masters in their fields of expertise. This text casts light on his life and his pioneering role in chromatography and provides more detailed insight on the book series.
Author: Anthony S. Travis
Release Date: 2018-04-24
This monograph provides an account of how the synthetic nitrogen industry became the forerunner of the 20th-century chemical industry in Europe, the United States and Asia. Based on an earlier SpringerBrief by the same author, which focused on the period of World War I, it expands considerably on the international aspects of the development of the synthetic nitrogen industry in the decade and a half following the war, including the new technologies that rivalled the Haber-Bosch ammonia process. Travis describes the tremendous global impact of fixed nitrogen (as calcium cyanamide and ammonia), including the perceived strategic need for nitrogen (mainly for munitions), and, increasingly, its role in increasing crop yields, including in Italy under Mussolini, and in the Soviet Union under Stalin. The author also reviews the situation in Imperial Japan, including the earliest adoption of the Italian Casale ammonia process, from 1923, and the role of fixed nitrogen in the industrialization of colonial Korea from the late 1920s. Chemists, historians of science and technology, and those interested in world fertilizer production and the development of chemical industry during the first four decades of the twentieth century will find this book of considerable value.
This Brief takes the reader on a chemical journey by following the history for over two centuries of how an opiate became an opioid, thus spawning an empire and a series of crises. These imperfect resemblances of alkaloids are both natural and synthetic substances that, particularly in America, are continually part of a growing concern about overuse. This seemed an inviting prospect for those in pain, but as the ubiquitous media coverage continues to lay bare, the levels of abuse point to the fact that perhaps an epidemic is upon us, if not a culture war. Seeking answers to how and why this addiction crisis transpired over two hundred years of long development, this Brief examines the role that the chemistry laboratory played in turning patients into consumers. By utilizing a host of diverse sources, this Brief seeks to trace the design and the production of opioids and their antecedents over the past two centuries. From the isolation and development of the first alkaloids with morphine that relieved pain within the home and on the battlefield, to the widespread use of nostrums and the addiction crisis that ensued, to the dissemination of drugs by what became known as Big Pharma after the World Wars; and finally, to competition from home-made pharmaceuticals, the progenitor was always, in some form, a type of chemistry lab. At times, the laboratory pressed science to think deeply about society's maladies, such as curing disease and alleviating pain, in order to look for new opportunities in the name of progress. Despite the best intentions opioids have created a paradox of pain as they were manipulated by creating relief with synthetic precision and influencing a dystopian vision. Thus, influence came in many forms, from governments, from the medical community, and from the entrepreneurial aspirations of the general populace. For better, but mostly for worse, all played a role in changing forever the trajectory of what started with the isolation of a compound in Germany. Combining chemistry and history in a rousing new long-form narrative that even broadens the definition of a laboratory, the origins and future of this complicated topic are carefully examined.
Author: Thomas Catalano
Release Date: 2014-09-02
Good Laboratory Practices for Forensic Chemistry acknowledges the limitations that often challenge the validity of data and resultant conclusions. Eight chapters examine current practices in analytical chemistry as well as business practices, guidelines and regulations in the pharmaceutical industry to offer improvements to current practices in forensic chemistry. It discusses topics ranging from good manufacturing practices (GMP), good laboratory practices (GLP), the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), quality assurance (QA), and quality risk management (QRM), among others. This book is a guide for scientists, professors, and students interested in expanding their knowledge of forensic chemistry.
More than 80 personalities, in or from Germany, that over the centuries have shaped the development of analytical chemistry are introduced by brief biographies. These accounts go beyond summarising key biographical information and outline the individual's contributions to analytical chemistry. This richly illustrated Brief offers a unique resource of information that is not available elsewhere.
This brief provides a valuable reference for the contribution of essential oils in the green chemistry, mainly in terms of their characteristics corresponding to their compositions, the development of their extraction technologies including both conventional and green process (e.g. microwave, ultrasound), and their sustainable applications as antioxidants, antimicrobials, insecticides, green solvents and synthons for the green synthesis.