Vascular Transport in Plants provides an up-to-date synthesis of new research on the biology of long distance transport processes in plants. It is a valuable resource and reference for researchers and graduate level students in physiology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, ecological physiology, development, and all applied disciplines related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry and biotechnology. The book considers long-distance transport from the perspective of molecular level processes to whole plant function, allowing readers to integrate information relating to vascular transport across multiple scales. The book is unique in presenting xylem and phloem transport processes in plants together in a comparative style that emphasizes the important interactions between these two parallel transport systems. Includes 105 exceptional figures Discusses xylem and phloem transport in a single volume, highlighting their interactions Syntheses of structure, function and biology of vascular transport by leading authorities Poses unsolved questions and stimulates future research Provides a new conceptual framework for vascular function in plants
Author: Hans Lambers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-10-08
Box 9E. 1 Continued FIGURE 2. The C–S–R triangle model (Grime 1979). The strategies at the three corners are C, competiti- winning species; S, stress-tolerating s- cies; R,ruderalspecies. Particular species can engage in any mixture of these three primary strategies, and the m- ture is described by their position within the triangle. comment briefly on some other dimensions that Grime’s (1977) triangle (Fig. 2) (see also Sects. 6. 1 are not yet so well understood. and 6. 3 of Chapter 7 on growth and allocation) is a two-dimensional scheme. A C—S axis (Com- tition-winning species to Stress-tolerating spe- Leaf Economics Spectrum cies) reflects adaptation to favorable vs. unfavorable sites for plant growth, and an R- Five traits that are coordinated across species are axis (Ruderal species) reflects adaptation to leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf life-span, leaf N disturbance. concentration, and potential photosynthesis and dark respiration on a mass basis. In the five-trait Trait-Dimensions space,79%ofallvariation worldwideliesalonga single main axis (Fig. 33 of Chapter 2A on photo- A recent trend in plant strategy thinking has synthesis; Wright et al. 2004). Species with low been trait-dimensions, that is, spectra of varia- LMA tend to have short leaf life-spans, high leaf tion with respect to measurable traits. Compared nutrient concentrations, and high potential rates of mass-based photosynthesis. These species with category schemes, such as Raunkiaer’s, trait occur at the ‘‘quick-return’’ end of the leaf e- dimensions have the merit of capturing cont- nomics spectrum.
Stems, of various sizes and shapes, are involved in most of the organic processes and interactions of plants, ranging from support, transport, and storage to development and protection. The stem itself is a crucially important intermediary: it links above- and below ground organs-connecting roots to leaves. An international team of leading researchers vividly illustrate that stems are more than pipes, more than simple connecting and supporting structures; rather stems are critical, anatomically distinct structures of enormous variability. It is, to an unappreciated extent, this variability that underpins both the diversity and the success of plants in myriad ecosystems. Plant Stems will be a valuable resource on form/function relationships for researchers and graduate-level students in ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, development, genetics, agricultural sciences, and horticulture as they unravel the mechanisms and processes that allow organisms and ecosystems to function. Syntheses of structural, physiological, and ecological functions of stems Multiple viewpoints on how stem structure relates to performance Highlights of major areas of plant biology long neglected
Facts101 is your complete guide to Plant Physiological Ecology. In this book, you will learn topics such as as those in your book plus much more. With key features such as key terms, people and places, Facts101 gives you all the information you need to prepare for your next exam. Our practice tests are specific to the textbook and we have designed tools to make the most of your limited study time.
With more than 500 species distributed all around the Northern Hemisphere, the genus Quercus L. is a dominant element of a wide variety of habitats including temperate, tropical, subtropical and mediterranean forests and woodlands. As the fossil record reflects, oaks were usual from the Oligocene onwards, showing the high ability of the genus to colonize new and different habitats. Such diversity and ecological amplitude makes genus Quercus an excellent framework for comparative ecophysiological studies, allowing the analysis of many mechanisms that are found in different oaks at different level (leaf or stem). The combination of several morphological and physiological attributes defines the existence of different functional types within the genus, which are characteristic of specific phytoclimates. From a landscape perspective, oak forests and woodlands are threatened by many factors that can compromise their future: a limited regeneration, massive decline processes, mostly triggered by adverse climatic events or the competence with other broad-leaved trees and conifer species. The knowledge of all these facts can allow for a better management of the oak forests in the future.
This book delivers current state-of-the-science knowledge of tree ecophysiology, with particular emphasis on adaptation to a novel future physical and chemical environment. Unlike the focus of most books on the topic, this considers air chemistry changes (O3, NOx, and N deposition) in addition to elevated CO2 effects and its secondary effects of elevated temperature. The authors have addressed two systems essential for plant life: water handling capacity from the perspective of water transport; the coupling of xylem and phloem water potential and flow; water and nutrition uptake via likely changes in mycorrhizal relationships; control of water loss via stomata and its retention via cellular regulation; and within plant carbon dynamics from the perspective of environmental limitations to growth, allocation to defences, and changes in partitioning to respiration. The authors offer expert knowledge and insight to develop likely outcomes within the context of many unknowns. We offer this comprehensive analysis of tree responses and their capacity to respond to environmental changes to provide a better insight in understanding likelihood for survival, as well as planning for the future with long-lived, stationary organisms adapted to the past: trees.
Emphasizing the physical and technological aspects of plant energetics, this comprehensive book covers a significant interdisciplinary research area for a broad range of investigators. Plant Energetics presentsthe thermodynamics of energy processes in plants, their interconnection and arrangement, and the estimation of intrinsic energy needs of the plant connected with performing various physiological functions. The book also demonstrates the role of electrical and electrochemical processes in the plants life cycle. Plant Energetics incorporates such diverse themes as thermodynamics, biophysics, and bioelectrochemistry with applications in horticulture and ecology. It also discusses the roles and mechanisms of both quantum and thermophysical processes of theconversion of solar energy by plants, including photosynthesis and long distance transport. Comprehensive details of value to basic and applied researchers dealing with photosynthesis, agriculture, horticulture, bioenergetics, biophysics, photobiology, and plant physiology make Plant Energetics an informative, one-stop resource that willsave time and energy in your search for the latest information. Plant Energetics incorporates such diverse themes as thermodynamics, biophysics, and bioelectrochemistry with applications in horticulture and ecology. It also discusses the roles and mechanisms of both quantum and thermophysical processes of the conversion of solar energy by plants, including photosynthesis and long-distance transport Extensive details of value to basic and applied researchers dealing with photosynthesis, agriculture, horticulture, bioenergetics, biophysics, photobiology, and plant physiology make Plant Energetics an informative, one-stop resource that will save you time and energy in your search for the latest information
Author: Ulrich Lüttge
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2007-12-14
Since the publication of the first edition of this book ten years ago, international research into the physiological ecology of plants in the tropics has increased enormously in quantity and quality. This brand new edition brings the story right up to date. New approaches have been developed in remote sensing while at the other end of the scale molecular biology has come on in leaps and bounds, particularly regarding ecological performance of tropical plants, e.g. in understanding the adaptation of resurrection plants to the extreme habitat of inselbergs. In this fully revised and updated second edition the wealth of new information has made it necessary to break large chapters down into smaller ones.
This book provides information relevant for the conservation of biodiversity and the sound management of the coastal and forest ecosystems of the Yucatan Peninsula in the face of global change. Various aspects of the biodiversity of the Yucatan Peninsula are analyzed in an integrative manner, including phenological, ecophysiological, ecological and conservation aspects of plants and animals and their relationships with humans in coastal and forest ecosystems.
The book will describe the xylem structure of different plant groups, and will put the findings in a physiological and ecological context. For instance, when differences in vessel diameter are featured, then there will be an explanation why this matters for water transport efficiency and safety from cavitation. The focus is on the hydraulic function of xylem, although mechanical support and storage will also be covered. Featured plant groups include ferns (which only have primary xylem), conifers (tracheid-based xylem), lianas (extremely wide and long vessels), drought-adapted shrubs as well as the model systems poplar and grapevine. The book chapters will draw on the expertise and cutting edge research of a diversified group of internationally known researchers working in different anatomical and physiological sub-disciplines. Over the last two decades, much progress has been made in understanding how xylem structure relates to plant function. Implications for other timely topics such as drought-induced forest dieback or the regulation of plant biomass production will be discussed.
Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency presents an up-to-date overview of the latest research on the molecular and genetic basis of macro-nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants, and strategies that can be used to improve NUE and nutrient-associated stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant NUE is a measure of how efficiently plants use available nutrients and an understanding of plant NUE has the potential to help improve the use of limited natural resources and to help achieve global food security. This book presents information important for the development of crop plants with improved macro-NUE, a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop production into noncompetitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and for helping to prevent environmental contamination. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency provides a comprehensive overview of the complex mechanisms regulating macro-NUE in crop plants, which is required if plant breeders are to develop modern crop varieties that are more resilient to nutrient-associated stress. Identification of genes responsible for macro-NUE and nutrient-related stress tolerance in crop plants will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the responses of crop plants to nutrient stress. This volume contains both fundamental and advanced information, and critical commentaries useful for those in all fields of plant science research. Provides details of molecular and genetic aspects of NUE in crop plants and model plant systems Presents information on major macronutrients, nutrient sensing and signaling, and the molecular and genomic issues associated with primary and secondary macronutrients Delivers information on how molecular genetic information associated with NUE can be used to develop plant breeding programs Includes contributions from world-leading plant nutrition research groups
Author: Michael F. Allen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 1991-04-25
A great many terrestrial plants live in close association with fungi. The features of this association known as mycorrhiza, are those of a mutualistic symbiosis. Almost all plants form mycorrhizae whereby the fungus provides soil resources to the plant in exchange for energy manufactured by the plant. The symbiosis means greater productivity under stress for the plant and a steady energy supply for the fungus. This book addresses the diverse and complex ways in which mycorrhizae affect the mechanisms for plant survival as individuals and populations, for community structure, and for ecosystem functioning. It integrates information on organisms interacting with mycorrhizae from bacteria to mammals. The author takes a unique evolutionary/ecological approach to describe how and under what conditions mycorrhizae influence basic ecological processes. The applications of mycorrhizal symbioses range from managing natural and agricultural lands to biotechnological processes that enhance agricultural productivity and sustainability.
Author: Richard M. Sibly
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2012-03-26
One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.