Author: Adriana Petryna
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2009-04-27
Genre: Social Science
The phenomenal growth of global pharmaceutical sales and the quest for innovation are driving an unprecedented search for human test subjects, particularly in middle- and low-income countries. Our hope for medical progress increasingly depends on the willingness of the world's poor to participate in clinical drug trials. While these experiments often provide those in need with vital and previously unattainable medical resources, the outsourcing and offshoring of trials also create new problems. In this groundbreaking book, anthropologist Adriana Petryna takes us deep into the clinical trials industry as it brings together players separated by vast economic and cultural differences. Moving between corporate and scientific offices in the United States and research and public health sites in Poland and Brazil, When Experiments Travel documents the complex ways that commercial medical science, with all its benefits and risks, is being integrated into local health systems and emerging drug markets. Providing a unique perspective on globalized clinical trials, When Experiments Travel raises central questions: Are such trials exploitative or are they social goods? How are experiments controlled and how is drug safety ensured? And do these experiments help or harm public health in the countries where they are conducted? Empirically rich and theoretically innovative, the book shows that neither the language of coercion nor that of rational choice fully captures the range of situations and value systems at work in medical experiments today. When Experiments Travel challenges conventional understandings of the ethics and politics of transnational science and changes the way we think about global medicine and the new infrastructures of our lives.
Author: Jack Kornfield
Publisher: Goldmann Verlag
Release Date: 2018-03-05
Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit
Jack Kornfield ist einer der ganz großen buddhistischen Lehrer neben dem Dalai Lama und Thich Nhat Hanh Erleuchtung ist kein Ruhestand! Nehmen wir diese Herausforderung an, erleben wir, wie das erwachte Herz zum verlässlichen Ratgeber wird – beispielsweise in schwierigen Familienverhältnissen, bei seelischem Schmerz, beruflichen Anforderungen, Krankheit oder Verlust. Jack Kornfield berichtet über die Erfahrungen und Einsichten von Lehrern und Schülern buddhistischer, christlicher, jüdischer und hinduistischer Herkunft sowie der Sufi-Tradition. Auf einmalige und zutiefst ehrliche Weise verknüpft er Zeugnisse moderner Spiritualität zu Lektionen, wie das achtsame Herz weise wird.
Author: Thomas Meyer
Release Date: 2010-05-12
Genre: Political Science
Das Buch bietet allen politisch Interessierten und all denen, die genauer verstehen möchten, wie Politik funktioniert, eine fundierte und leicht verständliche Einführung. Es hat zwei besondere Schwerpunkte: die neuen politischen Fragen (Identitätspolitik, Zivilgesellschaft, Biopolitik und Globalisierung) und die neuesten Entwicklungen der Mediendemokratie.
Author: Brian Spooner
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Release Date: 2015-02-09
Genre: Social Science
Throughout human history, the rate of world population growth overall has been outpaced by the rate of urban population growth. Right now, more the half the world's population lives in cities, and that proportion will only increase in the next fifty years. Rapid urban growth accelerates the exchange of ideas, the expansion of social networks, and the diversity of human interactions that accompany globalization. The present century is therefore the crucial phase, when the world's increasing interconnectedness may give rise to innovation and collaboration or intensify conflict and environmental disaster. Bringing together scholars of anthropology and social science as well as law and medicine, Globalization: The Crucial Phase presents a holistic and comprehensive understanding of the way the world is changing. The contributors reveal the changing scale of social, economic, and financial diversity, examine the impact of globalization on the environment, health, and nutrition; and consider the initiatives to address the social problems and opportunities that arise from global migration. Collectively, these diverse interdisciplinary perspectives provide an introduction to vital research and policy initiatives in a period that will bring great challenges but also great potential. Contributors: Nancy Biller, Christina Catanese, Robert J. Collins, Megan Doherty, Zhengxia Dou, Richard J. Estes, James Ferguson, David Galligan, Mauro Guillén, Cameron Hu, John D. Keenan, Alan Kelly, Janet M. Monge, Marjorie Muecke, Neal Nathanson, Sarah Paoletti, Adriana Petryna, Alan Ruby, Theodore G. Schurr, Brian Spooner, Joseph S. Sun, Zhiguo Wu, Huiquan Zhou.
This book provides a richly detailed contribution to the understanding of healthy volunteer experiences in clinical drug trials in the UK. Contemporary society, especially the West, has seen a significant increase in the production and use of pharmaceutical products, particularly for disease treatment. However, despite the large numbers of people involved, particularly in the UK, very little is known about their experiences in commercial phase I clinical drug trials. Shadreck Mwale critiques common conceptions of the terms ‘volunteer’ and ‘altruism’ as used in policy and practice of human involvement in clinical trials and calls for an awareness of the complexity of the terms and how the social contexts participants find themselves in shape acts of voluntarism. Based on extensive empirical evidence and conceptual analysis, the book presents new insights into the lives of healthy volunteers, challenges bioethical conceptions and generates new frameworks for policy and practice of FIHCTs. It will be of particular interest to scholars and practitioners in the wider social sciences, medical Sociology and medical anthropology, pharmacology and bioethics.
Author: Adriana Petryna
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Release Date: 2013-03-20
Genre: Social Science
On April 26, 1986, Unit Four of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor exploded in then Soviet Ukraine. More than 3.5 million people in Ukraine alone, not to mention many citizens of surrounding countries, are still suffering the effects. Life Exposed is the first book to comprehensively examine the vexed political, scientific, and social circumstances that followed the disaster. Tracing the story from an initial lack of disclosure to post-Soviet democratizing attempts to compensate sufferers, Adriana Petryna uses anthropological tools to take us into a world whose social realities are far more immediate and stark than those described by policymakers and scientists. She asks: What happens to politics when state officials fail to inform their fellow citizens of real threats to life? What are the moral and political consequences of remedies available in the wake of technological disasters? Through extensive research in state institutions, clinics, laboratories, and with affected families and workers of the so-called Zone, Petryna illustrates how the event and its aftermath have not only shaped the course of an independent nation but have made health a negotiated realm of entitlement. She tracks the emergence of a "biological citizenship" in which assaults on health become the coinage through which sufferers stake claims for biomedical resources, social equity, and human rights. Life Exposed provides an anthropological framework for understanding the politics of emergent democracies, the nature of citizenship claims, and everyday forms of survival as they are interwoven with the profound changes that accompanied the collapse of the Soviet Union.
Author: Hsiang-Ke Chao
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-07-31
This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of biology and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology.
Author: Didier Fassin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2012-08-06
Genre: Social Science
A Companion to Moral Anthropology is the first collective consideration of the anthropological dimensions of morals, morality, and ethics. Original essays by international experts explore the various currents, approaches, and issues in this important new discipline, examining topics such as the ethnography of moralities, the study of moral subjectivities, and the exploration of moral economies. Investigates the central legacies of moral anthropology, the formation of moral facts and values, the context of local moralities, and the frontiers between moralities, politics, humanitarianism Features contributions from pioneers in the field of moral anthropology, as well as international experts in related fields such as moral philosophy, moral psychology, evolutionary biology and neuroethics
Inhaltsübersicht: Vorwort, Dank, 1. Geschichte der LSD-Therapie, 2. Kritische Variablen in der LSD-Therapie, 3. Die psycholytische und die psychedelische Behandlung mit LSD: Zur Integration der Konzepte, 4. Prinzipien der LSD-Psychotherapie, 5. Komplikationen der LSD-Psychotherapie: Ursachen, Verhütung und therapeutische Massnahmen, 6. Verlauf der LSD-Psychotherapie, 7. Indikationen der LSD-Psychotherapie, therapeutische Möglichkeiten und klinische Resultate, 8. Aussertherapeutische Verwendung von LSD, 9. Wirkungsprinzipien der LSD-Therapie, Epilog: Die Zukunft der LSD-Psychotherapie, Bibliographie, Personenregister, Klientenregister, Sachregister.
Author: Johanna Tayloe Crane
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Release Date: 2013-09-06
Genre: Social Science
Countries in sub-Saharan Africa were once dismissed by Western experts as being too poor and chaotic to benefit from the antiretroviral drugs that transformed the AIDS epidemic in the United States and Europe. Today, however, the region is courted by some of the most prestigious research universities in the world as they search for “resource-poor” hospitals in which to base their international HIV research and global health programs. In Scrambling for Africa, Johanna Tayloe Crane reveals how, in the space of merely a decade, Africa went from being a continent largely excluded from advancements in HIV medicine to an area of central concern and knowledge production within the increasingly popular field of global health science. Drawing on research conducted in the U.S. and Uganda during the mid-2000s, Crane provides a fascinating ethnographic account of the transnational flow of knowledge, politics, and research money—as well as blood samples, viruses, and drugs. She takes readers to underfunded Ugandan HIV clinics as well as to laboratories and conference rooms in wealthy American cities like San Francisco and Seattle where American and Ugandan experts struggle to forge shared knowledge about the AIDS epidemic. The resulting uncomfortable mix of preventable suffering, humanitarian sentiment, and scientific ambition shows how global health research partnerships may paradoxically benefit from the very inequalities they aspire to redress. A work of outstanding interdisciplinary scholarship, Scrambling for Africa will be of interest to audiences in anthropology, science and technology studies, African studies, and the medical humanities.
Author: Volker Roelcke
Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag
Release Date: 2004
Debates on the ethics of human subjects research meet with an increasing interest both within the medical profession and the broader public. Frequently, historical arguments are used to propagate or attack certain positions within these debates. However, there is a tendency to oversimplify the complexities of the past for present day purposes, and at the same time a lack of awareness of the historical dimension implicit in today's value preferences. Twentieth Century Ethics of Human Subjects Research brings together leading historians of medicine to reconstruct and analyse the history of actual experimental practices, the debates on human subjects research, and the attempts to regulate such research during the twentieth century. The volume addresses cases of medical research in France, Britain, Israel, the United States, and Germany, including the Nazi period; the major developments of ethical debates in these and further national contexts, such as the Soviet Union, the Czech Republic, and Japan. It also explores religious views (Catholic, Jewish) on human experimentation, and the origins and contexts of international codes and declarations. "Volker Roelckes Ã_berblick ueber die Geschichte der Menschenversuche im Dritten Reich sei jedem empfohlen, der sich kurz und prÃ¤gnant ueber dieses duestere Kapitel deutscher Geschichte informieren mÃ¶chte." FAZ.
Author: John Harris
Release Date: 1995
The Value of Life offers all the major questions and answers concerning some of the most prominent and difficult problems of medical ethics. Harris gives a clear analysis of the arguments for and against euthanasia and abortion.