This book focuses on issues of method and interpretation in studies of submerged landscapes, concentrating on illustrations and case studies from around Europe with additional examples from other parts of the world. Such landscapes were once exposed as dry land during the low sea levels that prevailed during the glacial periods that occupied most of the past million years and provided extensive new territories for human exploitation. Their study today involves underwater investigation, using techniques and strategies which are clearly set out in these chapters. The underwater landscape provides a rich source of information about the archaeology of human settlement and long-term changes in environment, climate and sea-level. This book highlights how such information can be revealed and interpreted. The examples presented here and the focus on techniques make this book of worldwide relevance. Chapters describe examples of underwater archaeological investigation as well as collaboration with offshore industries and legal, management and training issues relating to underwater cultural heritage. Such studies point to the significance of this drowned landscape, and readers are invited to consider its human impact in terms of past settlement and population dispersal through palaeolandscape reconstruction and interpretation in relation to broader themes in human prehistory. This volume is based on work from COST Action SPLASHCOS, a four-year multi-disciplinary and multi-national research program supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) and has something to benefit all those with an interest in the sea floor of the continental shelf and the archaeological and social impact of sea-level change, including archaeologists, marine scientists, geographers, cultural-heritage managers, commercial and governmental organisations, policy makers and interested members of the public.
This book discusses sea-level and coastline changes. These topics are becoming increasingly important for populations living along the edge of the world’s oceans and seas, especially in areas where eustatic sea-level rise is superimposed on isostatic subsidence and storm-induced coastal erosion. This is the case at the southern and eastern Baltic Sea coast: in the south, glacio-isostatic subsidence enhances the effect of climate-induced sea-level rise and strong storm effects are causing a continuous retreat of the coast. On the eastern coast glacio-isostatic uplift compensates for eustatic sea-level rise, but storm-induced waves are responsible for permanent morphodynamic changes to the coastline. There is an increasing need for protection concepts for defense but also for the economic use of the different types of coastal zones. The elaboration of these management concepts can be facilitated through models that generate future projections of coastal developments in the light of modern climate change. This anthology comprises the results of the research project “Coastline Changes of the southern Baltic Sea – Past and future projection (CoPaF)” funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education, which was run by a team of Estonian, German, Lithuanian, and Polish geoscientists and coastal engineers from 2010 to 2013 and overlapped with and complemented the work of COST Action SPLASHCOS supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). As the southern and eastern Baltic serves as a natural laboratory for the investigation of coastal processes, the project’s findings contribute not only to the solution of regional problems in Baltic coastal research and engineering, but also to worldwide interests in description, modelling and parameterization of coastal processes and morphodynamics.
Author: J. Harff
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Release Date: 2016-01-05
Sea-level change has influenced human population globally since prehistoric times. Even in early phases of cultural development human populations were faced with marine regression and transgression as a result of changing climate and corresponding glacio-isostatic adjustment. Global marine regression during the last glaciation changed the palaeogeography of the continental shelf, converting former marine environments to attractive terrestrial habitats for prehistoric humans. These areas of the shelf were used as hunting and gathering areas, as migration routes between continents, and most probably witnessed the earliest developments in seafaring and marine exploitation, until the postglacial transgression re-submerged these palaeo-landscapes. Based on modern marine research technologies and the integration of large databases, proxy data are increasingly available for the reconstruction of Quaternary submerged landscapes. Also, prehistoric archaeological remains from the recent sea bottom are shedding new light on human prehistoric development driven by rapidly changing climate and environment. This publication contributes to the exchange of ideas and new results in this young and challenging field of underwater palaeoenvironmental investigation.
Author: Jonathan Benjamin
Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited
Release Date: 2011
Genre: Social Science
Major events of human prehistory such as the post-glacial recolonisation of Northern Europe and the spread of agriculture through the Mediterranean took place on landscapes that are now, at least partially, underwater. Large parts of this submerged terrain are accessible to divers and can be investigated archaeologically. Prehistoric underwater research has emerged in recent decades as a distinct sub-discipline, developing approaches and methodologies that can be applied in coastal regions worldwide. As a result there is growing awareness of the potential for underwater archaeology to transform our ideas about the course of prehistory. This volume examines existing practice and new developments in the field of submerged prehistoric landscape research. The 25 peer-reviewed contributions from leading authors cover the results of recent research on three continents and the application of methodologies and techniques for site discovery, investigation and interpretation.
Author: Andrew D. Short
Release Date: 2016-08-06
This book is about the more than 4,000 beach systems that form most of the 9000 km long Brazilian coast. It focuses on the beaches of each of the seventeen coastal states and three oceanic islands, their nature, morphodynamics and status. It is a must for anyone who wants to know more about this great coast and its beach systems. This is the first book ever written about the beach systems of Brazil, and actually the very first about the beaches of an entire country. The Brazilian coast extends from the mighty Amazon River and its muddy shores in the north to one of the world’s longest sandy beaches in the southern Rio Grande do Sul. It contains every beach type from wave to tide-dominated which range in size from small embayed beaches to long barrier beaches. The book is written by leading Brazilian academics and researchers and aims at the university level market, as well as coastal scientists, engineers and managers. Standard scientific terminology is used to describe the coast and its beaches. It is illustrated with more than 400 original figures and serves as a benchmark text on the Brazilian coast.
The North Sea has acted as both physical barrier, separating regions from each other, and as the principal means of communication between the same. This duality can also be seen in its potential to be both yielding and destructive; providing food and resources, but also being capable of causing catastrophe. These paradoxical qualities are unlikely to have been lost on our hunter-gatherer ancestors, and they remain relevent to the way that the sea is perceived today. The sixteen papers in this edited volume look at the impact the North Sea had on Northern Europe in the Mesolithic period.
This book provides an overview of beach management tools, including carrying capacity, beach nourishment, environmental and tourism awards (like Blue Flag or others), bathing water quality, zoning, beach typologies, quality index, user's perception, interdisciplinary beach monitoring, coastal legislation, shore protection, social and economic indicators, ecosystem services, and coastal governance (applied in beach case studies). Beaches are one of the most intensely used coastal ecosystems and are responsible for more than half of all global tourism revenues, and as such the book introduces a wide range of state-of-the-art tools that can be used to deal with a variety of beach challenges. Each chapter features specific types of tools that can be applied to advantage in beach management practices. With examples of local and regional case studies from around the globe, this is a valuable resource for anyone involved in beach management.
Author: J.L. Wilson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-12-06
Since 1950 geologists have learned more about the origin and lithification of carbonate sediments than in all the previous years of the history of science. This is true in all the diverse fields of carbonate geology: the study of Recent environments, marine zoology and botany, organic geochemistry, trace element and isotope geochemistry, mineralogy, microfacies of depositional environments, and trace-fossil and sedimentary structure investigation. A synthesis of this new knowledge is just beginning to be formulated. The purpose of this volume is to introduce the advanced student and petroleum explorationist principally to one important aspect of this study: to some of the principles of carbonate geology which may serve to interpret the depositional environments of ancient strata and to better define their sequences and patterns. Chapter I is a brief review of principles of carbonate sedimentation. (For a full discussion of the mineralogy, geochemistry, and diagenesis of carbonates along with a review of Holocene sediments, one may refer to Bathurst's (1971) and Milliman's (1974) texts.) Chapter II reviews stratigraphic and paleotectonic concepts and discusses a general model for carbonate deposition. Chapter III offers an outline of carbonate petrography, concentrating on lithologic descrip tion for the purposes of environmental interpretation. For a further review of this subject and excellent photomicrographs, Horowitz and Potter (1971) and Majewske (1969) may be used.
Author: Siamak Khorram
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2012-02-29
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.
This monograph focuses on a variety of topics related to reconstruction and restoration in post-tsunami conditions. Aspects such as coastal engineering, early warning systems and technological approaches, urban planning and settlements relocation, socio-economic redevelopment and policy, coastal ecosystems and agricultural redevelopment as well as pollution assessment are included. The reader will benefit from the various case-studies drawn from a number of countries hit by the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean and the Great East Earthquake and Tsunami of March 2011 in Japan. This book will appeal to scientists and scholars, decision makers, students and practitioners interested in post-tsunami reconstruction and restoration processes.
Author: Eric L Geist
Release Date: 2017-04-17
Tsunami science has evolved significantly since the occurrence of two of the most destructive natural disasters in recent times: the 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami that killed about 230,000 people along the coasts of 14 countries in the Indian Ocean and the 11 March 2011 Tohoku (Great East Japan) tsunami that killed almost 20,000 people and destroyed the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. As a result of these and many other destructive tsunamis that have occurred over just the last decade, scientists from around the world have come together to engage in tsunami research. The global community of researchers has also expanded by discipline, adapting advances in other sciences to study all aspects of tsunami hydrodynamics, detection, generation, and probability of occurrence. The papers presented in this first of two topical volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time. Nine papers examine various aspects of tsunami hazard and risk assessment. Five papers present new methods for tsunami warning and detection and six other papers describe new methods for understanding tsunami hydrodynamics. The final five papers of the volume describe tsunamis generated by non-seismic sources and important case studies. Collectively, this volume highlights contemporary trends in global tsunami science, both fundamental and applied toward hazard assessment and mitigation. The volume is of interest to scientists and practitioners involved in all aspects of tsunamis from source processes to coastal impacts. Postgraduate students in geophysics, oceanography and coastal engineering – as well as students in the broader geosciences, civil and environmental engineering – will also find the book to be a valuable resource, as it combines recent case studies with advances in tsunami science and natural hazards mitigation.
Author: Vincent L. Gaffney
Release Date: 2007-01-01
Oxbow says: Mapping Doggerland documents the methodology and results of an innovative project to investigate a large area of the Southern North Sea, submerged during the last Glacial Maximum between 10,000 and 7500 bp. The North Sea Palaeolandscape Project mapped more than 23,000 sq km of the North Sea basin, once a dryland inhabited by Mesolithic populations, and its methodology and results are presented in this publication. The project made use of marine survey data and 3D seismic reflection data, but also carried out geomorphological investigations, examined borehole sediments for environmental reconstruction and developed spatial and visualisation techniques for processing and interpreting data. The study is important on a number of different levels: for the information it can provide on the Mesolithic period in Britain; for what it can tell us about a 'lost' area of the North Sea; and for developing a methodology for investigating such environments.
Author: Patrick Daly
Publisher: Psychology Press
Release Date: 2006
The use of computers in archaeology is entering a new phase of unparalleled development, moving on from a specialist methodology on the margins to a powerful practical and analytical tool used across all areas of archaeological interest. With a thorough examination of the ways in which both everyday and cutting-edge technologies can be used to inform and enhance traditional methods, this book brings together ideology from the academic world and pragmatic, concrete examples to show how fieldwork, theory and technology fit together today as never before. Covering a history of the rise of computer use in archaeology as well as a thorough assessment of a number of high profile examples such as the Ferrybridge Chariot, this book shows how new technologies have been implemented into both theory and method as an integral part of the archaeological process. With contributions from renowned experts, experienced professionals and emerging names in the field, this unique, forward-thinking book brings together previously disparate aspects of archaeology in a new holistic approach to the study of the past. A companion website is also available to allow further study of the images included.
Author: Vincent L. Gaffney
Publisher: Council for British Archaeology(GB)
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Social Science
It frequently feels that there is nothing new to explore on the earth - the most distant places are visited by TV crews and even tourists. However, the past can also be a foreign country and recently archaeologists have begun to explore a vast, unknown landscape hidden beneath the North Sea. Inhabited by early man, this land disappeared beneath the sea when sea levels rose more than 8000 years ago. This enigmatic landscape, known as Doggerland after the famous banks in the North Sea, has remained hidden until now. Today, we can map unknown rivers, hills, lakes and valleys using 3D seismic data originally collected for oil exploration. Some 23,000 km2 of this 'lost world' (an area equivalent to that of Wales) have now been revealed. This book tells the exciting story of how this lost country was rediscovered by archaeology and what the results of new work are telling us about what happened to man during the last great phase of global warming, when a massive area of Europe was lost as a consequence of climate change. Although a study of the past, this book demonstrates how archaeology can provide vital information for the future.