Sexual cases are inherently complex and sometimes controversial presenting the practitioner with a multitude of procedural and legal challenges. The increasing number of sexual cases, often historic, places significant demands upon the criminal justice system. Sexual offending is recognized as a specialist area which demands unique skills from the practitioner and handling witness testimony in these cases calls for skills and knowledge that encompass both law and science. Witness Testimony in Sexual Cases focuses on legal and scientific considerations that arise when obtaining and evaluating sexual complaint testimony. It provides comprehensive and balanced coverage of this difficult and challenging topic across the complete spectrum of involvement in the legal process. This book equips legal professionals with an understanding of current legal and scientific issues when investigating, evaluating and testing witness testimony in sexual cases. Using a didactic approach the book combines an exposition on the law and procedure with a range of specialist perspectives on cognitive processes pertaining to vulnerable and non-vulnerable witnesses. The book identifies psychiatric and psychological factors that may enhance or impair the quality of witness testimony for instance where a witness suffers from mental health problems or where long-term memory recall is involved. The book provides practitioners with an understanding of factors which tend to undermine the reliability of witness testimony, but also focuses on those factors which may enhance witness quality. Witness Testimony in Sexual Cases draws together learning not readily available and encourages an integral and rigorous approach to the analysis of witness testimony in the special context of sexual cases.
Criminal proceedings, it is often now said, ought to be conducted with integrity. But what, exactly, does it mean for criminal process to have, or to lack, 'integrity'? Is integrity in this sense merely an aspirational normative ideal, with possibly diffuse influence on conceptions of professional responsibility? Or is it also a juridical concept with robust institutional purchase and enforceable practical consequences in criminal litigation? The 16 new essays contained in this collection, written by prominent legal scholars and criminologists from Australia, Hong Kong, the UK and the USA, engage systematically with - and seek to generate further debate about - the theoretical and practical significance of 'integrity' at all stages of the criminal process. Reflecting the flexibility and scope of a putative 'integrity principle', the essays range widely over many of the most hotly contested issues in contemporary criminal justice theory, policy and practice, including: the ethics of police investigations, charging practice and discretionary enforcement; prosecutorial independence, policy and operational decision-making; plea bargaining; the perils of witness coaching and accomplice testimony; expert evidence; doctrines of admissibility and abuse of process; lay participation in criminal adjudication; the role of remorse in criminal trials; the ethics of appellate judgment writing; innocence projects; and state compensation for miscarriages of justice.
The contribution of psychological research to the prevention of miscarriages of justice and the development of effective investigative techniques is now established to a point where law enforcement agencies in numerous countries either employ psychologists as part of their staff, or work in cooperation with academic institutions. The application of psychology to investigation is particularly effective when academics and practitioners work together. This book brings together leading experts to discuss the application of psychology to criminal investigation. This book offers an overview of models of investigation from a psychological and practical view point, covering topics such as investigative decision making, the presentation of evidence, witness testimony, the detection of deception, interviewing suspects and evidence-based police training. It is essential reading for students, researchers and practitioners engaged with police practice, investigation and forensic psychology.
Author: Anthony Heaton-Armstrong
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Release Date: 2006
Testimonial evidence remains the greatest source of information available to those who try cases in court.Witness Testimony: Psychological, Investigative, and Evidential Perspectives provides a comprehensive and easily accessible guide to the decision-making and actions of the complete spectrum of practitioner involvement in the criminal justice process, right from initial investigation through to court-room proceedings. It builds on the content and structure of its ground-breaking predecessor Analysing Witness Testimony: A Guide for Legal Practitioners and Other Professionals (Blackstone Press, March 1999), and consists of 25 chapters written by an expert author team of practitioner and academic lawyers, forensic psychiatrists, and psychologists. The team is led by criminal evidence specialist barristers Anthony Heaton-Armstrong and David Wolchover, chartered forensic psychologist Dr Eric Shepherd, and Professor of Forensic Psychology, Gisli Gudjonnson. The book is logically divided into three sections, looking in turn at each of the three inter-related perspectives upon a witness' account; psychological, investigative, and evidential. Section One explains and examines psychological issues, including; witness memory; the effect of learning disabilities; false allegations of sexual assault; and the effect of physical factors such as head injuries and drugs. Section Two covers the crucial investigative issues and concerns in respect of false allegations; the impact of investigative and questioning style upon children and vulnerable persons; memory performace of witnesses; and linguistic interpretations. Section Three explores evidential issues such as; visual identification procedures; the status of witness demeanour; the reliability of oral evidence; the relevance of information technology to presentation of evidence; disclosure; the use of expert evidence; and judicial training. The book will therefore be indispensable to all those involved in the resolution of contentious or disputed evidence, including; members of the judiciary and legal practitioners; crime investigators; and forensic psychologists and psychiatrists.
Author: Graham M. Davies
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2017-08-31
Introduces forensic psychology to students and professionals who want to better understand psychology’s expanding influence on the study of law, crime and criminality Forensic psychology is a constantly growing discipline, both in terms of student interest and as a profession for graduates. This book highlights the often sizeable gap between media myths surrounding forensic practice and reality. Editors Graham Davies and Anthony Beech present an exciting and broad range of topics within the field, including detailed treatments of the causes of crime, investigative methods, the trial process, and interventions with different types of offenders and offences. Forensic Psychology: Crime, Justice, Law, Interventions, Third Edition covers every aspect of forensic psychology—from understanding criminal behaviour, to applying psychological theory to criminal investigation, analysing the legal process and the treatment of witnesses and offenders. Each chapter has been thoroughly revised and updated with the latest findings. The book also includes two entirely new chapters—one on psychopathy and crime, the other on female offenders. Drawing on a wealth of experience from leading researchers and practitioners, this new edition will interest and enthuse today’s generation of students. All chapters thoroughly revised and updated Features two brand new chapters Supplemented by additional online resource materials, including related links, multiple choice questions, and PowerPoint slides Authored by a wide-range of experienced forensic psychology professionals Forensic Psychology, Third Edition is essential reading for undergraduates’ first encounter with the subject area and is an excellent introduction for more specialised postgraduate courses.
Author: Gisli H. Gudjonsson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2018-04-24
Provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the development of the science behind the psychology of false confessions Four decades ago, little was known or understood about false confessions and the reasons behind them. So much has changed since then due in part to the diligent work done by Gisli H. Gudjonsson. This eye-opening book by the Icelandic/British clinical forensic psychologist, who in the mid 1970s had worked as detective in Reykjavik, offers a complete and current analysis of how the study of the psychology of false confessions came about, including the relevant theories and empirical/experimental evidence base. It also provides a reflective review of the gradual development of the science and how it can be applied to real life cases. Based on Gudjonsson’s personal account of the biggest murder investigations in Iceland’s history, as well as other landmark cases, The Psychology of False Confessions: Forty Years of Science and Practice takes readers inside the minds of those who sit on both sides of the interrogation table to examine why confessions to crimes occur even when the confessor is innocent. Presented in three parts, the book covers how the science of studying false confessions emerged and grew to become a regular field of practice. It then goes deep into the investigation of the mid-1970s assumed murders of two men in Iceland and the people held responsible for them. It finishes with an in-depth psychological analysis of the confessions of the six people convicted. Written by an expert extensively involved in the development of the science and its application to real life cases Covers the most sensational murder cases in Iceland’s history Deep analysis of the ‘Reykjavik Confessions’ adds crucial evidence to understanding how and why coerced-internalized false confessions occur, and their detrimental and lasting effects on memory The Psychology of False Confessions: Forty Years of Science and Practice is an important source book for students, academics, criminologists, and clinical, forensic, and social psychologists and psychiatrists.
Encyclopedia of Forensic and Legal Medicine, Volumes 1-4, Second Edition is a pioneering four volume encyclopedia compiled by an international team of forensic specialists who explore the relationship between law, medicine, and science in the study of forensics. This important work includes over three hundred state-of-the-art chapters, with articles covering crime-solving techniques such as autopsies, ballistics, fingerprinting, hair and fiber analysis, and the sophisticated procedures associated with terrorism investigations, forensic chemistry, DNA, and immunoassays. Available online, and in four printed volumes, the encyclopedia is an essential reference for any practitioner in a forensic, medical, healthcare, legal, judicial, or investigative field looking for easily accessible and authoritative overviews on a wide range of topics. Chapters have been arranged in alphabetical order, and are written in a clear-and-concise manner, with definitions provided in the case of obscure terms and information supplemented with pictures, tables, and diagrams. Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading. Brings together all appropriate aspects of forensic medicine and legal medicine Contains color figures, sample forms, and other materials that the reader can adapt for their own practice Also available in an on-line version which provides numerous additional reference and research tools, additional multimedia, and powerful search functions Each topic includes cross-referencing to related articles and case studies where further explanation is required, along with references to external sources for further reading
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Data Collection / methods / Practice Guideline
"The guidelines aim to improve professional health services for all individuals who have been victims of sexual violence by providing health care workers with the knowledge and skills that are necessary for the management of victims; standards for the provision of both health care and forensic services to victims; and guidance on the establishment of health care and forensic services for victims"--Publisher website.
Author: Anthony Heaton-Armstrong
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 1999
The consideration of witness testimony had traditionally been a task left to fact-finders with scant guidance from legal professionals. As a result, various practices have developed during the investigative and trial process which can obscure or even eradicate critical material. Miscarriages of justice will continue to occur, so long as those working within the justice system continue to accept witnesses and their testimony at face value. This book aims to make practitioners, as well as the fact-finders and those who guide them, aware of a wide range of perspectives on witness testimony. Each contributor identifies bad practice and puts forward ideas for improvement or removal of previously acceptable investigative and forensic methods.
The increasing portrayal of forensic investigative techniques in the popular media—CSI, for example, has resulted in criminals becoming "forensically aware" and more careful about leaving behind physical evidence at a crime scene. This presents law enforcement with a significant problem: how can they detect serial offenders if they cannot rely on physical forensic evidence? One solution comes from psychology. A growing body of research has amassed in the area of behavioral consistency and the detection of serial offenders. A number of innovations are taking place in the field that have important implications for the practice of crime linkage and its use by police and the courts. Crime Linkage: Theory, Research, and Practice assembles this research and discusses its practical use. Topics include: Theoretical explanations for how, when, and why we may (or may not) see similarities in a person’s crime scene behavior Consistency and distinctiveness in sexual offending An overview of crime linkage research conducted to date The use of crime linkage in the United Kingdom, South Africa, and the United States New directions for research and practice, including linking across crime types to expand the suspect pool The range of statistical methods used in research of crime linkage principles The book represents a collaboration of researchers and practitioners from across the globe who are recognized as experts in the area of behavioral consistency and detection of serial offenders. They provide a comprehensive and informative text on the psychological and criminological theories underpinning crime linkage, how it is used in practice, the challenges practitioners face, and current innovations that will shape the future of crime linkage research and practice. This book is in the Advances in Police Theory and Practice series.
Author: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Release Date: 1998-02-13
Genre: Social Science
Reports of mistreated children, domestic violence, and abuse of elderly persons continue to strain the capacity of police, courts, social services agencies, and medical centers. At the same time, myriad treatment and prevention programs are providing services to victims and offenders. Although limited research knowledge exists regarding the effectiveness of these programs, such information is often scattered, inaccessible, and difficult to obtain. Violence in Families takes the first hard look at the successes and failures of family violence interventions. It offers recommendations to guide services, programs, policy, and research on victim support and assistance, treatments and penalties for offenders, and law enforcement. Included is an analysis of more than 100 evaluation studies on the outcomes of different kinds of programs and services. Violence in Families provides the most comprehensive review on the topic to date. It explores the scope and complexity of family violence, including identification of the multiple types of victims and offenders, who require different approaches to intervention. The book outlines new strategies that offer promising approaches for service providers and researchers and for improving the evaluation of prevention and treatment services. Violence in Families discusses issues that underlie all types of family violence, such as the tension between family support and the protection of children, risk factors that contribute to violent behavior in families, and the balance between family privacy and community interventions. The core of the book is a research-based review of interventions used in three institutional sectors--social services, health, and law enforcement settings--and how to measure their effectiveness in combating maltreatment of children, domestic violence, and abuse of the elderly. Among the questions explored by the committee: Does the child protective services system work? Does the threat of arrest deter batterers? The volume discusses the strength of the evidence and highlights emerging links among interventions in different institutional settings. Thorough, readable, and well organized, Violence in Families synthesizes what is known and outlines what needs to be discovered. This volume will be of great interest to policymakers, social services providers, health care professionals, police and court officials, victim advocates, researchers, and concerned individuals.