Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound

Author: John L. Butler
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319390444
Release Date: 2016-09-01
Genre: Science

This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains corrections to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to selected exercises. Each chapter includes a short introduction, end-of-chapter summary, and an extensive reference list offering the reader more detailed information and historical context. A glossary of key terms is also included at the end.

Computational Ocean Acoustics

Author: Finn B. Jensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441986782
Release Date: 2011-06-10
Genre: Science

Senior level/graduate level text/reference presenting state-of-the- art numerical techniques to solve the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid-solid media. Numerical models have become standard research tools in acoustic laboratories, and thus computational acoustics is becoming an increasingly important branch of ocean acoustic science. The first edition of this successful book, written by the recognized leaders of the field, was the first to present a comprehensive and modern introduction to computational ocean acoustics accessible to students. This revision, with 100 additional pages, completely updates the material in the first edition and includes new models based on current research. It includes problems and solutions in every chapter, making the book more useful in teaching (the first edition had a separate solutions manual). The book is intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students of acoustics, geology and geophysics, applied mathematics, ocean engineering or as a reference in computational methods courses, as well as professionals in these fields, particularly those working in government (especially Navy) and industry labs engaged in the development or use of propagating models.

Underwater Acoustics

Author: Richard P. Hodges
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119957492
Release Date: 2011-06-28
Genre: Science

Offering complete and comprehensive coverage of modern sonar spectrum system analysis, Underwater Acoustics: Analysis, Design and Performance of Sonar provides a state-of-the-art introduction to the subject and has been carefully structured to offer a much-needed update to the classic text by Urick. Expanded to included computational approaches to the topic, this book treads the line between the highly theoretical and mathematical texts and the more populist, non-mathematical books that characterize the existing literature in the field. The author compares and contrasts different techniques for sonar design, analysis and performance prediction and includes key experimental and theoretical results, pointing the reader towards further detail with extensive references. Practitioners in the field of sonar design, analysis and performance prediction as well as graduate students and researchers will appreciate this new reference as an invaluable and timely contribution to the field. Chapters include the sonar equation, radiated, self and ambient noise, active sonar sources, transmission loss, reverberation, transducers, active target strength, statistical detection theory, false alarms, contacts and targets, variability and uncertainty, modelling detections and tactical decision aids, cumulative probability of detection, tracking target motion analysis and localization, and design and evaluation of sonars

Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

Author: Boris Katsnelson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441997760
Release Date: 2012-02-22
Genre: Science

Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the worlds oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in US and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

An Introduction to Underwater Acoustics

Author: Xavier Lurton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540429670
Release Date: 2002
Genre: Science

Presented in a clear and concise way as an introductory text and practical handbook, the book provides the basic physical phenomena governing underwater acoustical waves, propagation, reflection, target backscattering and noise. It covers the general features of sonar systems, transducers and arrays, signal processing and performance evaluation. It provides an overview of today's applications, presenting the working principles of the various systems. From the reviews: "Presented in a clear and concise way as an introductory text and practical handbook, the book provides the basic physical phenomena governing underwater acoustical waves, propagation, reflection, target backscattering and noise. ⦠It provides an overview of todayâs applications, presenting the working principles of the various systems." (Oceanis, Vol. 27 (3-4), 2003) "This book is a general survey of Underwater Acoustics, intended to make the subject âas easily accessible as possible, with a clear emphasis on applications.â In this the author has succeeded, with a wide variety of subjects presented with minimal derivation ⦠. There is an emphasis on technology and on intuitive physical explanation ⦠." (Darrell R. Jackson, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Vol. 115 (2), February, 2004) "This is an exciting new scientific publication. It is timely and welcome ⦠. Furthermore, it is up to date and readable. It is well researched, excellently published and ranks with earlier books in this discipline ⦠. Many persons in the marine science field including acousticians, hydrographers, oceanographers, fisheries scientists, engineers, educators, students ⦠and equipment manufacturers will benefit greatly by reading all or part of this text. The author is to be congratulated on his fine contribution ⦠." (Stephen B. MacPhee, International Hydrographic Review, Vol. 4 (2), 2003)

Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing

Author: L. Bjørnø
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400984479
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

The comprehensive research activity around the World in the fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing being strongly supported by new experimental technique and equipment and by the parallel fast developments in computer technology and solid state devices, which has led to a rapidly reducing cost of digital processing thus enabling more complex processing to be carried out economically, emphasize how necessary it is at intervals of a few years through a NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO ASI) and guided by leading experts to study the conquests in the fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing. This need of study is moreover stressed by the interdisciplina rity of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing, where a strong impact from other branches of science, - Geophysics, Radioastronomy, Bioengineering, Telecommunication, Seismology, Space Research etc. - is taking place, which makes it an extre mely difficult task for scientists to follow-up the development in all its phases and to preserve the general view of its rapid ly increasing number of possibilities. The present Proceedings of the NATO ASI held in Copenhagen during August 1980 join the series of proceedings of NATO summer schools on Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing held during the past 20 years. The equality and the fusion of the individual research fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing and the separate introduction of advanced research results from other scientific areas related to underwater acoustics such as transducers characterize the subject matter of this NATO ASI.

Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics

Author: David Havelock
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387304410
Release Date: 2008-10-26
Genre: Science

The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics brings together a wide range of perspectives from over 100 authors to reveal the interdisciplinary nature of the subject. It brings the key issues from both acoustics and signal processing into perspective and is a unique resource for experts and practitioners alike to find new ideas and techniques within the diversity of signal processing in acoustics.

Applied Underwater Acoustics

Author: Thomas Neighbors
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780128112472
Release Date: 2017-01-19
Genre: Science

Applied Underwater Acoustics meets the needs of scientists and engineers working in underwater acoustics and graduate students solving problems in, and preparing theses on, topics in underwater acoustics. The book is structured to provide the basis for rapidly assimilating the essential underwater acoustic knowledge base for practical application to daily research and analysis. Each chapter of the book is self-supporting and focuses on a single topic and its relation to underwater acoustics. The chapters start with a brief description of the topic’s physical background, necessary definitions, and a short description of the applications, along with a roadmap to the chapter. The subtopics covered within individual subchapters include most frequently used equations that describe the topic. Equations are not derived, rather, assumptions behind equations and limitations on the applications of each equation are emphasized. Figures, tables, and illustrations related to the sub-topic are presented in an easy-to-use manner, and examples on the use of the equations, including appropriate figures and tables are also included. Provides a complete and up-to-date treatment of all major subjects of underwater acoustics Presents chapters written by recognized experts in their individual field Covers the fundamental knowledge scientists and engineers need to solve problems in underwater acoustics Illuminates, in shorter sub-chapters, the modern applications of underwater acoustics that are described in worked examples Demands no prior knowledge of underwater acoustics, and the physical principles and mathematics are designed to be readily understood by scientists, engineers, and graduate students of underwater acoustics Includes a comprehensive list of literature references for each chapter

An Introduction to Sonar Systems Engineering

Author: Lawrence J. Ziomek
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781315282527
Release Date: 2017-02-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Written in tutorial style, this textbook discusses the fundamental topics of modern day Sonar Systems Engineering for the analysis and design of both active and passive sonar systems. Included are basic signal design for active sonar systems and understanding underwater acoustic communication signals. Mathematical theory is provided, plus practical design and analysis equations for both passive and active sonar systems. Practical homework problems are included at the end of each chapter and a solutions manual and lecture slides for each chapter are available for adopting professors.

Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

Author: Herman Medwin
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080532160
Release Date: 1997-11-05
Genre: Science

The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides

Principles of Marine Bioacoustics

Author: Whitlow W. L. Au
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387783652
Release Date: 2009-07-30
Genre: Science

Humans have always been fascinated by marine life, from extremely small diatoms to the largest mammal that inhabits our planet, the blue whale. However, studying marine life in the ocean is an extremely difficult propo- tion because an ocean environment is not only vast but also opaque to most instruments and can be a hostile environment in which to perform expe- ments and research. The use of acoustics is one way to effectively study animal life in the ocean. Acoustic energy propagates in water more efficiently than almost any form of energy and can be utilized by animals for a variety of purposes and also by scientists interested in studying their behavior and natural history. However, underwater acoustics have traditionally been in the domain of physicists, engineers and mathematicians. Studying the natural history of animals is in the domain of biologists and physiologists. Und- standing behavior of animals has traditionally involved psychologists and zoologists. In short, marine bioacoustics is and will continue to be a diverse discipline involving investigators from a variety of backgrounds, with very different knowledge and skill sets. The inherent inter-disciplinary nature of marine bioacoustics presents a large challenge in writing a single text that would be meaningful to various investigators and students interested in this field. Yet we have embarked on this challenge to produce a volume that would be helpful to not only beginning investigators but to seasoned researchers.

The Foundations of Acoustics

Author: Eugen Skudrzyk
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783709182550
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

Research and scientific progress are based upqn intuition coordinated with a wide theoretical knowledge, experimental skill, and a realistic sense of the limitations of technology. Only a deep insight into physical phenomena will supply the necessary skills to handle the problems that arise in acoustics. The acoustician today needs to be well acquainted with mathematics, dynamics, hydrodynamics, and physics; he also needs a good knowledge of statistics, signal processing, electrical theory, and of many other specialized subjects. Acquiring this background is a laborious task and would require the study of many different books. It is the goal of this volume to present this background in as thorough and readable a manner as possible so that the reader may turn to specialized publications or chapters of other books for further information without having to start at the preliminaries. In trying to accomplish this goal, mathematics serves only as a tool; the better our understanding of a physical phenomenon, the less mathematics is needed and the shorter and more concise are our computa tions. A word about the choice of subjects for this volume will be helpful to the reader. Even scientists of high standing are frequently not acquainted with the fundamentals needed in the field of acoustics. Chapters I to IX are devoted to these fundamentals. After studying Chapter I, which dis cusses the units and their relationships, the reader should have no difficulty converting from one system of units to any other.

Handbook of Modern Sensors

Author: Jacob Fraden
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319193038
Release Date: 2015-10-15
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the theory (physical principles), design, and practical implementations of various sensors for scientific, industrial and consumer applications. This latest edition focuses on the sensing technologies driven by the expanding use of sensors in mobile devices. These new miniature sensors will be described, with an emphasis on smart sensors which have embedded processing systems. The chapter on chemical sensors has also been expanded to present the latest developments. Digital systems, however complex and intelligent they may be, must receive information from the outside world that is generally analog and not electrical. Sensors are interface devices between various physical values and the electronic circuits that "understand" only a language of moving electrical charges. In other words, sensors are the eyes, ears, and noses of silicon chips. Unlike other books on sensors, the Handbook of Modern Sensors is organized according to the measured variables (temperature, pressure, position, etc.). This book is a reference text for students, researchers interested in modern instrumentation (applied physicists and engineers), sensor designers, application engineers and technicians whose job it is to understand, select and/or design sensors for practical systems.

Piezoelectric Ceramics

Author: Ltd Apc International
Publisher: Apc International, Limited
ISBN: 0615565034
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Technology & Engineering

APC International, Ltd.'s textbook on the principles and applications of piezoelectric ceramics covers: general principles of piezoelectricity and behavior of piezoelectric ceramic elements fundamental mathematics of piezoelectricity traditional and experimental applications for piezoelectric materials, and related physical principles for each application: audible sound producers, flow meters, fluid level sensors, motors, pumps, delay lines, transformers, other apparatus introduction to single crystals, composites, and other latest-generation piezoelectric materials Contents Introduction piezoelectricity / piezoelectric constants behavior / stability of piezoelectric ceramic elements new materials: relaxors / single crystals / others characteristics of piezoelectric materials from APC International, Ltd. Generators generators solid state batteries Sensors axial sensors flexional sensors special designs and applications: composites / SAW sensors / others Actuators axial and transverse actuators: simple / compound (stack) / multilayer flexional actuators / flextensional devices applications for piezoelectric actuators Transducers audible sound transducers generating ultrasonic vibrations in liquids or solids transmitting ultrasonic signals in air or water flow meters / fluid level sensors / delay lines / transformers / composites Miscellaneous securing a piezoelectric ceramic element attaching electrical leads testing performance Note: This is a 2nd edition to APC's textbook published in 2002. Updates in the 2nd edition reflect changes to APC's product lines and corrections outlined on the errata sheet distributed with the 2002 edition.

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems

Author: Robert Istepanian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0792373049
Release Date: 2002-08-31
Genre: Science

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems describes new design and development methodologies in underwater acoustic signal processing. The emphasis is on experimental efforts and modern DSP implementations. The book assembles a number of contributions from authors who have contributed significantly to the field. The topics cover a broad range of underwater acoustic signal processing applications: underwater wireless communciations, array processing for mapping, detection and localization of objects, biotelemetry, speech processing for divers, acoustic imaging, and use of neural networks for underwater signal processing.