Kann es im Zeitalter des Pluralismus noch gelingen, eine hinreichend komplexe Theorie politischer und sozialer Gerechtigkeit mit Hilfe eines einzigen normativen Grundsatzes zu begründen? Dieses Buch unternimmt einen solchen Versuch, indem es die wesentlichen Elemente einer 'autonomen' Konstruktion der Gerechtigkeit zusammenträgt. Grundlegend ist dabei ein individuelles, moralisches Grund-Recht auf Rechtfertigung, das in den Kapiteln des ersten Teils in moralphilosophischer Perspektive expliziert wird. Im zweiten Teil werden dann die zentralen Bestandteile politischer und sozialer Gerechtigkeit - hinsichtlich der Grundbegriffe von Freiheit, Demokratie, Gleichheit und Toleranz - analysiert und verknüpft. Sie fügen sich zu einer kritischen, politischen Theorie der Gerechtigkeit, in der die Frage der 'Rechtfertigungsmacht' zentral ist. Dies gilt auch, wie die Beiträge im dritten Teil zeigen, für die Gerechtigkeit auf transnationaler Ebene.
Author: Wendy Brown
Publisher: Series Cultural Inquiry
Release Date: 2014-03-01
We invoke the ideal of tolerance in response to conflict, but what does it mean to answer conflict with a call for tolerance? Is tolerance a way of resolving conflicts or a means of sustaining them? Does it transform conflicts into productive tensions or does it perpetuate underlying power relations? To what extent does tolerance hide its involvement with power and act as a form of de-politicization? Two major theoreticians of tolerance debate the uses and misuses of tolerance in a dialogue that is rich in critical and conceptual reflections on power, justice, discourse, rationality, and identity.
Author: Bernhard Platzdasch
Publisher: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies
Release Date: 2014-08-06
Genre: Social Science
"This book fills a gap in authoritative analyses of the causes of inter-religious conflict and the practice of religious toleration. The rise of more overt expressions of Islamic piety and greater bureaucratization of Islam in both Indonesia and Malaysia over several decades have tested the "live and let live" philosophy which used to characterize religious expression in these nations. The analyses in each chapter of the book break new ground with contextualized studies of particular and recent incidents of conflict or harassment in a variety of areas – from urban centres to more remote and, even complex, locations. As these studies show, legislation stands or falls on the ability and determination of local authorities to enforce it. This volume is essential reading for understanding the dynamics of state-religious interaction in Muslim majority nations and the crucial role civil society organizations play in negotiating interfaith toleration." - Emeritus Professor Virginia Hooker FAHA, Department of Political & Social Change College of Asia & the Pacific, The Australian National University "A most welcome contribution to the academic discourse of political Islam in Indonesia and Malaysia! For this volume focuses not on Islamic resurgence as many others have done, but on the impact of Islamic resurgence upon its non-Muslim minority counterparts - Buddhists, Christians, Hindus and also the Syiah Muslims - in the two plural societies, and the varying responses of those minorities, themselves often fragmented, to Islamic resurgence. The rich case studies highlight the changing character of politics in the two countries and their capacities to deal with religious diversity, an aspect of politics often ignored because of the usual concern for economic and political institutional capacities. The juxtaposition of Malaysian and Indonesian cases in a single volume and comparisons of contrasting developments in the two countries, challenges readers not to resort to easy conclusions and overgeneralizations about rising inter-religious tensions, but to give more scholarly attention to this politics-religion diversity nexus." - Emeritus Professor Francis Loh Kok Wah, Department of Political Science, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Author: Elazar Barkan
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2014-11-11
Genre: Political Science
This anthology explores the dynamics of shared religious sites in Turkey, the Balkans, Palestine/Israel, Cyprus, and Algeria, indicating where local and national stakeholders maneuver between competition and cooperation, coexistence and conflict. Contributors probe the notion of coexistence and the logic that underlies centuries of "sharing," exploring when and why sharing gets interrupted—or not—by conflict, and the policy consequences. These essays map the choreographies of shared sacred spaces within the framework of state-society relations, juxtaposing a site's political and religious features and exploring whether sharing or contestation is primarily religious or politically motivated. Although religion and politics are intertwined phenomena, the contributors to this volume understand the category of "religion" and the "political" as devices meant to distinguish between the theological and confessional aspects of religion and the political goals of groups. Their comparative approach better represents the transition in some cases of sites into places of hatred and violence, while in other instances they remain noncontroversial. The essays clearly delineate the religious and political factors that contribute to the context and causality of conflict at these sites and draw on history and anthropology to shed light on the often rapid switch from relative tolerance to distress to peace and calm.
Voltaires 1763 erschienenes Plädoyer für Toleranz zwischen den Religionen war nie so aktuell wie heute. Seit den Anschlägen auf die Redaktion der Satirezeitschrift Charlie Hebdo hat sich seine Kritik des religiösen Fanatismus wie ein Lauffeuer verbreitet, er selbst gilt als zentrales Symbol für die Freiheit des Geistes: Voltaire-Plakate, versehen mit dem Slogan »Je suis Charlie«, sind in ganz Paris zu sehen. Seine Streitschrift Über die Toleranz wird zusammen mit Kugelschreibern und Stiften als Mahnmal auf vielen Straßen Frankreichs platziert und ist zur Schullektüre avanciert. 250 Jahre nach ihrem Erscheinen ist Voltaires Kampfansage an den Fanatismus und den Aberglauben brisanter und dringlicher denn je. Höchste Zeit, sie zu lesen! Mit einem Vorwort von Laurent Joffrin (Chefredakteur "Libération")
Author: Rainer Forst
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2011-12-27
Contemporary philosophical pluralism recognizes the inevitability and legitimacy of multiple ethical perspectives and values, making it difficult to isolate the higher-order principles on which to base a theory of justice. Rising up to meet this challenge, Rainer Forst, a leading member of the Frankfurt School's newest generation of philosophers, conceives of an "autonomous" construction of justice founded on what he calls the basic moral right to justification. Forst begins by identifying this right from the perspective of moral philosophy. Then, through an innovative, detailed critical analysis, he ties together the central components of social and political justice freedom, democracy, equality, and toleration and joins them to the right to justification. The resulting theory treats "justificatory power" as the central question of justice, and by adopting this approach, Forst argues, we can discursively work out, or "construct," principles of justice, especially with respect to transnational justice and human rights issues. As he builds his theory, Forst engages with the work of Anglo-American philosophers such as John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin, and Amartya Sen, and critical theorists such as Jürgen Habermas, Nancy Fraser, and Axel Honneth. Straddling multiple subjects, from politics and law to social protest and philosophical conceptions of practical reason, Forst brilliantly gathers contesting claims around a single, elastic theory of justice.
More than anything, diversity is what characterizes societies of the 21st century. Our contemporary societies are marked by ethnic, religious, racial, ideological, moral, and sexual diversity. Cultural, moral, and ideological pluralism is a fact of our lives. While some people see this phenomenon as a source of richness and thus welcome it, others feel threatened by it. Those who feel threatened have two options before them; they will either learn how to live with diversity or look for ways to suppress it. While, this latter option causes social conflict, the former ameliorates social conflict. This option is called 'toleration.' Toleration: The Liberal Virtue is a defense of toleration as a remedy to societal conflict caused by differences. It examines four prominent grounds of toleration: skepticism, prudence, autonomy, and conscience which are illustrated through the works of four pioneering liberals, namely, Michel de Montaigne, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and Pierre Bayle, respectively.
Author: Dario Castiglione
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Political Science
This book brings together a group of international scholars, many of whom have already contributed to the debate on toleration, and who are offering fresh thoughts and approaches to it. The essays of this collection are written from a variety of perspectives: historical, analytical, normative, and legal. Yet, all authors share a concern with the sharpening of our understanding of the reasons for toleration as well as with making them relevant to the way in which we live with others in our modern and diverse societies.
Recently, there has been a notable rise in interest in the idea of "toleration", a rise that Ingrid Creppell argues comes more from distressing political developments than positive ones, and almost all of them are related to issues of identity: rampant genocide in the 20th Century, the resurgence of religious fundamentalism around the world; and ethnic-religious wars in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. In Toleration and Identity, Creppell argues that a contemporary ethic of toleration must include recognition of identity issues, and that the traditional liberal ideal of toleration is not sufficiently understood if we define it strictly as one of individual rights and freedom beliefs. Moving back and forth between contemporary debates and the foundational writings of Bodin, Montaigne, Lock, and Defoe, Toleration and Identity provides a fresh perspective on two key ideas deeply connected to current philosophical debates and political issues.
Author: Ole Peter Grell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2002-06-20
The sixteen chapters in this book, written by leading experts in this period's history, offer a new and dramatically different interpretation of how religious toleration and conflict developed in the crucial period between 1500, when northern humanism had begun to make an impact, and 1648, the end of the Thirty Years War. They question the traditional view of a general progression towards greater religious toleration, and instead place religious tolerance and intolerance in their specific social and political contexts.
Author: Mark E. Kann
Publisher: NYU Press
Release Date: 2013-04-01
“Kann's latest tour de force explores the ambivalence, during the founding of our nation, about whether political freedom should augur sexual freedom. Tracing the roots of patriarchal sexual repression back to revolutionary America, Kann asks highly contemporary questions about the boundaries between public and private life, suggesting, provocatively, that political and sexual freedom should go hand in hand.” —Ben Agger, University of Texas at Arlington The American Revolution was fought in the name of liberty. In popular imagination, the Revolution stands for the triumph of populism and the death of patriarchal elites. But this is not the case, argues Mark E. Kann. Rather, in the aftermath of the Revolution, America developed a society and system of laws that kept patriarchal authority alive and well—especially when it came to the sex lives of citizens. In Taming Passion for the Public Good, Kann contends that that despite the rhetoric of classical liberalism, the founding generation did not trust ordinary citizens with extensive liberty. Under the guise of paternalism, they were able simultaneously to retain social control while espousing liberal principles, with the goal of ultimately molding the country into the new American ideal: a moral and orderly citizenry that voluntarily did what was best for the public good. Mark E. Kann, Professor Emeritus of Political Science and History, held the USC Associates Chair in Social Science at the University of Southern California. He is the author of Republic of Men (NYU Press, 1998) and Punishment, Prisons, and Patriarchy (NYU Press, 2005).