Author: Caroline N. O. Moser
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Release Date: 2001-07-06
Genre: Political Science
Extrait de la couverture : "This book provides a holisitc analysis of the gendred nature of armed conflict and political violence, and a broader understanding of the complex, changing roles and power relations between women and men during such circumstances. Currently, armed conflict and political violence are predominantly viewed as 'male violence', perpetrated by men, acting as soldiers, guerillas, paramilitaries or peacemakers. The involvement of women has received far less attention, with a tendency to portray a simplistc division of roles between men as aggressors and women as vicitms, particularly of sexual abuse. Consequently the gendred causes, costs and consequences of violent conflicts have been, at best, under-represented and, most often, misrepresented. Through empirical case studies from different regions of the world, this book aims to address four key issues women and men as both actors and victims ; the stages of conflict as parts of a complex process with gendered implications ; political, economic and social violence forming a continuum requiring gender analysis ; and local community organisations run and managed by women, playinga key role throughout conflict situations in providing basic needs and critical advocacy."
Author: Robin Redhead
Release Date: 2014-09-25
Genre: Political Science
Exercising Human Rights investigates why human rights are not universally empowering and why this damages people attempting to exercise rights. It takes a new approach in looking at humans as the subject of human rights rather than the object and exposes the gendered and ethnocentric aspects of violence and human subjectivity in the context of human rights. Using an innovative visual methodology, Redhead shines a new critical light on human rights campaigns in practice. She examines two cases in-depth. First, she shows how Amnesty International depicts women negatively in their 2004 ‘Stop Violence against Women Campaign’, revealing the political implications of how images deny women their agency because violence is gendered. She also analyses the Oka conflict between indigenous people and the Canadian state. She explains how the Canadian state defined the Mohawk people in such a way as to deny their human subjectivity. By looking at how the Mohawk used visual media to communicate their plight beyond state boundaries, she delves into the disjuncture between state sovereignty and human rights. This book is useful for anyone with an interest in human rights campaigns and in the study of political images.
Author: Swetlana Alexijewitsch
Publisher: Hanser Berlin
Release Date: 2014-10-06
Genre: Political Science
Jahrzehnte nach dem Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs sprechen Männer und Frauen, die beim Einmarsch der Deutschen in Weißrussland noch Kinder waren, zum ersten Mal darüber, woran sie sich erinnern. Ihre erschütternden Berichte vom Krieg machen "Die letzten Zeugen" zu einem der eindringlichsten Antikriegsbücher überhaupt. Oft sind diese Erinnerungen nur Bruchstücke, und doch haben diese Kinder Dinge gesehen und erlitten, die niemand, am allerwenigsten ein Kind, sehen und erleiden dürfte. Alexijewitsch erweist sich einmal mehr als begnadete Zuhörerin und große Chronistin, die es versteht, den Erfahrungen von Menschen in Extremsituationen, im Ausnahmezustand einen einzigartigen Resonanzraum zu verschaffen.
Ziel des Handbuches ist die systematische Betrachtung von Genderaspekten aus psychologischer Perspektive. Autorinnen und Autoren aus ausgewählten Teildisziplinen der Psychologie stellen dar, welche Rolle Gender in ihrem Forschungsfeld spielt und welchen Beitrag psychologische Erkenntnisse zur Geschlechterforschung leisten. Dabei liegt der Fokus einerseits auf den Besonderheiten der einzelnen Teildisziplinen oder ausgewählter Forschungsfelder, anderseits aber auch auf der kritischen Reflexion der gesamten Psychologie aus einer Genderperspektive. Das Handbuch stellt folglich die konträren und aktuellen Positionen, Erkenntnisse und Untersuchungen zur psychologischen Geschlechterforschung dar und zeigt die Methodenvielfalt sowie das fruchtbare Spannungsfeld der Diskussion um die Bedeutung der Kategorie Geschlecht auf unterschiedlichen Ebenen auf.
Die hier versammelten Beiträge spiegeln den aktuellen Stand der Debatte um Intersektionalität 20 Jahre nach Prägung des Begriffes im Schwarzen Feminismus in den USA. Bei seiner transatlantischen Reise durchlief der Ansatz Metamorphosen und fiel in Europa auf vorbereiteten Boden, insbesondere in anglophonen und deutschsprachigen feministischen Diskursen. Klasse, Geschlecht, Ethnizität und „Rasse“, Sexualität, Behinderung, Alter und andere Dimensionen von Ungleichheit und Identität werden inzwischen in intersektioneller Perspektive untersucht. In diesem Band wird der Ansatz vorgestellt und in transdisziplinäre und transnationale Analyseperspektiven wie Diskurstheorie, Biographieforschung, Wissenssoziologie, Rahmenanalyse und Sozialstrukturanalyse eingesetzt, ergänzt um kritische Interventionen zu Problemen und Grenzen dieses Konzepts. Mit Beiträgen von Mechtild Bereswill, Kimberlé Crenshaw, Kathy Davis, Jeff Hearn, Gudrun-Axeli Knapp, Kira Kosnick, Gail Lewis, Helma Lutz, Nina Lykke, Myra Marx Ferree, Anke Neuber, Ann Phoenix, Paula Irene Villa, Nira Yuval Davis, und Dubravka Zarkov.
Wendy Doniger and Martha Nussbaum bring together leading scholars from a wide array of disciplines to address a crucial question: How does the world's most populous democracy survive repeated assaults on its pluralistic values? India's stunning linguistic, cultural, and religious diversity has been supported since Independence by a political structure that emphasizes equal rights for all, and protects liberties of religion and speech. But a decent Constitution does not implement itself, and challenges to these core values repeatedly arise-most recently in the form of the Hindu Right movements of the twenty-first century that threatened to destabilize the nation and upend its core values, in the wake of a notorious pogrom in the state of Gujarat in which approximately 2000 Muslim civilians were killed. Focusing on this time of tension and threat, the essays in this volume consider how a pluralistic democracy managed to survive. They examine the role of political parties and movements, including the women's movement, as well as the role of the arts, the press, the media, and a historical legacy of pluralistic thought and critical argument. Featuring essays from eminent scholars in history, religious studies, political science, economics, women's studies, and media studies, Pluralism and Democracy in India offers an urgently needed case study in democratic survival. As Nehru said of India on the eve of Independence: ''These dreams are for India, but they are also for the world.'' The analysis this volume offers illuminates not only the past and future of one nation, but the prospects of democracy for all.
Author: George Fink
Publisher: Academic Press
Release Date: 2010-11-25
Stress is a universal phenomenon that impacts adversely on most people. Following on the heels of Stress Science: Neuroendocrinology and Stress Consequences: Mental, Neuropsychological and Socioeconomic, this third derivative volume will provide a readily accessible and affordable compendium that explains the phenomenon of stress as it relates physically and mentally to war, conflict and disaster. The first section will be dedicated to study of the link between stress and various forms of conflict. Specific instances of conflict will be discussed - the Gulf wars, Korea, Hiroshima bombing, the Holocaust, 9/11, Northern Ireland, terrorism in general, torture. The second section will explore the stress impact of more general physical disasters such as airline and vehicle accidents, earthquakes, floods, and hurricanes. The final section will focus on the clinical relationship between conflict stress and various mental diseases – PTSD, suicide, disaster syndrome, etc – as well as the adverse impact of stress on human physical health in general. Comprised of about 100 top articles selected from Elsevier’s Encyclopedias of Stress, the volume will provide a valuable desk reference that will put relevant articles readily at the fingertips of all scientists who consider stress. Chapters offer impressive and unique scope with topics addressing the relationship between stress generated by war, conflict and disaster and various physical/mental disorders Richly illustrated with over 200 figures, dozens in color Articles carefully selected by one of the world’s most preeminent stress researchers and contributors represent the most outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter providing fully vetted and reliable expert knowledge
Author: Valerie M. Hudson
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2012-04-17
Genre: Political Science
Sex and World Peace unsettles a variety of assumptions in political and security discourse, demonstrating that the security of women is a vital factor in the security of the state and its incidence of conflict and war. The authors compare micro-level gender violence and macro-level state peacefulness in global settings, supporting their findings with detailed analyses and color maps. Harnessing an immense amount of data, they call attention to discrepancies between national laws protecting women and the enforcement of those laws, and they note the adverse effects on state security of abnormal sex ratios favoring males, the practice of polygamy, and inequitable realities in family law, among other gendered aggressions. The authors find that the treatment of women informs human interaction at all levels of society. Their research challenges conventional definitions of security and democracy and shows that the treatment of gender, played out on the world stage, informs the true clash of civilizations. In terms of resolving these injustices, the authors examine top-down and bottom-up approaches to healing wounds of violence against women, as well as ways to rectify inequalities in family law and the lack of parity in decision-making councils. Emphasizing the importance of an R2PW, or state responsibility to protect women, they mount a solid campaign against women's systemic insecurity, which effectively unravels the security of all.
Author: B. Spalek
Release Date: 2012-05-29
Genre: Social Science
This book examines community-based approaches to counter-terrorism through an analysis of the notions of community, partnership, engagement, gender and religion in order to shed new light on the potential of, and drawbacks to these approaches. Dr. Spalek stresses the need for policy makers and practitioners to reflect on the effectiveness of the initiatives that they are engaged with, particularly in relation to how community-targeted or community-focused they are.
Author: Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-06-12
Genre: Political Science
Refugee and Forced Migration Studies has grown from being a concern of a relatively small number of scholars and policy researchers in the 1980s to a global field of interest with thousands of students worldwide studying displacement either from traditional disciplinary perspectives or as a core component of newer programmes across the Humanities and Social and Political Sciences. Today the field encompasses both rigorous academic research which may or may not ultimately inform policy and practice, as well as action-research focused on advocating in favour of refugees' needs and rights. This authoritative Handbook critically evaluates the birth and development of Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, and analyses the key contemporary and future challenges faced by academics and practitioners working with and for forcibly displaced populations around the world. The 52 state-of-the-art chapters, written by leading academics, practitioners, and policymakers working in universities, research centres, think tanks, NGOs and international organizations, provide a comprehensive and cutting-edge overview of the key intellectual, political, social and institutional challenges arising from mass displacement in the world today. The chapters vividly illustrate the vibrant and engaging debates that characterize this rapidly expanding field of research and practice.
Terroristische Akte gab es in den letzten 200 Jahren in zahlreichen Ländern, von Deutschland und Russland über Irland und Zypern bis in die USA. Gemeinsam ist ihnen, so zeigen die Autorinnen und Autoren des Bandes, dass sie die tradierten Geschlechterrollen infrage stellen. Terroristen werden meist entmännlicht/verweiblicht und Terroristinnen entweiblicht/vermännlicht. Dabei werden Terroristen im eigenen Lager zu Helden und Märtyrern stilisiert, während die Terroristin für beide Seiten das bürgerliche Geschlechtermodell ins Wanken bringt.