Time of Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras

Author: Pietro Zanuttigh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319309736
Release Date: 2016-05-24
Genre: Computers

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key technologies and applications related to new cameras that have brought 3D data acquisition to the mass market. It covers both the theoretical principles behind the acquisition devices and the practical implementation aspects of the computer vision algorithms needed for the various applications. Real data examples are used in order to show the performances of the various algorithms. The performance and limitations of the depth camera technology are explored, along with an extensive review of the most effective methods for addressing challenges in common applications. Applications covered in specific detail include scene segmentation, 3D scene reconstruction, human pose estimation and tracking and gesture recognition. This book offers students, practitioners and researchers the tools necessary to explore the potential uses of depth data in light of the expanding number of devices available for sale. It explores the impact of these devices on the rapidly growing field of depth-based computer vision.

Time of Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras

Author: Pietro Zanuttigh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319309714
Release Date: 2016-06-01
Genre: Computers

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the key technologies and applications related to new cameras that have brought 3D data acquisition to the mass market. It covers both the theoretical principles behind the acquisition devices and the practical implementation aspects of the computer vision algorithms needed for the various applications. Real data examples are used in order to show the performances of the various algorithms. The performance and limitations of the depth camera technology are explored, along with an extensive review of the most effective methods for addressing challenges in common applications. Applications covered in specific detail include scene segmentation, 3D scene reconstruction, human pose estimation and tracking and gesture recognition. This book offers students, practitioners and researchers the tools necessary to explore the potential uses of depth data in light of the expanding number of devices available for sale. It explores the impact of these devices on the rapidly growing field of depth-based computer vision.

Time of Flight and Depth Imaging Sensors Algorithms and Applications

Author: Marcin Grzegorzek
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642449642
Release Date: 2013-11-09
Genre: Computers

Cameras for 3D depth imaging, using either time-of-flight (ToF) or structured light sensors, have received a lot of attention recently and have been improved considerably over the last few years. The present techniques make full-range 3D data available at video frame rates, and thus pave the way for a much broader application of 3D vision systems. A series of workshops have closely followed the developments within ToF imaging over the years. Today, depth imaging workshops can be found at every major computer vision conference. The papers presented in this volume stem from a seminar on Time-of-Flight Imaging held at Schloss Dagstuhl in October 2012. They cover all aspects of ToF depth imaging, from sensors and basic foundations, to algorithms for low level processing, to important applications that exploit depth imaging. In addition, this book contains the proceedings of a workshop on Imaging New Modalities, which was held at the German Conference on Pattern Recognition in Saarbrücken, Germany, in September 2013. A state-of-the-art report on the Kinect sensor and its applications is followed by two reports on local and global ToF motion compensation and a novel depth capture system using a plenoptic multi-lens multi-focus camera sensor.

Computer Vision and Machine Learning with RGB D Sensors

Author: Ling Shao
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319086514
Release Date: 2014-07-14
Genre: Computers

This book presents an interdisciplinary selection of cutting-edge research on RGB-D based computer vision. Features: discusses the calibration of color and depth cameras, the reduction of noise on depth maps and methods for capturing human performance in 3D; reviews a selection of applications which use RGB-D information to reconstruct human figures, evaluate energy consumption and obtain accurate action classification; presents an approach for 3D object retrieval and for the reconstruction of gas flow from multiple Kinect cameras; describes an RGB-D computer vision system designed to assist the visually impaired and another for smart-environment sensing to assist elderly and disabled people; examines the effective features that characterize static hand poses and introduces a unified framework to enforce both temporal and spatial constraints for hand parsing; proposes a new classifier architecture for real-time hand pose recognition and a novel hand segmentation and gesture recognition system.

Time of Flight Cameras

Author: Miles Hansard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1447146573
Release Date: 2012-11-07
Genre: Computers

Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour cameras. Mixed TOF and colour systems can be used for computational photography, including full 3D scene modelling, as well as for illumination and depth-of-field manipulations. This work is a technical introduction to TOF sensors, from architectural and design issues, to selected image processing and computer vision methods.

Time of Flight Cameras

Author: Miles Hansard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447146582
Release Date: 2012-11-06
Genre: Computers

Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour cameras. Mixed TOF and colour systems can be used for computational photography, including full 3D scene modelling, as well as for illumination and depth-of-field manipulations. This work is a technical introduction to TOF sensors, from architectural and design issues, to selected image processing and computer vision methods.

Diffractive Optics

Author: Donald C. O'Shea
Publisher: SPIE Press
ISBN: 0819451711
Release Date: 2004
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book provides the reader with the broad range of materials that were discussed in a series of short courses presented at Georgia Tech on the design, fabrication, and testing of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). Although there are not long derivations or detailed methods for specific engineering calculations, the reader should be familiar and comfortable with basic computational techniques. This text is not a 'cookbook' for producing DOEs, but it should provide readers with sufficient information to assess whether this technology would benefit their work, and to understand the requirements for using the concepts and techniques presented by the authors.

Mass Spectrometry

Author: Edmond de Hoffmann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118681947
Release Date: 2013-04-03
Genre: Science

The latest edition of a highly successful textbook, Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition provides students with a complete overview of the principles, theories and key applications of modern mass spectrometry. All instrumental aspects of mass spectrometry are clearly and concisely described: sources, analysers and detectors. Tandem mass spectrometry is introduced early on and then developed in more detail in a later chapter. Emphasis is placed throughout the text on optimal utilisation conditions. Various fragmentation patterns are described together with analytical information that derives from the mass spectra. This new edition has been thoroughly revised and updated and has been redesigned to give the book a more contemporary look. As with previous editions it contains numerous examples, references and a series of exercises of increasing difficulty to encourage student understanding. Updates include: Increased coverage of MALDI and ESI, more detailed description of time of flight spectrometers, new material on isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and an expanded range of applications. Mass Spectrometry, Third Edition is an invaluable resource for all undergraduate and postgraduate students using this technique in departments of chemistry, biochemistry, medicine, pharmacology, agriculture, material science and food science. It is also of interest for researchers looking for an overview of the latest techniques and developments.

Computer Vision Metrics

Author: Scott Krig
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 9781430259305
Release Date: 2014-05-23
Genre: Computers

Computer Vision Metrics provides an extensive survey and analysis of over 100 current and historical feature description and machine vision methods, with a detailed taxonomy for local, regional and global features. This book provides necessary background to develop intuition about why interest point detectors and feature descriptors actually work, how they are designed, with observations about tuning the methods for achieving robustness and invariance targets for specific applications. The survey is broader than it is deep, with over 540 references provided to dig deeper. The taxonomy includes search methods, spectra components, descriptor representation, shape, distance functions, accuracy, efficiency, robustness and invariance attributes, and more. Rather than providing ‘how-to’ source code examples and shortcuts, this book provides a counterpoint discussion to the many fine opencv community source code resources available for hands-on practitioners. What you’ll learn Interest point & descriptor concepts (interest points, corners, ridges, blobs, contours, edges, maxima), interest point tuning and culling, interest point methods (Laplacian, LOG, Moravic, Harris, Harris-Stephens, Shi-Tomasi, Hessian, difference of Gaussians, salient regions, MSER, SUSAN, FAST, FASTER, AGHAST, local curvature, morphological regions, and more), descriptor concepts (shape, sampling pattern, spectra, gradients, binary patterns, basis features), feature descriptor families. Local binary descriptors (LBP, LTP, FREAK, ORB, BRISK, BRIEF, CENSUS, and more). Gradient descriptors (SIFT, SIFT-PCA, SIFT-SIFER, SIFT-GLOH, Root SIFT, CensureE, STAR, HOG, PHOG, DAISY, O-DAISY, CARD, RFM, RIFF-CHOG, LGP, and more). Shape descriptors (Image moments, area, perimeter, centroid, D-NETS, chain codes, Fourier descriptors, wavelets, and more) texture descriptors, structural and statistical (Harallick, SDM, extended SDM, edge metrics, Laws metrics, RILBP, and more). 3D descriptors for depth-based, volumetric, and activity recognition spatio-temporal data sets (3D HOG, HON 4D, 3D SIFT, LBP-TOP, VLBP, and more). Basis space descriptors (Zernike moments, KL, SLANT, steerable filter basis sets, sparse coding, codebooks, descriptor vocabularies, and more), HAAR methods (SURF, USURF, MUSURF, GSURF, Viola Jones, and more), descriptor-based image reconstruction. Distance functions (Euclidean, SAD, SSD, correlation, Hellinger, Manhattan, Chebyshev, EMD, Wasserstein, Mahalanobis, Bray-Curtis, Canberra, L0, Hamming, Jaccard), coordinate spaces, robustness and invariance criteria. Image formation, includes CCD and CMOS sensors for 2D and 3D imaging, sensor processing topics, with a survey identifying over fourteen (14) 3D depth sensing methods, with emphasis on stereo, MVS, and structured light. Image pre-processing methods, examples are provided targeting specific feature descriptor families (point, line and area methods, basis space methods), colorimetry (CIE, HSV, RGB, CAM02, gamut mapping, and more). Ground truth data, some best-practices and examples are provided, with a survey of real and synthetic datasets. Vision pipeline optimizations, mapping algorithms to compute resources (CPU, GPU, DSP, and more), hypothetical high-level vision pipeline examples (face recognition, object recognition, image classification, augmented reality), optimization alternatives with consideration for performance and power to make effective use of SIMD, VLIW, kernels, threads, parallel languages, memory, and more. Synthetic interest point alphabet analysis against 10 common opencv detectors to develop intuition about how different classes of detectors actually work (SIFT, SURF, BRISK, FAST, HARRIS, GFFT, MSER, ORB, STAR, SIMPLEBLOB). Source code provided online. Visual learning concepts, although not the focus of this book, a light introduction is provided to machine learning and statistical learning topics, such as convolutional networks, neural networks, classification and training, clustering and error minimization methods (SVM,’s, kernel machines, KNN, RANSAC, HMM, GMM, LM, and more). Ample references are provided to dig deeper. Who this book is for Engineers, scientists, and academic researchers in areas including media processing, computational photography, video analytics, scene understanding, machine vision, face recognition, gesture recognition, pattern recognition and general object analysis. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Image Capture and Representation Chapter 2. Image Pre-Processing Chapter 3. Global and Regional Features Chapter 4. Local Feature Design Concepts, Classification, and Learning Chapter 5. Taxonomy Of Feature Description Attributes Chapter 6. Interest Point Detector and Feature Descriptor Survey Chapter 7. Ground Truth Data, Data, Metrics, and Analysis Chapter 8. Vision Pipelines and Optimizations Appendix A. Synthetic Feature Analysis Appendix B. Survey of Ground Truth Datasets Appendix C. Imaging and Computer Vision Resources Appendix D. Extended SDM Metrics

City of Light

Author: Lauren Belfer
Publisher: Dial Press
ISBN: 0307764028
Release Date: 2010-09-01
Genre: Fiction

It is 1901 and Buffalo, New York, stands at the center of the nation's attention as a place of immense wealth and sophistication. The massive hydroelectric power development at nearby Niagara Falls and the grand Pan-American Exposition promise to bring the Great Lakes "city of light" even more repute. Against this rich historical backdrop lives Louisa Barrett, the attractive, articulate headmistress of the Macaulay School for Girls. Protected by its powerful all-male board, "Miss Barrett" is treated as an equal by the men who control the life of the city. Lulled by her unique relationship with these titans of business, Louisa feels secure in her position, until a mysterious death at the power plant triggers a sequence of events that forces her to return to a past she has struggled to conceal, and to question everything and everyone she holds dear. Both observer and participant, Louisa Barrett guides the reader through the culture and conflicts of a time and place where immigrant factory workers and nature conservationists protest violently against industrialists, where presidents broker politics, where wealthy "Negroes" fight for recognition and equality, and where women struggle to thrive in a system that allows them little freedom. Wrought with remarkable depth and intelligence, City of Light remains a work completely of its own era, and of ours as well. A stirring literary accomplishment, Lauren Belfer's first novel marks the debut of a fresh voice for the new millennium and heralds a major publishing event. From the Paperback edition.

Handbook of 3D Machine Vision

Author: Song Zhang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439872192
Release Date: 2013-03-15
Genre: Computers

With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and explains how random speckle patterns or space-time varying patterns substantially improve the results of stereo vision. It then discusses stereo particle image velocimetry as a major experimental means in fluid dynamics, the robust and easy-to-implement structured-light technique for computer science applications, digital holography for performing micro- to nanoscale measurements, and grating, interferometry, and fringe projection techniques for precisely measuring dynamically deformable natural objects. The book goes on to describe techniques that do not require triangulation to recover a 3D shape, including time-of-flight techniques and uniaxial 3D shape measurement, as well as 3D measurement techniques that are not restricted to surface capture, such as 3D ultrasound, optical coherence tomography, and 3D endoscopy. The book also explores how novel 3D imaging techniques are being applied in the promising field of biometrics—which may prove essential to security and public safety. Written by key players in the field and inventors of important imaging technologies, this authoritative, state-of-the-art handbook helps you understand the core of 3D imaging technology and choose the proper 3D imaging technique for your needs. For each technique, the book provides its mathematical foundations, summarizes its successful applications, and discusses its limitations.

Manual of Ornithology

Author: Noble S. Proctor
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300076193
Release Date: 1998-10
Genre: Nature

This visual guide to the structure and anatomy of birds contains more than 200 specially prepared accurate drawings. The text is written for undergraduate students and to bird lovers in general, and discusses why birds look and act the way they do.

The Art of Game Design

Author: Jesse Schell
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781466598645
Release Date: 2014-11-06
Genre: Computers

Good game design happens when you view your game from as many perspectives as possible. Written by one of the world's top game designers, The Art of Game Design presents 100+ sets of questions, or different lenses, for viewing a game’s design, encompassing diverse fields such as psychology, architecture, music, visual design, film, software engineering, theme park design, mathematics, puzzle design, and anthropology. This Second Edition of a Game Developer Front Line Award winner: Describes the deepest and most fundamental principles of game design Demonstrates how tactics used in board, card, and athletic games also work in top-quality video games Contains valuable insight from Jesse Schell, the former chair of the International Game Developers Association and award-winning designer of Disney online games The Art of Game Design, Second Edition gives readers useful perspectives on how to make better game designs faster. It provides practical instruction on creating world-class games that will be played again and again.

Spatial Augmented Reality

Author: Oliver Bimber
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439864944
Release Date: 2005-08-08
Genre: Computers

Like virtual reality, augmented reality is becoming an emerging platform in new application areas for museums, edutainment, home entertainment, research, industry, and the art communities using novel approaches which have taken augmented reality beyond traditional eye-worn or hand-held displays. In this book, the authors discuss spatial augmented reality approaches that exploit optical elements, video projectors, holograms, radio frequency tags, and tracking technology, as well as interactive rendering algorithms and calibration techniques in order to embed synthetic supplements into the real environment or into a live video of the real environment. Special Features: - Comprehensive overview - Detailed mathematical equations - Code fragments - Implementation instructions - Examples of Spatial AR displays The authors have put together a preliminary collection of Errata. Updates will be posted to this site as necessary.

Guide to Dynamic Simulations of Rigid Bodies and Particle Systems

Author: Murilo G. Coutinho
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781447144175
Release Date: 2012-10-08
Genre: Computers

This book introduces the techniques needed to produce realistic simulations and animations of particle and rigid-body systems. The text focuses on both the theoretical and practical aspects of developing and implementing physically based dynamic-simulation engines. Each chapter examines numerous algorithms, describing their design and analysis in an accessible manner, without sacrificing depth of coverage or mathematical rigor. Features: examines the problem of computing an hierarchical representation of the geometric description of each simulated object, as well as the simulated world; discusses the use of discrete and continuous collision detection to handle thin or fast-moving objects; describes the computational techniques needed for determining all impulsive and contact forces between bodies with multiple simultaneous collisions and contacts; presents techniques that can be used to dynamically simulate articulated rigid bodies; concludes each chapter with exercises.