Author: Lars Q. English
Release Date: 2017-08-14
The main purpose of this book is to introduce a broader audience to emergence by illustrating how discoveries in the physical sciences have informed the ways we think about it. In a nutshell, emergence asserts that non-reductive behavior arises at higher levels of organization and complexity. As physicist Philip Anderson put it, “more is different.” Along the text's conversational tour through the terrain of quantum physics, phase transitions, nonlinear and statistical physics, networks and complexity, the author highlights the various philosophical nuances that arise in encounters with emergence. The final part of the book zooms out to reflect on some larger lessons that emergence affords us. One of those larger lessons is the realization that the great diversity of theories and models, and the great variety of independent explanatory frameworks, will always be with us in the sciences and beyond. There is no “Theory of Everything” just around the corner waiting to be discovered.“div> One of the main benefits of this book is that it will make a number of exciting scientific concepts that are not normally covered at this level accessible to a broader audience. The overall presentation, including the use of examples, analogies, metaphors, and biographical interludes, is geared for the educated non-specialist.
Author: A. R. P. Rau
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-09-25
The beauty of physics lies in its coherence in terms of a few fundamental concepts and principles. Even physicists have occasion to marvel at the overarching reach of basic principles and their ability to account for features stretching from the microscopic sub-atomic world to the cosmological expanses of the Universe. While mathematics is its natural language, physics is mostly about patterns, connections, and relations between objects and phenomena, and it is this aspect that is emphasized in this book. Since science tries to connect phenomena that at first sight appear widely different, while boiling them down to a small set of essential principles and laws, metaphor and analogy pervade our subject. Consider the pendulum, its swing from one extreme to the other often invoked in social or economic contexts. In molecular vibrations, such as in the CO2 molecule, the quantum motions of electrons and nuclei are metaphorically the pendulums. In electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light we observe, there are not even any concrete material particles, only electric and magnetic fields executing simple harmonic motion. But, to a physicist, they are all "just a pendulum". The selection of topics reflects the author's own four-decade career in research physics and his resultant perspective on the subject. While aimed primarily at physicists, including junior students, this book also addresses other readers who are willing to think with symbols and simple algebra in understanding the physical world around us. Each chapter, on themes such as dimensions, transformations, symmetries, or maps, begins with simple examples accessible to all while connecting them later to more sophisticated realizations in more advanced topics of physics.
Author: Scott S Gordon
Publisher: Dog Ear Publishing
Release Date: 2015-09-18
Theoretical physics has reached an impasse that many feel is a dead end. As the odds of finding evidence for supersymmetry starts to fade, “new” theories have emerged such as “The Multiverse”, “Extra Dimensions”, and “Dimensional Transmutation”. These theories attempt to explain the inexplicable yet at the same time fail to explain the explainable. Many physicists are left frustrated and wondering aloud… How could we have travelled so far down the wrong path? “Any intelligent fool can make things bigger and more complex. It takes a touch of genius - and a lot of courage to move in the opposite direction.” ~ Albert Einstein Engineers know that the right answer is usually a simple one. As Einstein would put it, “The grand aim of all science is to cover the greatest number of empirical facts by logical deduction from the smallest number of hypotheses or axioms.” Gordon’s theory of everything starts with only two postulates; the massless bosons called “Gordon Omnipresent Dots” or “GOD entities” and the E0 energy associated with their initial alignment. These primordial postulates are the only building blocks of a model that explains the inevitable course of events that created our universe. The mathematics created within this process corrects the postulates used to develop the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics which can finally be united and subsequently applied to the infinitesimally small and the infinitely large. We currently use parameters such as distance, time, straight lines, velocity, electric charge, energy fields, and mass. Gordon’s theory of everything begins at a time when none of these parameters existed (prior to the Big Bang). It takes nothing for granted as a predestined process unfolds creating these parameters as they come into existence defined by the evolving mathematics. The Gordon model reveals that energy exists in three separate Gordon energy states described by “The GOD equation”. The interaction between these energy states result in the formation of energy fi elds and the creation of all forces. Most importantly, the structure of space-time from the previously unrecognized G0 energy state provides the solid foundation upon which we are able to build a new understanding of everything in the universe. The simplicity and elegance of Gordon’s theory of everything will astonish everyone as everything falls into place. The purpose of this book is to put the field of physics on a theoretically sound foundation. The structures of the first few fundamental particles and the energy fields they generate are just the beginning. You will have the opportunity to make major contributions. Starting where this book leaves off at the up quark and electron, the race is on to find the internal structure of a neutron and all the particles of the standard model. Don’t be left behind…Be among the first to read Scott S Gordon’s, “The GOD Entity: Gordon’s Theory of Everything”
Author: Michael Silberstein
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2018-02-01
Theoretical physics and foundations of physics have not made much progress in the last few decades. Whether we are talking about unifying general relativity and quantum field theory (quantum gravity), explaining so-called dark energy and dark matter (cosmology), or the interpretation and implications of quantum mechanics and relativity, there is no consensus in sight. In addition, both enterprises are deeply puzzled about various facets of time including above all, time as experienced. The authors argue that, across the board, this impasse is the result of the "dynamical universe paradigm," the idea that reality is fundamentally made up of physical entities that evolve in time from some initial state according to dynamical laws. Thus, in the dynamical universe, the initial conditions plus the dynamical laws explain everything else going exclusively forward in time. In cosmology, for example, the initial conditions reside in the Big Bang and the dynamical law is supplied by general relativity. Accordingly, the present state of the universe is explained exclusively by its past. This book offers a completely new paradigm (called Relational Blockworld), whereby the past, present and future co-determine each other via "adynamical global constraints," such as the least action principle. Accordingly, the future is just as important for explaining the present as is the past. Most of the book is devoted to showing how Relational Blockworld resolves many of the current conundrums of both theoretical physics and foundations of physics, including the mystery of time as experienced and how that experience relates to the block universe.
Author: W.W. Cobern
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Global science education is a reality at the end of the 20th century - albeit an uneven reality - because of tremendous technological and economic pressures. Unfortunately, this reality is rarely examined in the light of what interests the everyday lives of ordinary people rather than the lives of political and economic elites. The purpose of this book is to offer insightful and thought-provoking commentary on both realities. The tacit question throughout the book is `Whose interests are being served by current science education practices and policies?' The various chapters offer critical analysis from the perspectives of culture, economics, epistemology, equity, gender, language, and religion in an effort to promote a reflective science education that takes place within, rather than taking over, the important cultural lives of people. The target audience for the book includes graduate students in education, science education and education policy professors, policy and government officials involved with education.
Author: Raymond A. Eve
Release Date: 1997-06-12
Genre: Social Science
The authors of this volume provide a timely collection of articles which examine the emerging myths and theories surrounding the study of chaos and complexity. In the second part methodological matters are considered. Finally, conceptual models and applications are presented. This perceptive and thorough volume will be useful to sociologists and others interested in chaos and complexity theory.
Scientists have always attempted to explain the world in terms of a few unifying principles. In the fifth century B.C. Democritus boldly claimed that reality is simply a collection of indivisible and eternal parts or atoms. Over the centuries his doctrine has remained a landmark, and much progress in physics is due to its distinction between subjective perception and objective reality. This book discusses theory reduction in physics, which states that the whole is nothing more than the sum of its parts: the properties of things are directly determined by their constituent parts. Reductionism deals with the relation between different theories that address different levels of reality, and uses extrapolations to apply that relation in different sciences. Reality shows a complex structure of connections, and the dream of a unified interpretation of all phenomena in several simple laws continues to attract anyone with genuine philosophical and scientific interests. If the most radical reductionist point of view is correct, the relationship between disciplines is strictly inclusive: chemistry becomes physics, biology becomes chemistry, and so on. Eventually, only one science, indeed just a single theory, would survive, with all others merging in the Theory of Everything. Is the current coexistence of different sciences a mere historical venture which will end when the Theory of Everything has been established? Can there be a unified description of nature? Rather than an analysis of full reductionism, this book focuses on aspects of theory reduction in physics and stimulates reflection on related questions: is there any evidence of actual reduction? Are the examples used in the philosophy of science too simplistic? What has been endangered by the search for (the) ultimate truth? Has the dream of reductionist reason created any monsters? Is big science one such monster? What is the point of embedding science Y within science X, if predictions cannot be made on that basis?
Author: Terrence W. Deacon
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
Release Date: 2011-11-21
A radical new explanation of how life and consciousness emerge from physics and chemistry. As physicists work toward completing a theory of the universe and biologists unravel the molecular complexity of life, a glaring incompleteness in this scientific vision becomes apparent. The "Theory of Everything" that appears to be emerging includes everything but us: the feelings, meanings, consciousness, and purposes that make us (and many of our animal cousins) what we are. These most immediate and incontrovertible phenomena are left unexplained by the natural sciences because they lack the physical properties—such as mass, momentum, charge, and location—that are assumed to be necessary for something to have physical consequences in the world. This is an unacceptable omission. We need a "theory of everything" that does not leave it absurd that we exist. Incomplete Nature begins by accepting what other theories try to deny: that, although mental contents do indeed lack these material-energetic properties, they are still entirely products of physical processes and have an unprecedented kind of causal power that is unlike anything that physics and chemistry alone have so far explained. Paradoxically, it is the intrinsic incompleteness of these semiotic and teleological phenomena that is the source of their unique form of physical influence in the world. Incomplete Nature meticulously traces the emergence of this special causal capacity from simple thermodynamics to self-organizing dynamics to living and mental dynamics, and it demonstrates how specific absences (or constraints) play the critical causal role in the organization of physical processes that generate these properties. The book's radically challenging conclusion is that we are made of these specific absenses—such stuff as dreams are made on—and that what is not immediately present can be as physically potent as that which is. It offers a figure/background shift that shows how even meanings and values can be understood as legitimate components of the physical world.
Author: Ювал Ной Харарі
Publisher: Family Leisure Club
Release Date: 2016-09-28
Дослідження, що стало світовим бестселером № 1 за версією The New York Times та лідером продажів на Amazon.com, ламає усталені уявлення про земну історію від появи людини й народження мови до сьогодення і примушує задуматися: шлях розвитку наших предків міг бути зовсім іншим. Долучіться до історичної розвідки, і вас приголомшать неочікувані й сміливі припущення. У книжці ви не знайдете нудної хронології та сухих дат, але разом з автором розмірковуватимете про численні «чому?». ▶ Чому Людина Розумна отримала шанс на майбутнє та що винищило її найближчих древніх родичів? ▶ Чому перехід від збиральництва до сільського господарства став пасткою для людини й погіршив її життя? ▶ Чому могутні імперії інків та монголів зазнали краху та були переможені нечисленними групами європейців? ▶ Що таке «теорія пліток» і як розмови про те, чого насправді не існує, підняли людину на вищий щабель цивілізації? ▶ Що спільного між релігією та ідеологією? Чим відрізняються християнство та буддизм? ▶ Як гроші та кредити стали однією з основних рушійних сил цивілізації? ▶ Чому зруйновані імперії досі керують людством?
Author: Kostas Gavroglu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-05-05
This volume, compiled in honor of Sam Schweber, an outstanding historian of science, physicist and exceptional human being, offers a comprehensive survey of the present state of the history of science. It collects essays written by leading representatives in the field. The essays examine the state of the history of science today and issues related to its future.
Author: Andrew Warwick
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
Release Date: 2003-07
When Isaac Newton published the 'Principia' three centuries ago, only a few scholars were capable of understanding his conceptually demanding work. Yet this esoteric knowledge quickly became accessible in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries when Britain produced many leading mathematical physicists. In this book, Andrew Warwick shows how the education of these 'masters of theory' led them to transform our understanding of everything from the flight of a boomerang to the structure of the universe.
Author: G. Vijver
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-04-17
The three well known revolutions of the past centuries - the Copernican, the Darwinian and the Freudian - each in their own way had a deflating and mechanizing effect on the position of humans in nature. They opened up a richness of disillusion: earth acquired a more modest place in the universe, the human body and mind became products of a long material evolutionary history, and human reason, instead of being the central, immaterial, locus of understanding, was admitted into the theater of discourse only as a materialized and frequently out-of-control actor. Is there something objectionable to this picture? Formulated as such, probably not. Why should we resist the idea that we are in certain ways, and to some degree, physically, biologically or psychically determined? Why refuse to acknowledge the fact that we are materially situated in an ever evolving world? Why deny that the ways of inscription (traces of past events and processes) are co-determinative of further "evolutionary pathways"? Why minimize the idea that each intervention, of each natural being, is temporally and materially situated, and has, as such, the inevitable consequence of changing the world? The point is, however, that there are many, more or less radically different, ways to consider the "mechanization" of man and nature. There are, in particular, many ways to get the message of "material and evolutionary determination", as well as many levels at which this determination can be thought of as relevant or irrelevant.
Author: Harold J. Morowitz
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2002-11-07
When the whole is greater than the sum of the parts--indeed, so great that the sum far transcends the parts and represents something utterly new and different--we call that phenomenon emergence. When the chemicals diffusing in the primordial waters came together to form the first living cell, that was emergence. When the activities of the neurons in the brain result in mind, that too is emergence. In The Emergence of Everything, one of the leading scientists involved in the study of complexity, Harold J. Morowitz, takes us on a sweeping tour of the universe, a tour with 28 stops, each one highlighting a particularly important moment of emergence. For instance, Morowitz illuminates the emergence of the stars, the birth of the elements and of the periodic table, and the appearance of solar systems and planets. We look at the emergence of living cells, animals, vertebrates, reptiles, and mammals, leading to the great apes and the appearance of humanity. He also examines tool making, the evolution of language, the invention of agriculture and technology, and the birth of cities. And as he offers these insights into the evolutionary unfolding of our universe, our solar system, and life itself, Morowitz also seeks out the nature of God in the emergent universe, the God posited by Spinoza, Bruno, and Einstein, a God Morowitz argues we can know through a study of the laws of nature. Written by one of our wisest scientists, The Emergence of Everything offers a fascinating new way to look at the universe and the natural world, and it makes an important contribution to the dialogue between science and religion.
Author: Ervin Laszlo
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
Release Date: 2007-05-03
Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit
Presents the unifying world-concept long sought by scientists, mystics, and sages: an Integral Theory of Everything • Explains how modern science has rediscovered the Akashic Field of perennial philosophy • New edition updates ongoing scientific studies, presents new research inspired by the first edition, and includes new case studies and a section on animal telepathy Mystics and sages have long maintained that there exists an interconnecting cosmic field at the roots of reality that conserves and conveys information, a field known as the Akashic record. Recent discoveries in vacuum physics show that this Akashic Field is real and has its equivalent in science’s zero-point field that underlies space itself. This field consists of a subtle sea of fluctuating energies from which all things arise: atoms and galaxies, stars and planets, living beings, and even consciousness. This zero-point Akashic Field is the constant and enduring memory of the universe. It holds the record of all that has happened on Earth and in the cosmos and relates it to all that is yet to happen. In Science and the Akashic Field, philosopher and scientist Ervin Laszlo conveys the essential element of this information field in language that is accessible and clear. From the world of science he confirms our deepest intuitions of the oneness of creation in the Integral Theory of Everything. We discover that, as philosopher William James stated, “We are like islands in the sea, separate on the surface but connected in the deep.”