Author: Carol Smart
Release Date: 2013-10-14
Genre: Social Science
First published in 1977, Women, Crime and Criminology presents a feminist critique of classical and contemporary theories of female criminality. It addresses the issue that criminology literature has, throughout history, been predominantly male-oriented, always treating female criminality as marginal to the 'proper' study of crime in society. Carol Smart explores a new direction in criminology, and the sociology of deviance, by investigating female crime from a committed feminist position. Examining the types of offences committed by female offenders, Smart points to the fallacies inherent in a reliance on official statistics and shows the deficiencies of the popular argument that female emancipation has caused an increase in female crime rates. She deals with studies of prostitution and rape and considers the treatment of women - as offenders and victims - by the criminal law, the police and courts, and the penal system. Particular attention is given to the question of lenient treatment for female offenders with the conclusion that women and girls are, in some important instances, actually discriminated against in our legal and penal systems. The relationship between female criminality and mental illness is discussed and the author concludes by dealing with some of the problems inherent in developing a feminist criminology.
Author: Carol Smart
Release Date: 2013-10-14
Genre: Social Science
First published in 1977, Women, Crime and Criminology presents a feminist critique of classical and contemporary theories of female criminality. It addresses the issue that criminology literature has, throughout history, been predominantly male-oriented, always treating female criminality as marginal to the ‘proper’ study of crime in society. Carol Smart explores a new direction in criminology, and the sociology of deviance, by investigating female crime from a committed feminist position. Examining the types of offences committed by female offenders, Smart points to the fallacies inherent in a reliance on official statistics and shows the deficiencies of the popular argument that female emancipation has caused an increase in female crime rates. She deals with studies of prostitution and rape and considers the treatment of women – as offenders and victims – by the criminal law, the police and courts, and the penal system. Particular attention is given to the question of lenient treatment for female offenders with the conclusion that women and girls are, in some important instances, actually discriminated against in our legal and penal systems. The relationship between female criminality and mental illness is discussed and the author concludes by dealing with some of the problems inherent in developing a feminist criminology.
This edited collection, with contributions from Frances Heidensohn, Richard Collier and Carol Smart, is based on the papers delivered at the critical research seminar hosted by the Centre for the Study of Crime, Criminalisation, and Social Exclusion at Liverpool John Moores University on 16th March 2016. The seminar celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Carol Smart's path-breaking book, Women, Crime and Criminology published in 1976.
This book of eleven chapters and an Introduction is by and about women, the harms and crimes to which they are subjected as a result of global social processes and their efforts to take control of their own futures. The chapters explore the criminogenic and damaging consequences of the policies of the global financial institutions as well as the effects of growing economic polarisation both in pockets of the developed world and most markedly in the global south. Reflecting on this evidence, in the Introduction the editors necessarily challenge existing criminological theory by expanding and elaborating a conception of social harm that encompasses this range of problems, and exposes where new solutions derived from criminological theory are necessary. A second theme addresses human rights from the standpoint of indigenous women, minority women and those seeking refuge. Inadequate and individualised as the human rights instruments presently are, for most of these women a politics of human rights emerges as central to the achieving of legal and political equality and protection from individual violence. Women in the poorest countries, however, are sceptical as to the efficacy of rights claims in the face of the depredations of international and global capital, and the social dislocation produced thereby. Nonetheless this is a hopeful book, emphasising the contribution which academic work can make, provided the methodology is appropriately gendered and sufficiently sensitive in its guiding ideology and techniques to hear and learn from the all too often 'glocalised' other. But in the end there is no solution without politics, and in both the opening and the closing sections of this book there are chapters which address this. What continues to be special about women's political practice is the connection between the groundedness of small groups and the fluidity and flexibility of regional and international networks: the effective politics of the global age. This book, then, is a new criminology for and by women, a book which opens up a new criminological terrain for both women and men - and a book which cannot easily be read without an emotional response.
Female Crime, first published in 1987, surveys the major schools of criminology in order to explore the images of the female offender which underpin many contemporary crime theories. In reveals the ways in which male-centred norms dominated much analysis, and how crude stereotypes of women were a common attribute to the armoury of criminological research. Although feminists and other researchers are directing increasing attention to criminology, this was one of the first attempts to deploy feminist analyses developed within other disciplines to examine critically the range of modern criminological theories on women. Its findings demonstrate the importance of a program to create a new feminist criminology which recognises the female offender as a reasoning, purposeful subject. This title will be of interest to students of criminology.
Author: Joycelyn M. Pollock
Publisher: Waveland Press
Release Date: 2014-04-14
Genre: Social Science
Historically, women have been an afterthought in criminal justice policymaking and the criminological enterprise. The study of criminology has largely been the study of criminal men, because women commit less crime than men. More recently, criminologists have paid increased attention to the population of female offenders, partly because of their growing numbers and partly because of the tens of thousands of children affected by having their mothers in prison or on supervised release. The recent attention, however, has not necessarily been a good thing for women, who are much more likely to be formally prosecuted and incarcerated today than in decades past. This policy shift has come about partly because of misinformed policies implemented to “help” women, and partly because of shifts in theorists’ beliefs and public perceptions that women and men are similar in their criminal motivations and should, therefore, be treated similarly. The controversy surrounding this perception is the focus of this book. To better comprehend the challenges facing women in the criminal justice system, the author (a winner of the Bruce Smith Sr. Award from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences) employs research findings and statistics to: describe the prevalence and patterns of women’s crimes; review criminological theories, specifically examining how well they explain female criminality; understand female juvenile offenders, reviewing crime rates, theories relating to female delinquency, and detention-related issues; look inside the women’s prison to better understand female prisoners and their world; examine classification and programming issues—particularly the impact of gender-specific programming; and explore the problems experienced by women upon release and the related issue of women’s recidivism.
This book surveys female juvenile delinquency, an important topic often receiving minimal attention in books on women and crime. Authors of articles represent some of the leading scholars in the field - Claire Renzetti, Frank Cullen, and, of course, Meda Chesney-Lind. This reader accompanies The Female Offender.
Crime and Criminology is an older, larger field of sociology dealing with matter related to crime and criminal behaviour. It includes fields such as crime statistics, criminal psychology, forensic science, law enforcement, and detective methods. It adheres to the natural science model and borrows heavily from philosophy, psychology and sociology. Designed for students, teachers and researchers of criminology, this book provides a lucid and comprehensive coverage of basic principles of the subject in wide-angle perspective.
Author: Sharon A. Kowalsky
Release Date: 2009
After seizing power in 1917, the Bolsheviks initiated reforms aimed at abolishing the old way of life in Russia. A new Family Code liberalized marriage procedures, promoted communal living arrangements, and abolished the concept of illegitimacy. Other decrees legalized abortion, deregulated prostitution, and emancipated women. The Bolsheviks' Marxist ideology that guided these reforms was also behind the assertion that crime, an artifact of bourgeois capitalist exploitation, would disappear under socialism. As crime persisted, Soviet criminologists—a cohort of jurists, doctors, sociologists, anthropologists, psychiatrists, statisticians, and forensic experts—were charged with examining its causes and motives to determine the most effective methods to eliminate it. The problem of female crime occupied a prominent position in criminologists' studies. In explaining “traditional” female crimes of the domestic sphere—infanticide, spouse murder, and petty theft, among others—criminologists pointed to the offenders' backwardness and ignorance, material circumstances, and even biology. Kowalsky examines the position of women in early Soviet society through the lens of deviance, exploring how Soviet criminologists understood female crime and how their attitudes helped shape the development of Soviet social and behavioral norms. Deviant Women looks at the emergence of criminology in early Soviet Russia, tracing the development of principles and theories—particularly that of female deviance—and highlighting the ways in which criminologists were able to conduct innovative social science research under the constraints of Bolshevik ideology. Kowalsky then focuses on the analyses of female crime and criminologists' attitudes concerning sexuality, geography, and class. Concluding with a close study of infanticide, the most “typical” crime committed by women, Kowalsky discusses the social attitudes that were revealed in the professional discussion of this crime. Historians of modern Russia and the USSR, scholars of gender studies, and those studying criminology will be fascinated by this original study.
Studies of crime and criminology have either overlooked women or discussed them only briefly and in stereotypical ways. This book considers all aspects of women and crime, scrutinizing the conventional accounts of women's criminality and the validity of mainstream criminological theories for women.
Author: Stacy L. Mallicoat
Release Date: 2011-12-05
Genre: Social Science
Women and Crime: A Text/Reader, part of the text/reader series in criminology and criminal justice, incorporates contemporary and classic readings (some including policy implications) accompanied by student-friendly authored text. This unique format provides a theoretical framework and context for students. The comprehensive coverage of the book includes the history and theories of female offending, offenders and their crimes, processing and sentencing of female offenders, women in prison, women and victimization, women and work in the criminal justice system, juveniles and crime, and international crime. Race and diversity will be an underlying theme throughout the text.
Scholarship in criminology over the last few decades has often left little room for research and theory on how female offenders are perceived and handled in the criminal justice system. In truth, one out of every four juveniles arrested is female and the population of women in prison has tripled in the past decade. Co-authored by Meda Chesney-Lind, one of the pioneers in the development of the feminist theoretical perspective in criminology, the subject matter of The Female Offender: Girls, Women and Crime, Second Edition redresses the balance by providing critical insight into these issues. Bringing much-needed attention to the state of these often "invisible" wrongdoers, The Female Offender enlightens and intrigues readers including academics, researchers, and students in the areas of criminology, criminal justice, sociology, and women’s studies. Likewise, anyone seeking cutting-edge information about a growing offender population will want to read this book.
Author: Rosemary L Barberet
Release Date: 2014-04-16
Genre: Social Science
Women, Crime and Criminal Justice is the winner of the Division of International Criminology’s Distinguished Book Award 2014 and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences International Section's 2015 Outstanding Book Award and the first fully internationalised book to focus on women as offenders, victims and justice professionals. It provides background, as well as specialized information that allows readers to comprehend the global forces that shape women and crime; analyze different types of violence against women (in peacetime and in armed conflict); and grasp the challenges faced by women in justice professions such as the police, the judiciary and international peacekeeping. Provocative, highly topical, engaging and written by an expert in the field, this book examines the role of women in crime and criminal justice internationally. Topics covered include: the role of globalization and development in patterns of female offending and victimization, how a human rights framework can help explain women ́s crime, victimization and the criminal justice response, global women’s activism, international perspectives on violence against women, including femicide, violence in conflict and post conflict settings, sex work and sex trafficking, women’s access to justice, as well as the increased role of women in international criminal justice settings. This book will be essential reading for those involved in the study of development, human rights, governance, security sector reform, international relations and public health, as debates about these subjects are intrinsically linked to the issues surrounding women, crime and justice. It will also be useful for students taking courses on gender, crime and criminal justice, violence against women, international criminal justice and gender studies.
Author: S. K. Mukherjee
Release Date: 2015-12-22
Genre: Social Science
First published in 1981. In the last few decades, interest in the study of crimes by women has increased. This interest has coincided with the accelerated momentum of the feminist movement and has led to claims that a rising female crime rate is somehow linked with the changing status of women. But are women committing more crimes? And if so, can this be attributed to the impact of the women’s movement? In this book, nine essays survey aspects of the relationship between women and the criminal justice system. The contributors include historians, criminologists, lawyers, ex-prisoners and political scientists. Women and Crime will be of interest to students of criminology.