Toward the Next Generation of Bystander Prevention of Sexual and Relationship Violence

Author: Victoria L. Banyard
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319231716
Release Date: 2015-09-03
Genre: Social Science

This briefs integrates and synthesizes an array of research about who helps others and under what conditions and discusses the implications of this research for a bystander intervention focused prevention agenda to reduce sexual and relationship violence in schools and communities. It combines an examination of bystander helping behavior in the specific context of sexual and relationship violence with social psychological research on bystander behavior outside that context in order to inform prevention efforts. This briefs is designed for researchers, practitioners, and students concerned about violence prevention and who are interesting in bystander intervention as a promising prevention strategy. Connections between research and practice are the foundation of this briefs. The briefs addresses the following questions: What is the promise of a bystander approach to violence prevention? Where does it fit within the spectrum of sexual and relationship violence prevention? How do we expand theoretical models of helping behavior to the unique context of interpersonal violence? How can we bring in research from other areas of health behavior change and developmental research on violence to inform a broader bystander action model? It provides a new synthesis and model of bystander interaction. It outlines a strategic plan for new research and next steps in prevention practices.

Homicide Data Sources

Author: Adam Dobrin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319198811
Release Date: 2015-07-31
Genre: Social Science

This Brief provides a detailed guide to national data sources that collect and report data on homicides in the United States, and some key international sources abroad. It provides in-depth coverage of well-known sources, and highlights more obscure sources, providing a useful tool for research design and planning across disciplines. This Brief includes detailed discussions of the benchmark sources in the United States: police data compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting Programs, as well as the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics’ National Vital Statistics System. It also brings to light in one place many other less commonly-known sources for the United States. The author also highlights international data sources with worldwide data, but not country-specific studies. For each source covered, this unique work provides discussion of how to access the data source, interpret data from the source, and provides necessary background information about strengths and weaknesses of the sources. It does not presume expertise in statistics or methodology, and assumes no prior exposure to the data sources described. It is organized by data source, with some comparisons between the sources. It will be useful as a guide for researchers in Criminology and Criminal Justice, Public Administration, Demography, and any related field interested in homicide statistics.

Confidential Informants

Author: Jon Shane
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319222523
Release Date: 2015-09-19
Genre: Social Science

While confidential informants (CI’s) can play a crucial role in police investigations, they also have the potential to cause great harm if they are dishonest. The process by which police agencies qualify a CI to work and the strength of agency policy may be the source of the problem. This Brief examines the integrity problem involving CIs in police operations within the United States, provides an overview of pitfalls and problems related to veracity and informant integrity including the difficulties in detecting when a CI is lying, and compares the provisions of actual published police policy to the model CI policy published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The analysis shows a wide divergence between actual police policy and the national standard promulgated by the IACP. The Brief provides policy recommendations for improving use of CIs that can potentially reduce or eliminate integrity problems that can lead to organizational accidents such as wrongful arrests and convictions, injuries or deaths. Some Courts have issued measures to ensure that information received from CIs is reliable by examining sworn testimony and documents related to their work. However, as this Brief explores, this judicial effort arises only after a police operation has taken place, and the use of force – even deadly force—has already been employed. The author proposes integrity testing beforehand, which would allow police to have a greater understanding of a CI’s motivation, ability and veracity when conducting law enforcement operations. In addition, there are aspects of police policy that can enhance CI management such as training, supervision and entrapment that can further guard against integrity problems. Although integrity testing is not flawless, it does interpose an additional step in the CI management process that can help guard against wrongful conviction and perjury that harms the judicial process.

Ethical Concerns in Research on Human Trafficking

Author: Dina Siegel
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319215211
Release Date: 2015-12-08
Genre: Social Science

This book presents a vivid description of the solutions that researchers have discovered for ethical dilemmas that pose themselves at studying disadvantaged, vulnerable and victimized populations. Ethical codes prescribe that the scholar should in all circumstances avoid potential harm, that informed consent is necessary and that the limits of confidentiality should always be respected. However, in the practice of research among women involved in prostitution, illegal immigrant workers, enslaved children, people who sell their organs and all the traffickers thereof, the ethical rules cannot always be followed. This book shows that there is a surprising variety of arguable possibilities in dealing with ethical dilemmas in the field. Authors reflect on concrete experiences from their own fieldwork in a wide variety of settings such as the USA, Singapore, Kosovo and The Netherlands. Some choose to work on the basis of conscientious partiality, others negotiate the rules with their informants and still others purposely break the rules in order to disclose and damage the exploiters. Researchers may find themselves in a vulnerable position. Their experiences, as presented in this volume, will help field workers, university administrators, representatives of vulnerable groups, philosophers of ethics and most of all students to go into the field well-prepared. This is a book that every researcher planning to do fieldwork in the difficult field of hidden, illicit and victimized people should read in advance. Dr. Frank Bovenkerk, Professor (Emeritus), Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands This book allows a peek in the kitchen of empirical fieldwork, going into not only “best practices,” but mistakes made, in a frank, courageous and honest way. Dr. Brenda C. Oude Breuil, Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Universiteit Utrecht, The Netherlands

Labor Unions Management Innovation and Organizational Change in Police Departments

Author: John DeCarlo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319215846
Release Date: 2015-08-25
Genre: Social Science

This Brief examines the role of Police Unions in law enforcement policy development. It provides an overview of the historical and political background of police labor unions, and takes a critical look at the shifting perception of labor unions from generally positive to somewhat negative, to compare this perception with their real impact. It examines the perceived role that unions play, whether positive, negative, or neutral in the development and advancement of contemporary law enforcement agencies and their respective policies. This work provides a multisite survey of police administrators’ views and opinions on police union impact on a variety of police functions including: delivery of services, prevention of crime and disorder, and interaction with the public. The results of this research provide a comprehensive look at ways to improve the ways police departments operate and how they improve and enhance legitimacy in their communities.It provides a context for the current state of the public sector labor relations environment. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, police science, and public policy.

Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors

Author: Inge Brouns
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642227724
Release Date: 2011-10-06
Genre: Medical

With the advances of immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy, airway sensory receptor end-organs can now be examined and evaluated objectively. Based on their ‘neurochemical coding’, morphology, location and origin, three sensory receptor end organs are currently morphologically well-characterised: smooth muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs), neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) and visceral pleura receptors (VPRs). The present information on the functional morphological and neurochemical characteristics of these sensory receptors, leads to important conclusions about their (possible) function.

Juvenile Offenders and Guns

Author: Diane Marano
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781137520142
Release Date: 2015-09-09
Genre: Social Science

Juvenile Offenders and Guns explores how and why twenty-five incarcerated young men of color acquired and used guns, and how guns made them feel. Guns have multiple meanings and serve many purposes for these youth as they attempt to construct a capable masculinity in their worlds, growing up in homes where money is often scarce and fathers absent.

The Two Mafias

Author: Salvatore Lupo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9781137491374
Release Date: 2015-08-05
Genre: Social Science

A realistic understanding of the mafia must avoid depictions both of a monolithic organization and of localized, isolated groups. Here, renowned historian Salvatore Lupo analyzes the mafia as a network of varied relationships and institutions, the result of a complex cultural and social encounter that was shaped by multiple, diverse environments.

Treatment versus Punishment for Drug Addiction

Author: Richard Soyer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319188249
Release Date: 2015-08-14
Genre: Social Science

​​This brief summarizes the results of a two-year, international research project covering drug addiction treatment versus punishment in Austria, Poland, and Spain. It features: -An analysis of the national drug-related legislation and its application in these countries - An evaluation of drug laws and policies by both the law enforcement and drug treatment practitioners -An evaluation of drug-addicted offenders undergoing drug treatment versus punishment and their outcomes The basic findings of the project can be summarized as follows: drug addiction and drug-related criminal behavior should be treated as a psychiatric disorder and a chronic disease. The study supports the application of a treatment-oriented approach to drug-related delinquency. As this brief demonstrates, one challenge to an adequate treatment of drug addicted offenders is a lack of cooperation between the judicial and the medical sector, and an inconsistent application of policies. By comparing the legislation and application of drug laws in these three European countries, the authors provide insights with implications for other national legal systems. This brief will be of interest to researchers and policy-makers working with drug involved individuals, from criminology and criminal justice, public health, public policy and international comparative law.

The Web of Violence

Author: Sherry Hamby
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400755963
Release Date: 2012-10-13
Genre: Social Science

There is an increasing appreciation of the interconnections among all forms of violence. These interconnections have critical implications for conducting research that can produce valid conclusions about the causes and consequences of abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The accumulated data on co-occurrence also provide strong evidence that prevention and intervention should be organized around the full context of individuals’ experiences, not narrowly defined subtypes of violence. Managing the flood of new research and practice innovations is a challenge, however. New means of communication and integration are needed to meet this challenge, and the Web of Violence is intended to contribute to this process by serving as a concise overview of the conceptual and empirical work that form a basis for understanding the interconnections across forms of violence throughout the lifespan. It also offers ideas and directions for prevention, intervention, and public policy. A number of initiatives are emerging to integrate the findings on co-occurrence into research and action. The American Psychological Association established a new journal, Psychology of Violence, which is a forum for research on all types of violence. Sherry Hamby is the founding editor and John Grych is associate editor and co-editor of a special issue on the co-occurrence of violence in 2012. Dr. Hamby also is a co-investigator of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which has drawn attention to polyvictimization. Polyvictimization is a focus of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Defending Childhood Initiative and has recently been featured in calls for grant proposals by the Office of Victims of Crime and National Institutes for Justice.

Police Use of Research Evidence

Author: Elizabeth A. Stanko
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319206486
Release Date: 2015-10-20
Genre: Social Science

This brief takes the reader through a 10-year journey of seeking to embed Evidence Based Policing within one of the largest police forces in the world - the Metropolitan Police Service in London, England - from the inside. As a topic, Evidence Based Policing has generated considerable recent interest and academic discussion - although largely remains without a consistent guiding voice for police practitioners. The aim of the brief is to expand upon the current discussions and address this gap within the day-to-day reality of policing where translation of research is a routine part of the day job. The book is organised into three sections: the first explores receptivity to evidence, asking practitioners to locate where they are on a continuum of evidence based craftwork; the second presents the importance of programme integrity and effective implementation in police craft; and the final section explores the challenges in professionalising policing and offers a more nuanced discussion around what it really means to be evidenced based. Throughout the brief the authors promote an insider whole-force strategic approach in landing evidence into policing 'business as normal' as opposed to an external academic or educated individual officer translation approach. Over the course of the monograph the authors draw upon their decade of experience providing case studies, toolkits, exercises, anecdotes and research experience as an inspiration for police practitioners both to practically support and inspire better evidence based working as part of the day job.

Controversies in Psychology

Author: Phil Banyard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134647392
Release Date: 2003-09-01
Genre: Psychology

An introduction to the areas that have been studied in psychology that have excited controversy, including advertising, psychometric testing, propoganda and warfare.

Anthropology of Color

Author: Robert E. MacLaury
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9789027291707
Release Date: 2007-11-21
Genre: Social Science

The field of color categorization has always been intrinsically multi- and inter-disciplinary, since its beginnings in the nineteenth century. The main contribution of this book is to foster a new level of integration among different approaches to the anthropological study of color. The editors have put great effort into bringing together research from anthropology, linguistics, psychology, semiotics, and a variety of other fields, by promoting the exploration of the different but interacting and complementary ways in which these various perspectives model the domain of color experience. By so doing, they significantly promote the emergence of a coherent field of the anthropology of color. Now Open Access as part of the Knowledge Unlatched 2017 Backlist Collection.