Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound

Author: John L. Butler
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319390444
Release Date: 2016-09-01
Genre: Science

This improved and updated second edition covers the theory, development, and design of electro-acoustic transducers for underwater applications. This highly regarded text discusses the basics of piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers that are currently being used as well as promising new designs. It presents the basic acoustics as well as the specific acoustics data needed in transducer design and evaluation. A broad range of designs of projectors and hydrophones are described in detail along with methods of modeling, evaluation, and measurement. Analysis of projector and hydrophone transducer arrays, including the effects of mutual radiation impedance and numerical models for elements and arrays, are also covered. The book includes new advances in transducer design and transducer materials and has been completely reorganized to be suitable for use as a textbook, as well as a reference or handbook. The new edition contains corrections to the first edition, end-of-chapter exercises, and solutions to selected exercises. Each chapter includes a short introduction, end-of-chapter summary, and an extensive reference list offering the reader more detailed information and historical context. A glossary of key terms is also included at the end.


Author: Michael Möser
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783662566381
Release Date: 2018-06-07
Genre: Technology & Engineering

In diesem Band der Reihe Fachwissen Technische Akustik werden passive und aktive hydroakustische Messsysteme und -verfahren vorgestellt, die für Wasserschallmessungen im Meer verwendet werden. Auch wenn viele Verfahren aus dem Bereich des Luftschalls grundsätzlich auf Wasserschall übertragbar sind, so ergeben sich aufgrund der akustischen Eigenschaften des Meeres und der begrenzenden Flächen (Meeresboden und -oberfläche) sowie der spezifischen Eigenschaften der hydroakustischen Messtechnik doch signifikante Unterschiede. Nach einer Einführung in die für Wasserschallmessungen gebräuchlichen Mess- und (spektralen) Pegelgrößen und die Grundlagen der hydroakustischen Sensorik wird ein Überblick über die meeresakustischen Randbedingungen gegeben. Für jede Wasserschallmessung ist die Kenntnis der Schallausbreitungsbedingungen und der Umgebungsgeräusche im Meer von zentraler Bedeutung. Anhand von zwei typischen Messaufgaben, der Bestimmung des Quell- oder Zielpegels eines Schiffes und der von Rammschall bei der Errichtung von Offshore-Windenergieanlagen, werden dann unterschiedliche stationäre und driftende Sensorsysteme im Detail vorgestellt. Anschließend wird auf die Vor- und Nachteile von geschleppten Sensorsystemen, wie der horizontalen Richtungsbildung und dem strömungsinduzierten Eigenstörgeräusch, näher eingegangen. Im letzten Abschnitt dieses Kapitels werden aktive Verfahren und Systeme behandelt, die bei Untersuchungen des Meeresbodens, der Schallausbreitung im Meer und der Rückstreu- und Absorptionseigenschaften getauchter Objekte sowie bei der Kalibrierung von hydroakustischen Antennen Verwendung finden.

Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing

Author: L. Bjørnø
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400984479
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Science

The comprehensive research activity around the World in the fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing being strongly supported by new experimental technique and equipment and by the parallel fast developments in computer technology and solid state devices, which has led to a rapidly reducing cost of digital processing thus enabling more complex processing to be carried out economically, emphasize how necessary it is at intervals of a few years through a NATO Advanced Study Institute (NATO ASI) and guided by leading experts to study the conquests in the fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing. This need of study is moreover stressed by the interdisciplina rity of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing, where a strong impact from other branches of science, - Geophysics, Radioastronomy, Bioengineering, Telecommunication, Seismology, Space Research etc. - is taking place, which makes it an extre mely difficult task for scientists to follow-up the development in all its phases and to preserve the general view of its rapid ly increasing number of possibilities. The present Proceedings of the NATO ASI held in Copenhagen during August 1980 join the series of proceedings of NATO summer schools on Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing held during the past 20 years. The equality and the fusion of the individual research fields of Underwater Acoustics and Signal Processing and the separate introduction of advanced research results from other scientific areas related to underwater acoustics such as transducers characterize the subject matter of this NATO ASI.

Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics

Author: Qihu Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642182907
Release Date: 2012-03-05
Genre: Science

"Digital Sonar Design in Underwater Acoustics Principles and Applications" provides comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of research on sonar design, including the basic theory and techniques of digital signal processing, basic concept of information theory, ocean acoustics, underwater acoustic signal propagation theory, and underwater signal processing theory. This book discusses the general design procedure and approaches to implementation, the design method, system simulation theory and techniques, sonar tests in the laboratory, lake and sea, and practical validation criteria and methods for digital sonar design. It is intended for researchers in the fields of underwater signal processing and sonar design, and also for navy officers and ocean explorers. Qihu Li is a professor at the Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Introduction to Adaptive Arrays

Author: Robert A. Monzingo
Publisher: SciTech Publishing
ISBN: 9781891121241
Release Date: 1980
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Introduction to Adaptive Arrays serves as an introduction to the subject of adaptive sensor systems whose principle purpose is to enhance the detection and reception of certain desired signals. The field of array sensor systems is now a maturing technology. With applications of these systems growing more and more numerous, there is a wealth of widely scattered literature on various aspects of such systems. Unfortunately, few books attempt to provide an integrated treatment of the entire system that gives the reader the perspective to organize the available literature into easily understood parts. Intended for use both as a graduate level textbook and as a reference work for engineers, scientists, and systems analysts, this book provides such an integrated treatment by emphasizing the principles and techniques that are of fundamental importance in modern adaptive array systems.

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems

Author: Robert Istepanian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0792373049
Release Date: 2002-08-31
Genre: Science

Underwater Acoustic Digital Signal Processing and Communication Systems describes new design and development methodologies in underwater acoustic signal processing. The emphasis is on experimental efforts and modern DSP implementations. The book assembles a number of contributions from authors who have contributed significantly to the field. The topics cover a broad range of underwater acoustic signal processing applications: underwater wireless communciations, array processing for mapping, detection and localization of objects, biotelemetry, speech processing for divers, acoustic imaging, and use of neural networks for underwater signal processing.

Underwater Acoustics

Author: Richard P. Hodges
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781119957492
Release Date: 2011-06-28
Genre: Science

Offering complete and comprehensive coverage of modern sonar spectrum system analysis, Underwater Acoustics: Analysis, Design and Performance of Sonar provides a state-of-the-art introduction to the subject and has been carefully structured to offer a much-needed update to the classic text by Urick. Expanded to included computational approaches to the topic, this book treads the line between the highly theoretical and mathematical texts and the more populist, non-mathematical books that characterize the existing literature in the field. The author compares and contrasts different techniques for sonar design, analysis and performance prediction and includes key experimental and theoretical results, pointing the reader towards further detail with extensive references. Practitioners in the field of sonar design, analysis and performance prediction as well as graduate students and researchers will appreciate this new reference as an invaluable and timely contribution to the field. Chapters include the sonar equation, radiated, self and ambient noise, active sonar sources, transmission loss, reverberation, transducers, active target strength, statistical detection theory, false alarms, contacts and targets, variability and uncertainty, modelling detections and tactical decision aids, cumulative probability of detection, tracking target motion analysis and localization, and design and evaluation of sonars

Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography

Author: Herman Medwin
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080532160
Release Date: 1997-11-05
Genre: Science

The developments in the field of ocean acoustics over recent years make this book an important reference for specialists in acoustics, oceanography, marine biology, and related fields. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography also encourages a new generation of scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to apply the modern methods of acoustical physics to probe the unknown sea. The book is an authoritative, modern text with examples and exercises. It contains techniques to solve the direct problems, solutions of inverse problems, and an extensive bibliography from the earliest use of sound in the sea to present references. Written by internationally recognized scientists, the book provides background to measure ocean parameters and processes, find life and objects in the sea, communicate underwater, and survey the boundaries of the sea. Fundamentals of Acoustical Oceanography explains principles of underwater sound propagation, and describes how both actively probing sonars and passively listening hydrophones can reveal what the eye cannot see over vast ranges of the turbid ocean. This book demonstrates how to use acoustical remote sensing, variations in sound transmission, in situ acoustical measurements, and computer and laboratory models to identify the physical and biological parameters and processes in the sea. * Offers an integrated, modern approach to passive and active underwater acoustics * Contains many examples of laboratory scale models of ocean-acoustic environments, as well as descriptions of experiments at sea * Covers remote sensing of marine life and the seafloor * Includes signal processing of ocean sounds, physical and biological noises at sea, and inversions * resents sound sources, receivers, and calibration * Explains high intensities; explosive waves, parametric sources, cavitation, shock waves, and streaming * Covers microbubbles from breaking waves, rainfall, dispersion, and attenuation * Describes sound propagation along ray paths and caustics * Presents sound transmissions and normal mode methods in ocean waveguides

Soviet Physics

ISBN: UOM:39015018721673
Release Date: 1976
Genre: American periodicals

Progress in Underwater Acoustics

Author: Harold Merklinger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461318712
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Genre: Technology & Engineering

IMAGE TRACKS AT HALIFAX by L.B. Felsen All living kind much effort spend Some model modes, some model rays, To cope with their environment Some feel that spectra all portrays. Some use their eyes, some use their nose Then there are those who with despatch, To sense where other things repose. Take refuge in the ocean wedge. For one group, nothing's more profound Than to explore the world with sound. If things get messy, randomize. These audio diagnosticians What's partly smooth, determinize. You ponder, is it this or that? Go by the name of acousticians. And wish you were a lowly bat They regularly meet to check Whether their sonogram's on track. The meeting's hosts did treat us well. With images stored in their packs, They let the climate cast its spell. This year they came to Halifax. No weath'ry hope was placed in vain. There they combined with ocean types We were exposed to wind and rain, And each could hear the other's gripes. We glimpsed blue sky through clouds dispersed. A meeting naturally does start But rainy sequence was reversed: Reviewing present state of art. The ocean types would like it wet What we found out is where it's at: Yet they got stuck with sun instead. We cannot hope to match the bat Each confrence has the same refrain: Computer printouts by the reams It has been fun to meet again.

Sea Technology

ISBN: UIUC:30112008350933
Release Date: 1995
Genre: Ocean engineering

Full Field Inversion Methods in Ocean and Seismo Acoustics

Author: Orest Diachok
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789401584760
Release Date: 2013-04-17
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Recent advances in the power of inversion methods, the accuracy of acoustic field prediction codes, and the speed of digital computers have made the full field inversion of ocean and seismic parameters on a large scale a practical possibility. These methods exploit amplitude and phase information detected on hydrophone/geophone arrays, thereby extending traditional inversion schemes based on time of flight measurements. Full field inversion methods provide environmental information by minimising the mismatch between measured and predicted acoustic fields through a global search of possible environmental parameters. Full Field Inversion Methods in Ocean and Seismo-Acoustics is the formal record of a conference held in Italy in June 1994, sponsored by NATO SACLANT Undersea Research Centre. It includes papers by NATO specialists and others. Topics covered include: · speed and accuracy of acoustic field prediction codes · signal processing strategies · global inversion algorithms · search spaces of environmental parameters · environmental stochastic limitations · special purpose computer architectures · measurement geometries · source and receiving sensor technologies.

Principles of Marine Bioacoustics

Author: Whitlow W. L. Au
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387783652
Release Date: 2009-07-30
Genre: Science

Humans have always been fascinated by marine life, from extremely small diatoms to the largest mammal that inhabits our planet, the blue whale. However, studying marine life in the ocean is an extremely difficult propo- tion because an ocean environment is not only vast but also opaque to most instruments and can be a hostile environment in which to perform expe- ments and research. The use of acoustics is one way to effectively study animal life in the ocean. Acoustic energy propagates in water more efficiently than almost any form of energy and can be utilized by animals for a variety of purposes and also by scientists interested in studying their behavior and natural history. However, underwater acoustics have traditionally been in the domain of physicists, engineers and mathematicians. Studying the natural history of animals is in the domain of biologists and physiologists. Und- standing behavior of animals has traditionally involved psychologists and zoologists. In short, marine bioacoustics is and will continue to be a diverse discipline involving investigators from a variety of backgrounds, with very different knowledge and skill sets. The inherent inter-disciplinary nature of marine bioacoustics presents a large challenge in writing a single text that would be meaningful to various investigators and students interested in this field. Yet we have embarked on this challenge to produce a volume that would be helpful to not only beginning investigators but to seasoned researchers.