Time of Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras

Author: Pietro Zanuttigh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319309736
Release Date: 2016-05-24
Genre: Computers

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key technologies and applications related to new cameras that have brought 3D data acquisition to the mass market. It covers both the theoretical principles behind the acquisition devices and the practical implementation aspects of the computer vision algorithms needed for the various applications. Real data examples are used in order to show the performances of the various algorithms. The performance and limitations of the depth camera technology are explored, along with an extensive review of the most effective methods for addressing challenges in common applications. Applications covered in specific detail include scene segmentation, 3D scene reconstruction, human pose estimation and tracking and gesture recognition. This book offers students, practitioners and researchers the tools necessary to explore the potential uses of depth data in light of the expanding number of devices available for sale. It explores the impact of these devices on the rapidly growing field of depth-based computer vision.

Time of Flight Cameras

Author: Miles Hansard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447146582
Release Date: 2012-11-06
Genre: Computers

Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour cameras. Mixed TOF and colour systems can be used for computational photography, including full 3D scene modelling, as well as for illumination and depth-of-field manipulations. This work is a technical introduction to TOF sensors, from architectural and design issues, to selected image processing and computer vision methods.

Time of Flight and Depth Imaging Sensors Algorithms and Applications

Author: Marcin Grzegorzek
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642449642
Release Date: 2013-11-09
Genre: Computers

Cameras for 3D depth imaging, using either time-of-flight (ToF) or structured light sensors, have received a lot of attention recently and have been improved considerably over the last few years. The present techniques make full-range 3D data available at video frame rates, and thus pave the way for a much broader application of 3D vision systems. A series of workshops have closely followed the developments within ToF imaging over the years. Today, depth imaging workshops can be found at every major computer vision conference. The papers presented in this volume stem from a seminar on Time-of-Flight Imaging held at Schloss Dagstuhl in October 2012. They cover all aspects of ToF depth imaging, from sensors and basic foundations, to algorithms for low level processing, to important applications that exploit depth imaging. In addition, this book contains the proceedings of a workshop on Imaging New Modalities, which was held at the German Conference on Pattern Recognition in Saarbrücken, Germany, in September 2013. A state-of-the-art report on the Kinect sensor and its applications is followed by two reports on local and global ToF motion compensation and a novel depth capture system using a plenoptic multi-lens multi-focus camera sensor.

Time of Flight Cameras and Microsoft KinectTM

Author: Carlo Dal Mutto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461438076
Release Date: 2012-03-27
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Time-of-Flight Cameras and Microsoft KinectTM closely examines the technology and general characteristics of time-of-flight range cameras, and outlines the best methods for maximizing the data captured by these devices. This book also analyzes the calibration issues that some end-users may face when using these type of cameras for research, and suggests methods for improving the real-time 3D reconstruction of dynamic and static scenes. Time-of-Flight Cameras and Microsoft KinectTM is intended for researchers and advanced-level students as a reference guide for time-of-flight cameras. Practitioners working in a related field will also find the book valuable.

TOF Range Imaging Cameras

Author: Fabio Remondino
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642275234
Release Date: 2013-04-09
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Today the cost of solid-state two-dimensional imagers has dramatically dropped, introducing low cost systems on the market suitable for a variety of applications, including both industrial and consumer products. However, these systems can capture only a two-dimensional projection (2D), or intensity map, of the scene under observation, losing a variable of paramount importance, i.e., the arrival time of the impinging photons. Time-Of-Flight (TOF) Range-Imaging (TOF) is an emerging sensor technology able to deliver, at the same time, depth and intensity maps of the scene under observation. Featuring different sensor resolutions, RIM cameras serve a wide community with a lot of applications like monitoring, architecture, life sciences, robotics, etc. This book will bring together experts from the sensor and metrology side in order to collect the state-of-art researchers in these fields working with RIM cameras. All the aspects in the acquisition and processing chain will be addressed, from recent updates concerning the photo-detectors, to the analysis of the calibration techniques, giving also a perspective onto new applications domains.

Computer Vision and Machine Learning with RGB D Sensors

Author: Ling Shao
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319086514
Release Date: 2014-07-14
Genre: Computers

This book presents an interdisciplinary selection of cutting-edge research on RGB-D based computer vision. Features: discusses the calibration of color and depth cameras, the reduction of noise on depth maps and methods for capturing human performance in 3D; reviews a selection of applications which use RGB-D information to reconstruct human figures, evaluate energy consumption and obtain accurate action classification; presents an approach for 3D object retrieval and for the reconstruction of gas flow from multiple Kinect cameras; describes an RGB-D computer vision system designed to assist the visually impaired and another for smart-environment sensing to assist elderly and disabled people; examines the effective features that characterize static hand poses and introduces a unified framework to enforce both temporal and spatial constraints for hand parsing; proposes a new classifier architecture for real-time hand pose recognition and a novel hand segmentation and gesture recognition system.

VCSELs

Author: Rainer Michalzik
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642249860
Release Date: 2012-10-16
Genre: Science

The huge progress which has been achieved in the field is covered here, in the first comprehensive monograph on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) since eight years. Apart from chapters reviewing the research field and the laser fundamentals, there are comprehensive updates on red and blue emitting VCSELs, telecommunication VCSELs, optical transceivers, and parallel-optical links for computer interconnects. Entirely new contributions are made to the fields of vectorial three-dimensional optical modeling, single-mode VCSELs, polarization control, polarization dynamics, very-high-speed design, high-power emission, use of high-contrast gratings, GaInNAsSb long-wavelength VCSELs, optical video links, VCSELs for optical mice and sensing, as well as VCSEL-based laser printing. The book appeals to researchers, optical engineers and graduate students.

Diffractive Optics

Author: Donald C. O'Shea
Publisher: SPIE Press
ISBN: 0819451711
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Although there are not long derivations or detailed methods for specific engineering calculations, the reader should be familiar and comfortable with basic computational techniques. This text is not a 'cookbook' for producing DOEs, but it should provide readers with sufficient information to assess whether this technology would benefit their work, and to understand the requirements for using the concepts and techniques presented by the authors.

Applied Digital Optics

Author: Bernard C. Kress
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470022647
Release Date: 2009-11-04
Genre: Science

Miniaturization and mass replications have begun to lead the optical industry in the transition from traditional analog to novel digital optics. As digital optics enter the realm of mainstream technology through the worldwide sale of consumer electronic devices, this timely book aims to present the topic of digital optics in a unified way. Ranging from micro-optics to nanophotonics, and design to fabrication through to integration in final products, it reviews the various physical implementations of digital optics in either micro-refractives, waveguide (planar lightwave chips), diffractive and hybrid optics or sub-wavelength structures (resonant gratings, surface plasmons, photonic crystals and metamaterials). Finally, it presents a comprehensive list of industrial and commercial applications that are taking advantage of the unique properties of digital optics. Applied Digital Optics is aimed primarily at optical engineers and product development and technical marketing managers; it is also of interest to graduate-level photonics students and micro-optic foundries. Helps optical engineers review and choose the appropriate software tools to design, model and generate fabrication files. Gives product managers access to an exhaustive list of applications available in today’s market for integrating such digital optics, as well as where the next potential application of digital optics might be. Provides a broad view for technical marketing managers in all aspects of digital optics, and how such optics can be classified. Explains the numerical implementation of optical design and modelling techniques. Enables micro-optics foundries to integrate the latest fabrication and replication techniques, and accordingly fine tune their own fabrication processes.

3D Biometrics

Author: David Zhang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461474005
Release Date: 2013-05-31
Genre: Computers

Automatic personal authentication using biometric information is becoming more essential in applications of public security, access control, forensics, banking, etc. Many kinds of biometric authentication techniques have been developed based on different biometric characteristics. However, most of the physical biometric recognition techniques are based on two dimensional (2D) images, despite the fact that human characteristics are three dimensional (3D) surfaces. Recently, 3D techniques have been applied to biometric applications such as 3D face, 3D palmprint, 3D fingerprint, and 3D ear recognition. This book introduces four typical 3D imaging methods, and presents some case studies in the field of 3D biometrics. This book also includes many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms. These 3D imaging methods and their applications are given as follows: - Single view imaging with line structured-light: 3D ear identification - Single view imaging with multi-line structured-light: 3D palmprint authentication - Single view imaging using only 3D camera: 3D hand verification - Multi-view imaging: 3D fingerprint recognition 3D Biometrics: Systems and Applications is a comprehensive introduction to both theoretical issues and practical implementation in 3D biometric authentication. It will serve as a textbook or as a useful reference for graduate students and researchers in the fields of computer science, electrical engineering, systems science, and information technology. Researchers and practitioners in industry and R&D laboratories working on security system design, biometrics, immigration, law enforcement, control, and pattern recognition will also find much of interest in this book.

Computer Vision and Applications

Author: Bernd Jahne
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080502625
Release Date: 2000-05-24
Genre: Computers

Based on the highly successful 3-volume reference Handbook of Computer Vision and Applications, this concise edition covers in a single volume the entire spectrum of computer vision ranging form the imaging process to high-end algorithms and applications. This book consists of three parts, including an application gallery. Bridges the gap between theory and practical applications Covers modern concepts in computer vision as well as modern developments in imaging sensor technology Presents a unique interdisciplinary approach covering different areas of modern science

Automated Multi Camera Surveillance

Author: Omar Javed
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387788816
Release Date: 2008-12-16
Genre: Computers

The recent development of intelligent surveillance systems has captured the interest of both academic research labs and industry. Automated Multi-Camera Surveillance addresses monitoring of people and vehicles, and detection of threatening objects and events in a variety of scenarios. In this book, techniques for development of an automated multi-camera surveillance system are discussed and proposed. The state-of-the-art in the automated surveillance systems is reviewed as well. Detailed explanation of sub-components of surveillance systems are provided, and enhancements to each of these components are proposed. The authors identify important challenges that such a system must address, and propose solutions. Development of a specific surveillance system called “KNIGHT” is described, along with the authors’ experience using it. This book enables the reader to understand the mathematical models and algorithms underlying automated surveillance as well as the benefits and limitations of using such methods.

Consumer Depth Cameras for Computer Vision

Author: Andrea Fossati
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447146407
Release Date: 2012-10-03
Genre: Computers

The potential of consumer depth cameras extends well beyond entertainment and gaming, to real-world commercial applications. This authoritative text reviews the scope and impact of this rapidly growing field, describing the most promising Kinect-based research activities, discussing significant current challenges, and showcasing exciting applications. Features: presents contributions from an international selection of preeminent authorities in their fields, from both academic and corporate research; addresses the classic problem of multi-view geometry of how to correlate images from different viewpoints to simultaneously estimate camera poses and world points; examines human pose estimation using video-rate depth images for gaming, motion capture, 3D human body scans, and hand pose recognition for sign language parsing; provides a review of approaches to various recognition problems, including category and instance learning of objects, and human activity recognition; with a Foreword by Dr. Jamie Shotton.

Handbook of 3D Machine Vision

Author: Song Zhang
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 9781439872208
Release Date: 2016-04-19
Genre: Computers

With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and explains how random speckle patterns or space-time varying patterns substantially improve the results of stereo vision. It then discusses stereo particle image velocimetry as a major experimental means in fluid dynamics, the robust and easy-to-implement structured-light technique for computer science applications, digital holography for performing micro- to nanoscale measurements, and grating, interferometry, and fringe projection techniques for precisely measuring dynamically deformable natural objects. The book goes on to describe techniques that do not require triangulation to recover a 3D shape, including time-of-flight techniques and uniaxial 3D shape measurement, as well as 3D measurement techniques that are not restricted to surface capture, such as 3D ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and 3D endoscopy. The book also explores how novel 3D imaging techniques are being applied in the promising field of biometrics—which may prove essential to security and public safety. Written by key players in the field and inventors of important imaging technologies, this authoritative, state-of-the-art handbook helps you understand the core of 3D imaging technology and choose the proper 3D imaging technique for your needs. For each technique, the book provides its mathematical foundations, summarizes its successful applications, and discusses its limitations.

Design and Fabrication of Diffractive Optical Elements with MATLAB

Author: Shanti Bhattacharya
Publisher: SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering
ISBN: 1510607056
Release Date: 2017
Genre: Diffraction

"Given the many different applications and uses of diffractive optics, the importance of this field cannot be underestimated. This book supplements the available literature on diffractive optic elements (DOEs) by equipping readers with the skills to begin designing, simulating, and fabricating diffractive optics. The design of DOEs is presented with simple equations and step-by-step procedures for simulation--from the simplest 1D grating to the more complex multifunctional DOEs--and analyzing their diffraction patterns using MATLAB. The fundamentals of fabrication techniques such as photolithography, electron beam lithography, and focused ion beam lithography with basic instructions for the beginner are presented. Basic error analysis and error-correction techniques for a few cases are also discussed. The contents of all the chapters are supported throughout by practical exercises and clearly commented MATLAB® codes (the codes are also on an accompanying CD), making this book useful even to a novice programmer"--