Author: John L. Butler
Release Date: 2016-09-01
This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains corrections to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to selected exercises. Each chapter includes a short introduction, end-of-chapter summary, and an extensive reference list offering the reader more detailed information and historical context. A glossary of key terms is also included at the end.
Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers is a practical handbook for users and designers of underwater transducers. This book continues to be a primary authoritative text in the field since first published by the Bath University Press in 1991. It is now more than 25 years since the original edition of this book was written and much work, aimed at new applications and the development and use of new materials, has been carried out since that time. Indeed, while the fundamental principles of underwater transducer design have remained unchanged in those subsequent years and, hence, the main body of the book remains as before, a new Chapter 13 was added to reflect the considerable work on the development and use of piezoelectric single crystals that has transpired. Further, Chapter 12 (New Materials and Concepts) was also updated to inform us of the research on the development and use of lead-free materials in response to the increased interest in reducing the use of lead in the environment. The main body of this book addresses underwater transducer design methods. They are discussed and illustrated by concentrating on the design of piezoelectric transducers in the 2 - 20 kHz range, most commonly used in today's sonar systems. Design of sonar transducers at lower frequencies is also discussed. Treatment is down-to-earth and avoids complex mathematics. For the user: the book discusses the main features of the various types of transducer designs, identifies the important requirements, and assists in the drawing up of realistic specifications. For the designer: the book details the theoretical and practical aspects in developing your design to most effectively suit the application and the requirements specified by the user.
Applied Underwater Acoustics meets the needs of scientists and engineers working in underwater acoustics and graduate students solving problems in, and preparing theses on, topics in underwater acoustics. The book is structured to provide the basis for rapidly assimilating the essential underwater acoustic knowledge base for practical application to daily research and analysis. Each chapter of the book is self-supporting and focuses on a single topic and its relation to underwater acoustics. The chapters start with a brief description of the topic’s physical background, necessary definitions, and a short description of the applications, along with a roadmap to the chapter. The subtopics covered within individual subchapters include most frequently used equations that describe the topic. Equations are not derived, rather, assumptions behind equations and limitations on the applications of each equation are emphasized. Figures, tables, and illustrations related to the sub-topic are presented in an easy-to-use manner, and examples on the use of the equations, including appropriate figures and tables are also included. Provides a complete and up-to-date treatment of all major subjects of underwater acoustics Presents chapters written by recognized experts in their individual field Covers the fundamental knowledge scientists and engineers need to solve problems in underwater acoustics Illuminates, in shorter sub-chapters, the modern applications of underwater acoustics that are described in worked examples Demands no prior knowledge of underwater acoustics, and the physical principles and mathematics are designed to be readily understood by scientists, engineers, and graduate students of underwater acoustics Includes a comprehensive list of literature references for each chapter
APC International, Ltd.'s textbook on the principles and applications of piezoelectric ceramics covers: general principles of piezoelectricity and behavior of piezoelectric ceramic elements fundamental mathematics of piezoelectricity traditional and experimental applications for piezoelectric materials, and related physical principles for each application: audible sound producers, flow meters, fluid level sensors, motors, pumps, delay lines, transformers, other apparatus introduction to single crystals, composites, and other latest-generation piezoelectric materials Contents Introduction piezoelectricity / piezoelectric constants behavior / stability of piezoelectric ceramic elements new materials: relaxors / single crystals / others characteristics of piezoelectric materials from APC International, Ltd. Generators generators solid state batteries Sensors axial sensors flexional sensors special designs and applications: composites / SAW sensors / others Actuators axial and transverse actuators: simple / compound (stack) / multilayer flexional actuators / flextensional devices applications for piezoelectric actuators Transducers audible sound transducers generating ultrasonic vibrations in liquids or solids transmitting ultrasonic signals in air or water flow meters / fluid level sensors / delay lines / transformers / composites Miscellaneous securing a piezoelectric ceramic element attaching electrical leads testing performance Note: This is a 2nd edition to APC's textbook published in 2002. Updates in the 2nd edition reflect changes to APC's product lines and corrections outlined on the errata sheet distributed with the 2002 edition.
Author: Finn B. Jensen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2011-06-10
Senior level/graduate level text/reference presenting state-of-the- art numerical techniques to solve the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid-solid media. Numerical models have become standard research tools in acoustic laboratories, and thus computational acoustics is becoming an increasingly important branch of ocean acoustic science. The first edition of this successful book, written by the recognized leaders of the field, was the first to present a comprehensive and modern introduction to computational ocean acoustics accessible to students. This revision, with 100 additional pages, completely updates the material in the first edition and includes new models based on current research. It includes problems and solutions in every chapter, making the book more useful in teaching (the first edition had a separate solutions manual). The book is intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students of acoustics, geology and geophysics, applied mathematics, ocean engineering or as a reference in computational methods courses, as well as professionals in these fields, particularly those working in government (especially Navy) and industry labs engaged in the development or use of propagating models.
Author: Richard P. Hodges
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2011-06-28
Offering complete and comprehensive coverage of modern sonar spectrum system analysis, Underwater Acoustics: Analysis, Design and Performance of Sonar provides a state-of-the-art introduction to the subject and has been carefully structured to offer a much-needed update to the classic text by Urick. Expanded to included computational approaches to the topic, this book treads the line between the highly theoretical and mathematical texts and the more populist, non-mathematical books that characterize the existing literature in the field. The author compares and contrasts different techniques for sonar design, analysis and performance prediction and includes key experimental and theoretical results, pointing the reader towards further detail with extensive references. Practitioners in the field of sonar design, analysis and performance prediction as well as graduate students and researchers will appreciate this new reference as an invaluable and timely contribution to the field. Chapters include the sonar equation, radiated, self and ambient noise, active sonar sources, transmission loss, reverberation, transducers, active target strength, statistical detection theory, false alarms, contacts and targets, variability and uncertainty, modelling detections and tactical decision aids, cumulative probability of detection, tracking target motion analysis and localization, and design and evaluation of sonars
Following underwater acoustic channel modeling, this book investigates the relationship between coherence time and transmission distances. It considers the power allocation issues of two typical transmission scenarios, namely short-range transmission and medium-long range transmission. For the former scenario, an adaptive system is developed based on instantaneous channel state information. The primary focus is on cooperative dual-hop orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).This book includes the decomposed fountain codes designed to enable reliable communications with higher energy efficiency. It covers the Doppler Effect, which improves packet transmission reliability for effective low-complexity mirror-mapping-based intercarrier interference cancellation schemes capable of suppressing the intercarrier interference power level. Designed for professionals and researchers in the field of underwater acoustic communications, this book is also suitable for advanced-level students in electrical engineering or computer science.
Author: Xavier Lurton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2002
Presented in a clear and concise way as an introductory text and practical handbook, the book provides the basic physical phenomena governing underwater acoustical waves, propagation, reflection, target backscattering and noise. It covers the general features of sonar systems, transducers and arrays, signal processing and performance evaluation. It provides an overview of today's applications, presenting the working principles of the various systems. From the reviews: "Presented in a clear and concise way as an introductory text and practical handbook, the book provides the basic physical phenomena governing underwater acoustical waves, propagation, reflection, target backscattering and noise. â¦ It provides an overview of todayâs applications, presenting the working principles of the various systems." (Oceanis, Vol. 27 (3-4), 2003) "This book is a general survey of Underwater Acoustics, intended to make the subject âas easily accessible as possible, with a clear emphasis on applications.â In this the author has succeeded, with a wide variety of subjects presented with minimal derivation â¦ . There is an emphasis on technology and on intuitive physical explanation â¦ ." (Darrell R. Jackson, Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Vol. 115 (2), February, 2004) "This is an exciting new scientific publication. It is timely and welcome â¦ . Furthermore, it is up to date and readable. It is well researched, excellently published and ranks with earlier books in this discipline â¦ . Many persons in the marine science field including acousticians, hydrographers, oceanographers, fisheries scientists, engineers, educators, students â¦ and equipment manufacturers will benefit greatly by reading all or part of this text. The author is to be congratulated on his fine contribution â¦ ." (Stephen B. MacPhee, International Hydrographic Review, Vol. 4 (2), 2003)
Author: J.M.F Moura
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Acoustic Signal Processing for Ocean Explortion has two major goals: (i) to present signal processing algorithms that take into account the models of acoustic propagation in the ocean and; (ii) to give a perspective of the broad set of techniques, problems, and applications arising in ocean exploration. The book discusses related issues and problems focused in model based acoustic signal processing methods. Besides addressing the problem of the propagation of acoustics in the ocean, it presents relevant acoustic signal processing methods like matched field processing, array processing, and localization and detection techniques. These more traditional contexts are herein enlarged to include imaging and mapping, and new signal representation models like time/frequency and wavelet transforms. Several applied aspects of these topics, such as the application of acoustics to fisheries, sea floor swath mapping by swath bathymetry and side scan sonar, autonomous underwater vehicles and communications in underwater are also considered.
Author: Douglas A. Abraham
Release Date: 2018-09-13
Genre: Technology & Engineering
This book provides comprehensive coverage of the detection and processing of signals in underwater acoustics. Background material on active and passive sonar systems, underwater acoustics, and statistical signal processing makes the book a self-contained and valuable resource for graduate students, researchers, and active practitioners alike. Signal detection topics span a range of common signal types including signals of known form such as active sonar or communications signals; signals of unknown form, including passive sonar and narrowband signals; and transient signals such as marine mammal vocalizations. This text, along with its companion volume on beamforming, provides a thorough treatment of underwater acoustic signal processing that speaks to its author’s broad experience in the field.
The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides
This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the theory (physical principles), design, and practical implementations of various sensors for scientific, industrial and consumer applications. This latest edition focuses on the sensing technologies driven by the expanding use of sensors in mobile devices. These new miniature sensors will be described, with an emphasis on smart sensors which have embedded processing systems. The chapter on chemical sensors has also been expanded to present the latest developments. Digital systems, however complex and intelligent they may be, must receive information from the outside world that is generally analog and not electrical. Sensors are interface devices between various physical values and the electronic circuits that "understand" only a language of moving electrical charges. In other words, sensors are the eyes, ears, and noses of silicon chips. Unlike other books on sensors, the Handbook of Modern Sensors is organized according to the measured variables (temperature, pressure, position, etc.). This book is a reference text for students, researchers interested in modern instrumentation (applied physicists and engineers), sensor designers, application engineers and technicians whose job it is to understand, select and/or design sensors for practical systems.
Author: Robert Istepanian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-03-09
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Underwater acoustic digital signal processing and communications is an area of applied research that has witnessed major advances over the past decade. Rapid developments in this area were made possible by the use of powerful digital signal processors (DSPs) whose speed, computational power and portability allowed efficient implementation of complex signal processing algorithms and experimental demonstration of their performance in a variety of underwater environments. The early results served as a motivation for the development of new and improved signal processing methods for underwater applications, which today range from classical of autonomous underwater vehicles and sonar signal processing, to remote control underwater wireless communications. This book presents the diverse areas of underwater acoustic signal processing and communication systems through a collection of contributions from prominent researchers in these areas. Their results, both new and those published over the past few years, have been assembled to provide what we hope is a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in the field. The book is intended for a general audience of researchers, engineers and students working in the areas of underwater acoustic signal processing. It requires the reader to have a basic understanding of the digital signal processing concepts. Each topic is treated from a theoretical perspective, followed by practical implementation details. We hope that the book can serve both as a study text and an academic reference.
Author: Whitlow W. L. Au
Release Date: 2016-02-25
This title brings to light the discoveries and insights into the lives of many marine species made possible over the last decade by passive acoustic recorders (PAR). Pop-ups, ARF, HARP, EAR, Bprobe, C-POD Atag, and Dtag are the acronyms of some of the many PARs that have changed our understanding of how marine animals live and strive in the ocean. Various types of PARs are used by different investigators in different areas of the world. These recorders have accumulated copious amounts of very important data, unveiling previously unknown information about large marine animals. Temporal, seasonal and spatial distribution patterns have been uncovered for many marine species. There have been many discoveries, new understandings and insights into how these animals live in and utilize the ocean and the importance of acoustics in their lives. Listening Within the Ocean summarizes these important discoveries, providing both a valuable resource for researchers and enjoyable reading for non-professionals interested in marine life.