Author: David Gubbins
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2004-03-18
This unique textbook provides the foundation for understanding and applying techniques commonly used in geophysics to process and interpret modern digital data. The geophysicist's toolkit contains a range of techniques which may be divided into two main groups: processing, which concerns time series analysis and is used to separate the signal of interest from background noise; and inversion, which involves generating some map or physical model from the data. These two groups of techniques are normally taught separately, but are here presented together as parts I and II of the book. Part III describes some real applications and includes case studies in seismology, geomagnetism, and gravity. This textbook gives students and practitioners the theoretical background and practical experience, through case studies, computer examples and exercises, to understand and apply new processing methods to modern geophysical datasets. Solutions to the exercises are available on a website at http://publishing.cambridge.org/resources/0521819652
Geophysical Data Analysis: Diverse Inverse Theory, Fourth Edition is a revised and expanded introduction to inverse theory and tomography as it is practiced by geophysicists. It demonstrates the methods needed to analyze a broad spectrum of geophysical datasets, with special attention to those methods that generate images of the earth. Data analysis can be a mathematically complex activity, but the treatment in this volume is carefully designed to emphasize those mathematical techniques that readers will find the most familiar and to systematically introduce less-familiar ones. Using problems and case studies, along with MATLAB computer code and summaries of methods, the book provides data scientists and engineers in geophysics with the tools necessary to understand and apply mathematical techniques and inverse theory. Includes material on probability, including Bayesian influence, probability density function and metropolis algorithm Offers detailed discussion of the application of inverse theory to tectonic, gravitational and geomagnetic studies Contains numerous examples, color figures and end-of-chapter homework problems to help readers explore and further understand presented ideas Includes MATLAB examples and problem sets Updated and refined throughout to bring the text in line with current understanding and improved examples and case studies Expanded sections to cover material, such as second-derivation smoothing and chi-squared tests not covered in the previous edition
Author: Robert Ladislav Parker
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 1994
In many physical sciences, the most natural description of a system is with a function of position or time. In principle, infinitely many numbers are needed to specify that function, but in practice only finitely many measurements can be made. Inverse theory concerns the mathematical techniques that enable researchers to use the available information to build a model of the unknown system or to determine its essential properties. In Geophysical Inverse Theory, Robert Parker provides a systematic development of inverse theory at the graduate and professional level that emphasizes a rigorous yet practical solution of inverse problems, with examples from experimental observations in geomagnetism, seismology, gravity, electromagnetic sounding, and interpolation. Although illustrated with examples from geophysics, this book has broad implications for researchers in applied disciplines from materials science and engineering to astrophysics, oceanography, and meteorology. Parker's approach is to avoid artificial statistical constructs and to emphasize instead the reasonable assumptions researchers must make to reduce the ambiguity that inevitably arises in complex problems. The structure of the book follows a natural division in the subject into linear theory, in which the measured quantities are linear functionals of the unknown models, and nonlinear theory, which covers all other systems but is not nearly so well understood. The book covers model selection as well as techniques for drawing firm conclusions about the earth independent of any particular model.
Author: Richard C. Aster
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2013
Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, 2e provides geoscience students and professionals with answers to common questions like how one can derive a physical model from a finite set of observations containing errors, and how one may determine the quality of such a model. This book takes on these fundamental and challenging problems, introducing students and professionals to the broad range of approaches that lie in the realm of inverse theory. The authors present both the underlying theory and practical algorithms for solving inverse problems. The authors' treatment is appropriate for geoscience graduate students and advanced undergraduates with a basic working knowledge of calculus, linear algebra, and statistics. Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems, 2e introduces readers to both Classical and Bayesian approaches to linear and nonlinear problems with particular attention paid to computational, mathematical, and statistical issues related to their application to geophysical problems. The textbook includes Appendices covering essential linear algebra, statistics, and notation in the context of the subject. A companion website features computational examples (including all examples contained in the textbook) and useful subroutines using MATLAB. Includes appendices for review of needed concepts in linear, statistics, and vector calculus. Companion website contains comprehensive MATLAB code for all examples, which readers can reproduce, experiment with, and modify. Online instructor's guide helps professors teach, customize exercises, and select homework problems Accessible to students and professionals without a highly specialized mathematical background.
Geophysical data analysis is a very practical subject and this book is intended to be a simple guide to the techniques of parameter estimation and error analysis. I have placed emphasis on the reconciliation of theory and practical data to enable the reader understand how to tackle typical problems in data analysis. It is hoped that a mastery of the simple techniques described in this book will inspire confidence in the reader to consult the more classical treatment of the subject. It is pertinent to mention that this book developed out of a highly successful course of the same title given to senior undergraduate geophysics students in Leicester University since 1988 and its popularity stems from the structured learning programs and the simple effective practical approach to geophysical inversion. The course is given in the first semester to provide students with the basic tools for quantitative analysis of geoscientific data and consists of 10 lectures and practical sessions involving the materials given in Chapters 1 to 9 in this book. Chapter 10 derives from topical issues of research interest to me and my induction courses for postgraduate students in geophysics and the industry. The contents of this book are easily digestible and require little statistical or mathematical commitment.
Author: Michael S. Zhdanov
Release Date: 2002-04-24
This book presents state-of-the-art geophysical inverse theory developed in modern mathematical terminology. The book brings together fundamental results developed by the Russian mathematical school in regularization theory and combines them with the related research in geophysical inversion carried out in the West. It presents a detailed exposition of the methods of regularized solution of inverse problems based on the ideas of Tikhonov regularization, and shows the different forms of their applications in both linear and nonlinear methods of geophysical inversion. This text is the first to treat many kinds of inversion and imaging techniques in a unified mathematical manner. The book is divided in five parts covering the foundations of the inversion theory and its applications to the solution of different geophysical inverse problems, including potential field, electromagnetic, and seismic methods. The first part is an introduction to inversion theory. The second part contains a description of the basic methods of solution of the linear and nonlinear inverse problems using regularization. The following parts treat the application of regularization methods in gravity and magnetic, electromagnetic, and seismic inverse problems. The key connecting idea of these applied parts of the book is the analogy between the solutions of the forward and inverse problems in different geophysical methods. The book also includes chapters related to the modern technology of geophysical imaging, based on seismic and electromagnetic migration. This volume is unique in its focus on providing a link between the methods used in gravity, electromagnetic, and seismic imaging and inversion, and represents an exhaustive treatise on inversion theory.
Author: E. R. Kanasewich
Publisher: University of Alberta
Release Date: 1981
Time sequence analysis is the study of relations between a sequence of data points or sequence of signals in order to determine the physical properties of the earth. Providing an up-to-date treatment on time series and time sequence, this book is intended for senior or graduate students in seismology, geomagnetism and exploratory geophysics.
Author: Enders A. Robinson
Publisher: SEG Books
Release Date: 2000-01-01
This text, an introduction to geophysical signal analysis, is concerned with the construction, analysis, and interpretation of mathematical and statistical models. In general, it is intended to provide material of interest to upper undergraduate students in mathematics, science, and engineering. Much of this book requires only a knowledge of elementary algebra. However, at some points, a familiarity with elementary calculus and matrix algebra is needed. The practical use of the concepts and techniques developed is illustrated by numerous applications. Care has been taken to choose examples that are of interest to a variety of readers. Therefore, the book contains material of interest to both geophysicists and those engaged in digital signal analysis in disciplines other than geophysics. This book is a reprint of the 1980 Prentice-Hall volume of the same name.
While the prediction of observations is a forward problem, the use of actual observations to infer the properties of a model is an inverse problem. Inverse problems are difficult because they may not have a unique solution. The description of uncertainties plays a central role in the theory, which is based on probability theory. This book proposes a general approach that is valid for linear as well as for nonlinear problems. The philosophy is essentially probabilistic and allows the reader to understand the basic difficulties appearing in the resolution of inverse problems. The book attempts to explain how a method of acquisition of information can be applied to actual real-world problems, and many of the arguments are heuristic.
Since 1984, Geophysical Data Analysis has filled the need for a short, concise reference on inverse theory for individuals who have an intermediate background in science and mathematics. The new edition maintains the accessible and succinct manner for which it is known, with the addition of: MATLAB examples and problem sets Advanced color graphics Coverage of new topics, including Adjoint Methods; Inversion by Steepest Descent, Monte Carlo and Simulated Annealing methods; and Bootstrap algorithm for determining empirical confidence intervals Additional material on probability, including Bayesian influence, probability density function, and metropolis algorithm Detailed discussion of application of inverse theory to tectonic, gravitational and geomagnetic studies Numerous examples and end-of-chapter homework problems help you explore and further understand the ideas presented Use as classroom text facilitated by a complete set of exemplary lectures in Microsoft PowerPoint format and homework problem solutions for instructors
This is the first study to present simultaneously both deconvolution and inversion, two powerful tools of data analysis. Featured within this volume are various geophysical convolution models and a treatment of deconvolution for a time-varying signal. The single channel time-varying deconvolution is shown equivalent to the multichannel time-invariant deconvolution, thus a formalism and associated algorithms can handle both. Inverse theory as well as various inversion schemes are presented on the basis of a relationship between a small perturbation to the model and its effects on the observation. The information theory inversion scheme is discussed, and several types of norm of minimization presented. Additionally, concepts and results of inverse theory are applied to design a new deconvolution operator for estimating magnetization and density distribution, and the constraint of the Backus-Gilbert formalism of inverse theory is used to design a new prediction error filter for maximum entropy spectral estimates. Maximum likelihood, another high resolution method is also presented. This volume can be utilised as a graduate-level text for courses in Geophysics. Some chapters will be of use for graduate courses in Applied Mathematics, Applied Statistics, and Oceanography.
Author: Michael S. Zhdanov
Release Date: 2015-07-15
Geophysical Inverse Theory and Applications, Second Edition, brings together fundamental results developed by the Russian mathematical school in regularization theory and combines them with the related research in geophysical inversion carried out in the West. It presents a detailed exposition of the methods of regularized solution of inverse problems based on the ideas of Tikhonov regularization, and shows the different forms of their applications in both linear and nonlinear methods of geophysical inversion. It’s the first book of its kind to treat many kinds of inversion and imaging techniques in a unified mathematical manner. The book is divided in five parts covering the foundations of the inversion theory and its applications to the solution of different geophysical inverse problems, including potential field, electromagnetic, and seismic methods. Unique in its focus on providing a link between the methods used in gravity, electromagnetic, and seismic imaging and inversion, it represents an exhaustive treatise on inversion theory. Written by one of the world’s foremost experts, this work is widely recognized as the ultimate researcher’s reference on geophysical inverse theory and its practical scientific applications. Presents state-of-the-art geophysical inverse theory developed in modern mathematical terminology—the first to treat many kinds of inversion and imaging techniques in a unified mathematical way. Provides a critical link between the methods used in gravity, electromagnetic, and seismic imaging and inversion, and represents an exhaustive treatise on geophysical inversion theory. Features more than 300 illustrations, figures, charts and graphs to underscore key concepts. Reflects the latest developments in inversion theory and applications and captures the most significant changes in the field over the past decade.
Author: Mark E. Everett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2013-04-25
Just a few meters below the Earth's surface lie features of great importance, from geological faults which can produce devastating earthquakes, to lost archaeological treasures! This refreshing, up-to-date book explores the foundations of interpretation theory and the latest developments in near-surface techniques, used to complement traditional geophysical methods for deep-exploration targets. Clear but rigorous, the book explains theory and practice in simple physical terms, supported by intermediate-level mathematics. Techniques covered include magnetics, resistivity, seismic reflection and refraction, surface waves, induced polarization, self-potential, electromagnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, magnetic resonance, interferometry, seismoelectric and more. Sections on data analysis and inverse theory are provided and chapters are illustrated by case studies, giving students and professionals the tools to plan, conduct and analyze a near-surface geophysical survey. This is an important textbook for advanced-undergraduate and graduate students in geophysics and a valuable reference for practising geophysicists, geologists, hydrologists, archaeologists, and civil and geotechnical engineers.
Author: David F. Findley
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2014-05-10
Applied Time Series Analysis II contains the proceedings of the Second Applied Time Series Symposium Held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, on March 3-5, 1980. The symposium provided a forum for discussing significant advances in time series analysis and signal processing. Effective alternatives to the familiar least-square and maximum likelihood procedures are described, along with maximum likelihood procedures for modeling irregularly sampled series and for classifying non-stationary series. Comprised of 22 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to the multidimensional filtering theory and presents specific case histories related to the multidimensional recursive filter stability problem; the least squares inverse problem; realization of filters; and spectral estimation. The unique properties of the three-dimensional wave equation are also considered. Subsequent chapters focus on high-resolution spectral estimators; time series analysis of geophysical inverse scattering problems; minimum entropy deconvolution; and fitting of a continuous time autoregression to discrete data. This monograph will appeal to students and practitioners in the fields of mathematics and statistics, electrical and electronics engineering, and information and computer sciences.
Information-Based Inversion and Processing with Applications examines different classical and modern aspects of geophysical data processing and inversion with emphasis on the processing of seismic records in applied seismology. Chapter 1 introduces basic concepts including: probability theory (expectation operator and ensemble statistics), elementary principles of parameter estimation, Fourier and z-transform essentials, and issues of orthogonality. In Chapter 2, the linear treatment of time series is provided. Particular attention is paid to Wold decomposition theorem and time series models (AR, MA, and ARMA) and their connection to seismic data analysis problems. Chapter 3 introduces concepts of Information theory and contains a synopsis of those topics that are used throughout the book. Examples are entropy, conditional entropy, Burg's maximum entropy spectral estimator, and mutual information. Chapter 4 provides a description of inverse problems first from a deterministic point of view, then from a probabilistic one. Chapter 5 deals with methods to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of seismic records. Concepts from previous chapters are put in practice for designing prediction error filters for noise attenuation and high-resolution Radon operators. Chapter 6 deals with the topic of deconvolution and the inversion of acoustic impedance. The first part discusses band-limited extrapolation assuming a known wavelet and considers the issue of wavelet estimation. The second part deals with sparse deconvolution using various 'entropy' type norms. Finally, Chapter 7 introduces recent topics of interest to the authors. The emphasis of this book is on applied seismology but researchers in the area of global seismology, and geophysical signal processing and inversion will find material that is relevant to the ubiquitous problem of estimating complex models from a limited number of noisy observations. Non-conventional approaches to data processing and inversion are presented Important problems in the area of seismic resolution enhancement are discussed Contains research material that could inspire graduate students and their supervisors to undertake new research directions in applied seismology and geophysical signal processing