Why Elections Fail

Author: Pippa Norris
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107052840
Release Date: 2015-07-08
Genre: Political Science

Too often, elections around the globe are, unfortunately, deeply flawed or even fail. What triggers these problems? In this second volume of her trilogy on electoral integrity, Pippa Norris compares structural, international, and institutional accounts as alternative perspectives to explain why elections fail to meet international standards. The book argues that rules preventing political actors from manipulating electoral governance are needed to secure integrity, although at the same time officials also need sufficient resources and capacities to manage elections effectively. Drawing on new evidence, the study determines the most effective types of strategies for strengthening the quality of electoral governance around the world. With a global perspective, this book provides fresh insights into these major issues at the heart of the study of elections and voting behavior, comparative politics, democracy and democratization, political culture, democratic governance, public policymaking, development, international relations and conflict studies, and processes of regime change.

By Popular Demand

Author: John Gastil
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520925009
Release Date: 2000-08-01
Genre: Political Science

John Gastil challenges conventional assumptions about public opinion, elections, and political expression in this persuasive treatise on how to revitalize the system of representative democracy in the United States. Gastil argues that American citizens have difficulty developing clear policy interests, seldom reject unrepresentative public officials, and lack a strong public voice. Our growing awareness of a flawed electoral system is causing increased public cynicism and apathy. The most popular reforms, however, will neither restore public trust nor improve representation. Term limits and campaign finance reforms will increase turnover, but they provide no mechanism for improved deliberation and accountability. Building on the success of citizen juries and deliberative polling, Gastil proposes improving our current process by convening randomly selected panels of citizens to deliberate for several days on ballot measures and candidates. Voters would learn about the judgments of these citizen panels through voting guides and possibly information printed on official ballots. The result would be a more representative government and a less cynical public. America has a long history of experimentation with electoral systems, and the proposals in By Popular Demand merit serious consideration and debate.

Elections in Hard Times

Author: Thomas Edward Flores
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107132139
Release Date: 2016-08-31
Genre: Political Science

Demonstrates why elections fail to promote democracy when countries lack democratic experience and are held during civil conflict.

Elections in Hard Times From Elections to Democracy Theory and Evidence 1 Introduction 2 Why have elections failed to deliver An answer 3 The third wave s and the electoral boom Part II Challenges Facing Elections in Developing Countries 4 The ephemeral power of contingent legitimacy 5 Experience matters democratic stock and elections 6 Starved states fiscal space and elections 7 Violent votes conflict and elections Part III Democracy Promotion for the Twenty First Century 8 Democracy promotion for the twenty first century 9 Conclusions Appendices

Author: Thomas Edward Flores
Publisher:
ISBN: 1316450651
Release Date: 2016
Genre: Democracy

"Why are 'free and fair' elections so often followed by democratic backsliding? Elections in Hard Times answers this critical question, showing why even clean elections fail to advance democracy when held amidst challenging structural conditions. The book opens with a comprehensive, accessible synthesis of fifty years of research on elections and democratization, a resource for experts, policymakers, and students. It then develops a new theory of why elections fail in countries with little democratic history or fiscal resources, and a history of violent conflict. In a series of five empirical chapters, the book leverages an eclectic mix of cross-national data, short case studies and surveys of voters to support this theory. It closes with a careful examination of popular strategies of democracy promotion, evaluating steps designed to support elections. This book will attract academic experts on democratization and elections, students and policymakers"--

Why American Elections Are Flawed And How to Fix Them

Author: Pippa Norris
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9781501712746
Release Date: 2017-04-01
Genre: Political Science

The flaws in the American electoral process have become increasingly apparent in recent years. The contemporary tipping point in public awareness occurred during the 2000 election count, and concern deepened due to several major problems observed in the 2016 campaign, worsening party polarization, and corroding public trust in the legitimacy of the outcome. To gather evidence about the quality of elections around the world, in 2012 the Electoral Integrity Project (EIP) was established as an independent research project based at Harvard and Sydney universities. The results show that experts rated American elections as the worst among all Western democracies. Without reform, these problems risk damaging the legitimacy of American elections—further weakening public confidence in political parties, Congress, and the U.S. government, depressing voter turnout, and exacerbating the risks of mass protests. Why American Elections Are Flawed describes several major challenges observed during the 2016 U.S. elections arising from deepening party polarization over basic voting procedures, the serious risks of hacking and weak cyber-security, the consequences of deregulating campaign spending, and lack of professional and impartial electoral management. Pippa Norris outlines the core concept and measure of electoral integrity, the key yardstick used to evaluate free and fair elections. Evidence from expert and mass surveys demonstrate the extent of problems in American elections. She shows how these challenges could be addressed through several practical steps designed to improve electoral procedures and practices. If implemented, the reforms will advance free and fair elections, and liberal democracy, at home and abroad.

Why Election Is Not My Gospel

Author: E. Manard
Publisher: iUniverse
ISBN: 9780595314805
Release Date: 2004-04
Genre: Religion

Why Election Is Not My Gospel is a controversial diatribe that explores and answers these questions: Does the Gospel consist in a real and sincere promise by God to all without exception, or an invitation to the elect alone? Is there a clear distinction between God's desire (command) and God's intention (purpose)? Does God in any sense desire that Reprobates be saved? Is Election part of the Gospel, or necessary to be believed as the immediate object of justifying faith? And many more After years spent deceived in the circles of "Hyper-Calvinism," author E.D. Manard marks his public exodus from this spiritually fatal movement, and repudiates his former association with it, proving it as a departure from God's Gospel addressed to, and designed for, lost sinners. Mr. Manard takes on the editor of Outside The Camp Newsletter, Marc Carpenter, directly, and counters Carpenter's denial of the "free offer" of the Gospel, demonstrating that such denial is anti-historical, anti-biblical, and anti-evangelistic. Pulling no punches, Mr. Manard shows conclusively from God's Testimony which evangelistic message God's ministers are commissioned to preach to lost sinners exactly, and why "Election" is not it.

Hiring and Firing Public Officials

Author: Justin Buchler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199890217
Release Date: 2011-04-13
Genre: Political Science

Conventional theories of elections hold that an election is analogous to a consumer product market. According to the market paradigm, voters are consumers, candidates are competing firms, and an election is a market in which voters exchange votes for policy by voting for the candidates whose policies they prefer. According to this logic, a healthy democracy requires frequent competitive elections. The market analogy underlies decades of electoral theory, but in Hiring and Firing Public Officials, Justin Buchler contends that it does not capture the real nature of elections. In fact, our widespread dissatisfaction with the current state of electoral politics derives from a fundamental misunderstanding of what elections are and what purpose they serve. As Justin Buchler shows, an election is a mechanism by which voters hire and fire public officials. It is not a consumer product market--it is a single employment decision. Thus, the health of democracy depends not on regular competitive elections, but on posing a credible threat to fire public officials who do not perform their jobs well. However, the purpose of that threat is to force public officials to act as faithful public servants so that they do not have to be fired. Thus, competitive elections, by most definitions, are indicative of a failure of the democratic system.

Democratic Elections in Poland 1991 2007

Author: Frances Millard
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135276232
Release Date: 2009-10-16
Genre: Political Science

This book is a political history of democratic elections in Poland from the first fully competitive parliamentary elections in 1991 to the unexpected, most recent election in 2007. Until now, there has been no equivalent study covering similar developments in this, or any other, post-communist country; this book fills the gap and provides a detailed electoral perspective on the trajectory of political development in the context of post-authoritarian change. It also provides an invaluable account of the evolution of electoral processes and institution-building in the context of democratic regime development. The major themes of the book centre on the complex, problematic development of Poland’s political parties and the parties’ failure to gain public support and win the confidence of the electorate. Frances Millard examines the failure of Polish elites; the lack of a stable party system and how elections have had a destabilizing effect, and she argues that the interaction of leadership volatility, party volatility, and electoral volatility have created uncertainty and undermined political parties as effective vehicles of representation. Poland is a large and important country, worthy of study in its own right, but equally many of the problems experienced are not unique to Poland; so this book also constitutes a comparative benchmark for analysis of democratic developments elsewhere.

In Defense of Judicial Elections

Author: Chris W. Bonneau
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781135852696
Release Date: 2009-06-02
Genre: Law

One of the most contentious issues in politics today is the propriety of electing judges. Ought judges be independent of democratic processes in obtaining and retaining their seats, or should they be subject to the approval of the electorate and the processes that accompany popular control? While this debate is interesting and often quite heated, it usually occurs without reference to empirical facts--or at least accurate ones. Also, empirical scholars to date have refused to take a position on the normative issues surrounding the practice. Bonneau and Hall offer a fresh new approach. Using almost two decades of data on state supreme court elections, Bonneau and Hall argue that opponents of judicial elections have made—and continue to make—erroneous empirical claims. They show that judicial elections are efficacious mechanisms that enhance the quality of democracy and create an inextricable link between citizens and the judiciary. In so doing, they pioneer the use of empirical data to shed light on these normative questions and offer a coherent defense of judicial elections. This provocative book is essential reading for anyone interested in the politics of judicial selection, law and politics, or the electoral process. Part of the Controversies in Electoral Democracy and Representation series edited by Matthew J. Streb.

Electoral Malpractice

Author: Sarah Birch
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199606160
Release Date: 2011-12-22
Genre: Political Science

"In an online, interconnected world, democracy is increasingly made up of wikis and blogs, pokes and tweets. Citizens have become accidental journalists thanks to their handheld devices, politicians are increasingly working online, and the traditional sites of democracy--assemblies, public galleries, and plazas--are becoming less and less relevant with every new technology. And yet, Democracy and Public Space argues, such views are leading us to confuse the medium with the message, focusing on electronic transmission when often what cyber citizens transmit is pictures and narratives of real democratic action in physical space. Democratic citizens are embodied, take up space, battle over access to physical resources, and perform democracy on physical stages at least as much as they engage with ideas in virtual space. Combining conceptual analysis with interviews and observation in capital cities on every continent, John Parkinson argues that democracy requires physical public space, that some kinds of space are better for performing some democratic roles than others, and that some of the most valuable kinds of space are under attack in developed democracies. He argues that accidental publics like shoppers and lunchtime crowds are increasingly valued over purposive, active publics, over citizens with a point to make or an argument to listen to. This can be seen not just in the way that traditional protest is regulated, but in the ways that ordinary city streets and parks are managed, even in the design of such quintessentially democratic spaces as legislative assemblies. Democracy and Public Space offers an alternative vision for democratic public space, and evaluates 11 cities--from London to Tokyo--against that ideal."--Publisher's website.

The Heritage Guide to the Constitution

Author: David F. Forte
Publisher: Regnery Publishing
ISBN: 9781621573524
Release Date: 2014-09-16
Genre: Political Science

A landmark work of more than one hundred scholars, The Heritage Guide to the Constitution is a unique line-by-line analysis explaining every clause of America's founding charter and its contemporary meaning. In this fully revised second edition, leading scholars in law, history, and public policy offer more than two hundred updated and incisive essays on every clause of the Constitution. From the stirring words of the Preamble to the Twenty-seventh Amendment, you will gain new insights into the ideas that made America, important debates that continue from our Founding, and the Constitution's true meaning for our nation.

Volume One Conservative Party General Election Manifestos 1900 1997

Author: Iain Dale
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781134625772
Release Date: 2012-10-02
Genre: Political Science

This volume brings together for the first time the British Conservative Political Party General Election Manifestos, dating back to 1900, and including the most recent General Election manifesto of 1997. The project provides an indispensible source of data about the Conservative Party's political ideologies and policy positions, as well as charting their changes over time. The volume has a new introduction written by Alistair B. Cooke, who was Deputy Director of the Conservative Research Department from 1985 to 1997, and the Director of the Conservative Political Centre from 1988 to 1997. During that time he edited some 300 pamphlets for the Conservative Party, along with 6 volumes of its comprehensive record policy, the Campaign Guide and collections of Margaret Thatcher and John Major's speeches. He is also the editor of The Conservative Party: Seven Historical Studies, 1680 to the 1990s. In addition to the new introduction, the volume will include a comprehensive index, making it easy to use.

The Grassroots of Democracy

Author: Norman R. Luttbeg
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739100475
Release Date: 1999-01-01
Genre: Political Science

American cities provide many of the governmental services that contribute to a greater quality of life for their inhabitants. Local governments are seen as those closest to the people and most responsive to them, more so than state and national governments. Yet typical turnout in municipal elections is below 30 percent of those eligible; few people want to be candidates for low-paying positions in city governments; and seldom are elections competitive rarely do they offer voters a choice of policy positions among candidates. In The Grassroots of Democracy, Norman Luttbeg provides the results of a comparative study of two rounds of elections in the late 1980s and early 1990s in 118 randomly chosen cities whose populations exceed 25,000. Luttbeg seeks to account for why some cities had competitive elections while others did not; to assess the impact of competition on municipal policies, such as achieving growth or lowering taxes; and to examine the interaction between competition and accurate representation of minorities and women. Never before has a study comparatively assessed elections and policies in American cities in sufficient numbers that the idiosyncrasies of cities do not swamp the general patterns. The Grassroots of Democracy will thus hold significant interest for political scientists, sociologists, urban planners, and public administrators."

Strengthening Electoral Integrity

Author: Maguire Lecturer in Comparative Politics Pippa Norris
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781107052604
Release Date: 2017-09-30
Genre: Political Science

Today a general mood of pessimism surrounds Western efforts to strengthen elections and democracy abroad. If elections are often deeply flawed or even broken in many countries around the world, can anything be done to fix them? To counter the prevailing ethos, Pippa Norris presents new evidence for why programs of international electoral assistance work. She evaluates the effectiveness of several practical remedies, including efforts designed to reform electoral laws, strengthen women's representation, build effective electoral management bodies, promote balanced campaign communications, regulate political money, and improve voter registration. Pippa Norris argues that it would be a tragedy to undermine progress by withdrawing from international engagement. Instead, the international community needs to learn the lessons of what works best to strengthen electoral integrity, to focus activities and resources upon the most effective programs, and to innovate after a quarter century of efforts to strengthen electoral integrity.