Why Humans Have Cultures

Author: Michael Carrithers
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0192892118
Release Date: 1992
Genre: Social Science

Why do humans have such diverse cultures and ways of life? Michael Carrithers presents an original and powerful answer to this central problem of anthropology, arguing that it is the ways in which people interact, rather than technological advances, that have been of crucial importance in human history. Lucid and thought-provoking, he draws both on ancient and contemporary examples to show how this perspective forms a firm foundation for the study of culture, society, and history.

The Chosen Primate

Author: Adam Kuper
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674128265
Release Date: 1996
Genre: Social Science

Is there a Darwinian explanation for the evolution of human nature? The great debates about human origins, cultural history, and human nature confront us with two opposing, often irreconcilable images of human beings: biology vs. culture. Now Kuper reframes these debates and reconsiders fundamental questions of anthropology. 21 halftones.

Questions of Anthropology

Author: Rita Astuti
Publisher: Berg
ISBN: 9781847883728
Release Date: 2007-07-01
Genre: Social Science

Anthropology today seems to shy away from the big, comparative questions that ordinary people in many societies find compelling. Questions of Anthropology brings these issues back to the centre of anthropological concerns.Individual essays explore birth, death and sexuality, puzzles about the relationship between science and religion, questions about the nature of ritual, work, political leadership and genocide, and our personal fears and desires, from the quest to control the future and to find one's 'true' identity to the fear of being alone. Each essay starts with a question posed by individual ethnographic experience and then goes on to frame this question in a broader, comparative context. Written in an engaging and accessible style, Questions of Anthropology presents an exciting introduction to the purpose and value of Anthropology today.

Setting the People Free

Author: John Dunn
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691183916
Release Date: 2018-11-13
Genre: Philosophy

Why does democracy—as a word and as an idea—loom so large in the political imagination, though it has so often been misused and misunderstood? Setting the People Free starts by tracing the roots of democracy from an improvised remedy for a local Greek difficulty 2,500 years ago, through its near extinction, to its rebirth amid the struggles of the French Revolution. Celebrated political theorist John Dunn then charts the slow but insistent metamorphosis of democracy over the next 150 years and its apparently overwhelming triumph since 1945. He examines the differences and the extraordinary continuities that modern democratic states share with their Greek antecedents and explains why democracy evokes intellectual and moral scorn for some, and vital allegiance from others. Now with a new preface and conclusion that ground this landmark work firmly in the present, Setting the People Free is a unique and brilliant account of an extraordinary idea.

Anthropology and Anthropologists

Author: Adam Kuper
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781136802201
Release Date: 2014-04-08
Genre: Social Science

On its first publication in 1973 Adam Kuper's entertaining history of half a century of British social anthropology provoked strong reactions. But his often irreverent account soon established itself as one of the introductions to anthropology. Since the second revised edition was published in 1983, important developments have occurred within British and European anthropology. This third, enlarged and updated edition responds to these fresh currents. Adam Kuper takes the story up to the present day, and a new final chapter traces the emergence of a modern European social anthropology in contrast with developments in American cultural anthropology over the last two decades. Anthropology and Anthropologists provides a critical historical account of modern British social anthropology: it describes the careers of the major theorists, their ideas and their contributions in the context of the intellectual and institutional environments in which they worked.

Understanding Institutional Diversity

Author: Elinor Ostrom
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400831733
Release Date: 2009-11-13
Genre: Political Science

The analysis of how institutions are formed, how they operate and change, and how they influence behavior in society has become a major subject of inquiry in politics, sociology, and economics. A leader in applying game theory to the understanding of institutional analysis, Elinor Ostrom provides in this book a coherent method for undertaking the analysis of diverse economic, political, and social institutions. Understanding Institutional Diversity explains the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) framework, which enables a scholar to choose the most relevant level of interaction for a particular question. This framework examines the arena within which interactions occur, the rules employed by participants to order relationships, the attributes of a biophysical world that structures and is structured by interactions, and the attributes of a community in which a particular arena is placed. The book explains and illustrates how to use the IAD in the context of both field and experimental studies. Concentrating primarily on the rules aspect of the IAD framework, it provides empirical evidence about the diversity of rules, the calculation process used by participants in changing rules, and the design principles that characterize robust, self-organized resource governance institutions.

Culture

Author: Charles W. Nuckolls
Publisher: Univ of Wisconsin Press
ISBN: 0299158934
Release Date: 1998-09-15
Genre: Social Science

French historian Alexis de Tocqueville observed that the conflict between the ideals of individualism and community defines American culture. In this groundbreaking new work, anthropologist Charles Nuckolls discovers that every culture consists of such paradoxes, thus making culture a problem that cannot be solved. He does, however, find much creative tension in these unresolvable opposites. Nuckolls presents three fascinating case studies that demonstrate how values often are expressed in the organization of social roles. First he treats the Micronesian Ifaluks’ opposition between cooperation and self-gratification by examining the nature versus nurture debate. Nuckolls then shifts to the values of community and individual adventure by looking at the conflicts in the identities of public figures in Oklahoma. Finally, he investigates the cultural significance in the diagnostic system and practices of psychiatry in the United States. Nuckolls asserts that psychiatry treats genders differently, assigning dependence to women and independence to men and, in some cases, diagnoses the extreme forms of these values as disorders. Nuckolls elaborates on the theory of culture that he introduced in his previous book, The Cultural Dialectics of Knowledge and Desire, which proposed that the desire to resolve conflicts is central to cultural knowledge. In Culture: A Problem that Cannot Be Solved, Nuckolls restores the neglected social science concept of values, which addresses both knowledge and motivation. As a result, he brings together cognition and psychoanalysis, as well as sociology and psychology, in his study of cultural processes.

Mothers and Others

Author: Sarah Blaffer Hrdy
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674659957
Release Date: 2011-04-15
Genre: Social Science

Mothers and Others finds the key in the primatologically unique length of human childhood. Renowned anthropologist Sarah Hrdy argues that if human babies were to survive in a world of scarce resources, they would need to be cared for, not only by their mothers but also by siblings, aunts, fathers, friends—and, with any luck, grandmothers. Out of this complicated and contingent form of childrearing, Hrdy argues, came the human capacity for understanding others. In essence, mothers and others teach us who will care, and who will not.

Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother

Author: Amy Chua
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 9781408825099
Release Date: 2011-12-06
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

A lot of people wonder how Chinese parents raise such stereotypically successful kids. They wonder what Chinese parents do to produce so many math whizzes and music prodigies, what it's like inside the family, and whether they could do it too. Well, I can tell them, because I've done it... Amy Chua's daughters, Sophia and Louisa (Lulu) were polite, interesting and helpful, they had perfect school marks and exceptional musical abilities. The Chinese-parenting model certainly seemed to produce results. But what happens when you do not tolerate disobedience and are confronted by a screaming child who would sooner freeze outside in the cold than be forced to play the piano? Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother is a story about a mother, two daughters, and two dogs. It was supposed to be a story of how Chinese parents are better at raising kids than Western ones. But instead, it's about a bitter clash of cultures, a fleeting taste of glory, and how you can be humbled by a thirteen-year-old. Witty, entertaining and provocative, this is a unique and important book that will transform your perspective of parenting forever.

The Tangled Wing

Author: Melvin Konner
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 0805072799
Release Date: 2003-02-01
Genre: Psychology

An updated edition incorporates the latest findings in genetics, molecular biology, and neuroscience to discuss the factors that contribute to human identity and activity, in a volume that considers such topics as aggression, attachment, gender differences, and mental illness. Reprint. 10,000 first printing.

Revolution Or Renaissance

Author: D. Paul Schafer
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press
ISBN: 9780776617732
Release Date: 2008-04-29
Genre: Business & Economics

In Revolution or Renaissance, D. Paul Schafer subjects two of the most powerful forces in the world – economics and culture – to a detailed and historically sensitive analysis. He argues that the economic age has produced a great deal of wealth and unleashed tremendous productive power; however, it is not capable of coming to grips with the problems threatening human and non-human life on this planet. After tracing the evolution of the economic age from the publication of Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations in 1776 to the present, he turns his attention to culture, examining it both as a concept and as a reality. What emerges is a portrait of the world system of the future where culture is the central focus of development. According to Schafer, making the transition from an economic age to a cultural age is imperative if global harmony, environmental sustainability, economic viability, and human well-being are to be achieved.

Inclusive Humanism

Author: Christoph Antweiler
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 9783847000228
Release Date: 2012-09-11
Genre: Language Arts & Disciplines

Die Vielfalt miteinander vernetzter Kulturen auf unserem begrenzten Planeten erfordert gemeinsame Orientierungen. Die Humanwissenschaften müssen fundamentale Fragen angehen: Wie sieht ein Humanismus aus, der eigene Sichten und Erfahrungen Europas und Amerikas nicht vorschnell universalisiert? Wie können wir Globalität als Ganzes denken, ohne Einheit und Differenz gegeneinander auszuspielen? Braucht eine Weltgemeinschaft gemeinsame Werte, oder reichen Regeln für einen humanen Umgang? Wie kann der allgegenwärtige Ethnozentrismus zivilisiert werden? Wie lässt sich verhindern, dass »Kultur« in Identitätskämpfen als Waffe missbraucht wird? Ein realistischer Kosmopolitismus muss die Menschheit als Einheit verstehen, ohne Kulturen in globale Schablonen zu pressen. Hierfür können wir sowohl auf geteilte Charakteristika aller Menschen als auch auf Gemeinsamkeiten aller Kulturen bauen. Dieses Buch bietet ein anthropologisch informiertes Fundament zu heute drängenden Problemen interkulturellen Umgangs.

Darwin s Unfinished Symphony

Author: Kevin N. Laland
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691184470
Release Date: 2018-09-11
Genre: Science

Humans possess an extraordinary capacity for culture, from the arts and language to science and technology. But how did the human mind—and the uniquely human ability to devise and transmit culture—evolve from its roots in animal behavior? Darwin’s Unfinished Symphony presents a captivating new theory of human cognitive evolution. This compelling and accessible book reveals how culture is not just the magnificent end product of an evolutionary process that produced a species unlike all others—it is also the key driving force behind that process. Kevin Laland tells the story of the painstaking fieldwork, the key experiments, the false leads, and the stunning scientific breakthroughs that led to this new understanding of how culture transformed human evolution. It is the story of how Darwin’s intellectual descendants picked up where he left off and took up the challenge of providing a scientific account of the evolution of the human mind.