Brilliant and engagingly written, Why Nations Fail answers the question that has stumped the experts for centuries: Why are some nations rich and others poor, divided by wealth and poverty, health and sickness, food and famine? Is it culture, the weather, geography? Perhaps ignorance of what the right policies are? Simply, no. None of these factors is either definitive or destiny. Otherwise, how to explain why Botswana has become one of the fastest growing countries in the world, while other African nations, such as Zimbabwe, the Congo, and Sierra Leone, are mired in poverty and violence? Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson conclusively show that it is man-made political and economic institutions that underlie economic success (or lack of it). Korea, to take just one of their fascinating examples, is a remarkably homogeneous nation, yet the people of North Korea are among the poorest on earth while their brothers and sisters in South Korea are among the richest. The south forged a society that created incentives, rewarded innovation, and allowed everyone to participate in economic opportunities. The economic success thus spurred was sustained because the government became accountable and responsive to citizens and the great mass of people. Sadly, the people of the north have endured decades of famine, political repression, and very different economic institutions—with no end in sight. The differences between the Koreas is due to the politics that created these completely different institutional trajectories. Based on fifteen years of original research Acemoglu and Robinson marshall extraordinary historical evidence from the Roman Empire, the Mayan city-states, medieval Venice, the Soviet Union, Latin America, England, Europe, the United States, and Africa to build a new theory of political economy with great relevance for the big questions of today, including: - China has built an authoritarian growth machine. Will it continue to grow at such high speed and overwhelm the West? - Are America’s best days behind it? Are we moving from a virtuous circle in which efforts by elites to aggrandize power are resisted to a vicious one that enriches and empowers a small minority? - What is the most effective way to help move billions of people from the rut of poverty to prosperity? More philanthropy from the wealthy nations of the West? Or learning the hard-won lessons of Acemoglu and Robinson’s breakthrough ideas on the interplay between inclusive political and economic institutions? Why Nations Fail will change the way you look at—and understand—the world.
Learn About The History Of Nations In A Fraction Of The Time It Takes To Read The Actual Book!!! Get this 1# Amazon bestseller for just $2.99. Regularly priced at $9.99. Read on your PC, Mac, smart phone, tablet or Kindle device Acemoglu's theory and explanation of the differences in global prosperity is as enlightening as it is entertaining. He manages to make the puzzling concept dead simple to understand because the book, rather then a lengthy lecture explaining the theory, is a series of examples supporting it. After the first chapter, you will fundamentally understand the concept and theory behind this book, and each subsequent chapter will support the theory in fascinating ways.Take the opening example for instance: comparing a city, Nogales, that was literally cut in half by the US-Mexico border. So many history books and experts like to chalk up the world's current state to fate, such as in differences in climate or geographical location. Yet here is a shining example of how none of those things matter. At one point, this was just one city and now it has become two cities so different, you'd think their shared name and location was some sort of joke.Here Is A Preview Of What You'll Learn When You Download Your Copy Today * How Todays Wealthy Countries Run Their Governments Different From The Rest OF The World* The Reason Why Most Theories About Successful Nations Are Wrong * Learn About The Successfful Nations Of The Past That FailedDownload Your Copy Today! The contents of this book are easily worth over $9.99, but for a limited time you can download the summary of Robinson and Acemoglu's "Why Nations Fail" by for a special discounted price of only $2.99
The Caribbean is made up of a complex, enigmatic region, characterised by great disparities in size, population, geography, history, language, religion, race and politics. This is a region in which harmony and discord work in tandem, trying to link economic logic with political logic. This book is a useful tool not only for those specialists and students of regionalism but for all those putting their hands to the task of nation-building and those interested in the development processes of small states and economies. At the same time, this book is a comprehensive historical record especially highlighting hindrances to development in this region. This study raises two important issues: the ’political imperative of convergence’ and the need for ’appropriate correcting mechanisms’ that align the needs of the local with the regional. It is a volume that underlines the need for a change in strategy and makes proposals as to how to go about making those changes.
Author: Matías Vernengo
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Release Date: 2017-10-03
Genre: Business & Economics
The question of development is a major topic in courses across the social sciences and history, particularly those focused on Latin America. Many scholars and instructors have tried to pinpoint, explain, and define the problem of underdevelopment in the region. With new ideas have come new strategies that by and large have failed to explain or reduce income disparity and relieve poverty in the region. Why Latin American Nations Fail brings together leading Latin Americanists from several disciplines to address the topic of how and why contemporary development strategies have failed to curb rampant poverty and underdevelopment throughout the region. Given the dramatic political turns in contemporary Latin America, this book offers a much-needed explanation and analysis of the factors that are key to making sense of development today.
Author: M. A. Thomas
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2015-05-05
Genre: Political Science
In the poorest countries, such as Afghanistan, Haiti, and Mali, the United States has struggled to work with governments whose corruption and lack of capacity are increasingly seen to be the cause of instability and poverty. The development and security communities call for "good governance" to improve the rule of law, democratic accountability, and the delivery of public goods and services. The United States and other rich liberal democracies insist that this is the only legitimate model of governance. Yet poor governments cannot afford to govern according to these ideals and instead are compelled to rely more heavily on older, cheaper strategies of holding power, such as patronage and repression. The unwillingness to admit that poor governments do and must govern differently has cost the United States and others inestimable blood and coin. Informed by years of fieldwork and drawing on practitioner work and academic scholarship in politics, economics, law, and history, this book explains the origins of poor governments in the formation of the modern state system and describes the way they govern. It argues that, surprisingly, the effort to stigmatize and criminalize the governance of the poor is both fruitless and destabilizing. The United States must pursue a more effective foreign policy to engage poor governments and acknowledge how they govern.
Author: A. Estache
Release Date: 2014-11-19
Genre: Business & Economics
Infrastructure and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa analyzes the extent to which, how, and how fast the infrastructure needs of the poor have been met in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estache and Wodon explore the extent to which some key policies have hurt or helped progress in trying to speed the expansions of coverage so clearly needed in the region. They focus on electricity, water, sanitation, and other services at the core of the day-to-day needs of the population, examining the extent to which reforms of the last 15-20 years have managed to reduce the infrastructure gap. They anchor their analysis on the evidence available about the macroeconomic importance of infrastructure for the region, the policies that have been adopted to accelerate coverage, and a detailed assessment of the poverty dimensions of infrastructure.
Author: G. Kararach
Release Date: 2014-10-28
Genre: Social Science
The author investigates the agenda for transformation in contemporary African development studies: policy studies, strategic studies, international relations and economic diplomacy. With a focus on the capacity dimension, he proposes critical policy and action-oriented recommendations on how to overcome present and future emergencies in Africa.
Author: Paul Dragos Aligica
Release Date: 2014-11-20
Genre: Political Science
The book's objective is to explore the challenge of thinking methodically - in a theoretically and empirically informed way - about alternative forms of capitalism. What are the most effective ways to conceptualize the existing models of capitalism that have captured the public imagination and are currently floating around in the public debate? How can one mobilize empirical analysis and theory in thinking about the realm of possibilities and about the future of economic order, but avoid the twin perils of scientism and historicism? This book is an attempt to respond to these and related challenges. First, it delves into the substantive aspect of the debate, taking a closer look at a set of particular forms and models of capitalism that are currently discussed both in mass media and in academic circles as plausible, or at least possible, alternatives to the status quo: Crony, State, Regulatory, and Entrepreneurial Capitalisms. By elaborating and clarifying those models, it engages in a heuristic exercise that leads to a better understanding of the task of conceptualizing and assessing, in a theoretically informed way, the diversity of forms of capitalism. Second, the book takes a step further, looking at the epistemic, theoretical and methodological dimensions of the discussion: What is involved, more precisely, in our classifying and theorizing of capitalist systems and their historical evolution? What is the epistemic basis for building plausible conjectures about the future evolution of an economic system? What are the logical and methodological parameters of our endeavors that deal with economic systems, or with the problem of continuity and change in comparative economic systems? Offering an original approach to the problem of alternative forms of capitalism, this book will be of great interest to scholars working in the field of comparative political economy.
Author: Roman Studer
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2015-01-29
In stark contrast to popular narratives, The Great Divergence Reconsidered shows that Europe's rise to an undisputed world economic leader was not the effect of the Industrial Revolution, and cannot be explained by coal or colonial exploitation. Using a wealth of new historical evidence stretching from the seventeenth to the twentieth century, Roman Studer shows that this 'Great Divergence' must be shifted back to the seventeenth century, if not earlier. Europe was characterized by a more powerful transportation system, bigger trade flows, larger and better integrated markets, higher productivity levels, and superior living standards even before the Industrial Revolution brought about far-reaching structural changes and made Europe's supremacy even more pronounced. While the comparison with Europe draws significantly on India, the central conclusions seem to hold for Asia - and indeed the rest of the world - more generally. An interplay of various factors best explains Europe's early and gradual rise, including better institutions, favorable geographical features, increasing political stability, and increasingly rapid advances in science and technology.
Author: Franklin Allen
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Release Date: 2014-09-04
Genre: Business & Economics
Substantial progress in the fight against extreme poverty was made in the last two decades. But the slowdown in global economic growth and significant increases in income inequality in many developed and developing countries raise serious concerns about the continuation of this trend into the 21st century. The time has come to seriously think about how improvements in official global governance, coupled with and reinforced by rising activism of 'global citizens' can lead to welfare-enhancing and more equitable results for global citizens through better national and international policies. This book examines the factors that are most likely to facilitate the process of beneficial economic growth in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. It examines past, present, and future economic growth; demographic changes; the hyperglobalization of trade; the effect of finance on growth; climate change and resource depletion; and the sense of global citizenship and the need for global governance in order to draw longer-term implications, identify policy options for improving the lives of average citizens around the world, and make the case for the need to confront new challenges with truly global policy responses. The book documents how demographic changes, convergence, and competition are likely to bring about massive shifts in the sectoral and geographical composition of global output and employment, as the center of gravity of the global economy moves toward Asia and emerging economies elsewhere. It shows that the legacies of the 2008-09 crisis-high unemployment levels, massive excess capacities, and high debt levels-are likely to reduce the standard of living of millions of people in many countries over a long period of adjustment and that fluctuations in international trade, financial markets, and commodity prices, as well as the tendency of institutions at both the national and international level to favor the interests of the better-off and more powerful pose substantial risks for citizens of all countries. The chapters and their policy implications are intended to stimulate public interest and facilitate the exchange of ideas and policy dialogue.
Author: International Monetary Fund. Western Hemisphere Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
Release Date: 2015-01-05
Genre: Business & Economics
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Haiti’s 2006 and 2010 Fund-supported programs started under very different circumstances but shared the main objectives of preserving macroeconomic stability and creating the conditions for a sustained growth takeoff through structural reform. The 2006 program started as Haiti was making progress toward macroeconomic stabilization. Reducing inflation and avoiding fiscal dominance of monetary policy were top priorities. The 2010 program started in the aftermath of a devastating earthquake. It faced the challenges of dealing with a huge inflow of aid and scaling up public investment. Both programs aimed to foster reforms to address long-standing governance and transparency concerns, as well as improving revenue mobilization to increase fiscal space and reduce fiscal vulnerabilities. Growth was to rise to 4-6 percent, an ambitious objective given Haiti’s long history of serious fragility with near zero or negative growth. There were notable successes during the two programs. Despite a series of shocks, inflation remained in single digits and international reserves increased by more than expected, which helped to limit exchange rate volatility in the context of the large aid inflow. Program performance criteria effectively eliminated central bank credit to the government, thus reducing risks of fiscal dominance. Structural reforms also advanced, particularly during the 2006 program which coincided with the HIPC process. Revenue administration improved, with tax revenue rising steadily over the two programs. These achievements were not negligible given Haiti’s history.
Author: George W. Norton
Publisher: Waveland Press
Release Date: 2014-02-24
Genre: Business & Economics
Readable, thought-provoking, and beneficial for those who want to comprehend the plight of the rural poor, Hunger and Hope examines the world of those living near, on, and over the edge of poverty in developing countries. Their aspirations, struggles, and daily challenges are revealed with compassion and genuine understanding of the risks they face to sustain themselves and their families. The text is rich with lucid and methodical observations of the economic processes that shape agricultural development in impoverished countries. The author builds in an imaginative way on his extensive experience assisting farmers and assessing the impacts of agricultural interventions. Real-world illustrations of the policies and practices that not only create opportunities and food security but also create hardships show that, while progress has been made in reducing poverty and hunger, there is a need to do more.