Wood Plastic Composites

Author: Anatole A. Klyosov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470165928
Release Date: 2007-10-12
Genre: Technology & Engineering

A comprehensive, practical guide to wood-plastic composites and their properties This is the first book that presents an overview of the main principles underlying the composition of wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials and their performance in the real world. Focusing on the characteristics of WPC materials rather than their manufacture, this guide bridges the gap between laboratory-based research and testing and the properties WPC materials exhibit when they're used in decks, railing systems, fences, and other common applications. Complete with practical examples and case studies, this guide: Describes compositions of WPC materials, including thermoplastics, cellulose fiber, minerals, additives, and their properties Covers mechanical properties, microbial resistance, water absorption, flammability, slip resistance, thermal expansion-contraction, sensitivity to oxidation and solar radiation, and rheological properties of hot melts of WPC Covers subjects that determine esthetics, properties, performance, and durability of wood-plastic composite products Includes comparisons of different ASTM methods and procedures that apply to specific properties This is a comprehensive, hands-on reference for scientists, engineers, and researchers working with wood-plastic composites in plastics and polymers, materials science, microbiology, rheology, plastic technology, and chemical engineering, as well as an outstanding text for graduate students in these disciplines. It's also an excellent resource for suppliers and WPC manufacturers, and an accessible guide for developers, homebuilders, and landscape architects who want to know more about wood-plastic composites and their performance in the real world.

Recent Advances in the Processing of Wood Plastic Composites

Author: Jin Kuk Kim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642148778
Release Date: 2010-12-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a non-recyclable composite material lumber or timber made of recycled plastic and wood wastes which has become one of the most dynamic sectors of the plastics industry in this decade. It is used in numerous applications, such as, outdoor deck floors, railings, fences, landscaping timbers, park benches, window and door frames. This book starts with a brief glimpse at the basic structures and properties of WPCs. Aspects such as surface treatment, machinery used and testing types of WPCs are also covered. The following chapters of the book give a view of foam technology, flame retardant properties and colour retardant properties of WPCs. The way morphology affects or controls the physical and mechanical behaviours of the finished materials is discussed. Finally, the authors give an overview of the applications of wood-plastic composites in daily life. The book may serve as a source book for scientists wishing to work in this field.

Wood Polymer Composites

Author: K O Niska
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9781845694579
Release Date: 2008-05-29
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Wood-polymer composites (WPC) are materials in which wood is impregnated with monomers that are then polymerised in the wood to tailor the material for special applications. The resulting properties of these materials, from lightness and enhanced mechanical properties to greater sustainability, has meant a growing number of applications in such areas as building, construction and automotive engineering. This important book reviews the manufacture of wood-polymer composites, how their properties can be assessed and improved and their range of uses. After an introductory chapter, the book reviews key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials, manufacturing technologies and interactions between wood and synthetic polymers. Building on this foundation, the following group of chapters discusses mechanical and other properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance. The book concludes by looking at orientated wood-polymer composites, wood-polymer composite foams, at ways of assessing performance and at the range of current and future applications. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Wood-polymer composites is a valuable reference for all those using and studying these important materials. Provides a comprehensive survey of major new developments in wood-polymer composites Reviews the key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials and manufacturing technologies Discusses properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance

Environmental Impacts of Traditional and Innovative Forest based Bioproducts

Author: Andreja Kutnar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789811006555
Release Date: 2016-03-21
Genre: Technology & Engineering

This book provides a comprehensive description of traditional and innovative forest-based bioproducts, from pulp and paper, wood-based composites and wood fuels to chemicals and fiber-based composites. The descriptions of different types of forest-based bioproducts are supplemented by the environmental impacts involved in their processing, use, and end-of-life phase. Further, the possibility of reusing, recycling and upgrading bioproducts at the end of their projected life cycle is discussed. As the intensity of demand for forest biomass is currently changing, forest-based industries need to respond with innovative products, business models, marketing and management. As such, the book concludes with a chapter on the bioproducts business and these products’ role in bioeconomies.

Wood Plastic Composites

Author: Nafish Sarwar Islam
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
ISBN: 3846524859
Release Date: 2011-10
Genre:

Natural fibres are promising reinforcement to be used in thermoplastic composites due to their low weight and cost. The major usage of plastic composites is in transportation followed by the combined usage in marine and corrosive environments. However, the stability of wood plastic composite in corrosion and marine environment is not well understood. Manufacturers mostly rely upon some limited laboratory tests whose methodologies are useful for simulations but not for predicting product's service properties. An investigation has been carried out to assess the properties of rubber wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites; and environment stability of these composites has been studied at three different temperatures. ----- Nafish Sarwar Islam.

Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites

Author: Douglas D. Stokke
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118676073
Release Date: 2013-10-21
Genre: Science

Over the past two decades, there has been a shift in research and industrial practice, and products traditionally manufactured primarily from wood are increasingly combined with other nonwood materials of either natural or synthetic origin. Wood and other plant-based fiber is routinely combined with adhesives, polymers, and other "ingredients" to produce composite materials. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites draws together widely scattered information concerning fundamental concepts and technical applications, essential to the manufacture of wood and natural fiber composites. The topics addressed include basic information on the chemical and physical composition of wood and other lignocellulosic materials, the behavior of these materials under thermocompression processes, fundamentals of adhesion, specific adhesive systems used to manufacture composite materials, and an overview of the industrial technologies used to manufacture major product categories. The book concludes with a chapter on the burgeoning field of natural fiber-plastic composites. Introduction to Wood and Natural Fiber Composites is a valuable resource for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students studying forest products and wood science, as well as for practicing professionals working in operational areas of wood- and natural-fiber processing. For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources, visit www.wiley.com/go/rrs Topics covered include: Overview of lignocellulosic material, their chemical and physical composition Consolidation behavior of wood and fiber in response to heat and pressure Fundamentals of adhesion Adhesives used to bond wood and lignocellulosic composites Manufacturing technology of major product types Fiber/plastic composites

Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites Second Edition

Author: Roger M. Rowell
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439853801
Release Date: 2012-09-06
Genre: Science

Wood has played a major role throughout human history. Strong and versatile, the earliest humans used wood to make shelters, cook food, construct tools, build boats, and make weapons. Recently, scientists, politicians, and economists have renewed their interest in wood because of its unique properties, aesthetics, availability, abundance, and perhaps most important of all, its renewability. However, wood will not reach its highest use potential until we fully describe it, understand the mechanisms that control its performance properties, and, finally, are able to manipulate those properties to give us the desired performance we seek. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of wood cellulose and its response to natural processes of degradation. It describes safe and effective chemical modifications to strengthen wood against biological, chemical, and mechanical degradation without using toxic, leachable, or corrosive chemicals. Expert researchers provide insightful analyses of the types of chemical modifications applied to polymer cell walls in wood. They emphasize the mechanisms of reaction involved and resulting changes in performance properties including modifications that increase water repellency, fire retardancy, and resistance to ultraviolet light, heat, moisture, mold, and other biological organisms. The text also explores modifications that increase mechanical strength, such as lumen fill, monomer polymer penetration, and plasticization. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites concludes with the latest applications, such as adhesives, geotextiles, and sorbents, and future trends in the use of wood-based composites in terms of sustainable agriculture, biodegradability and recycling, and economics. Incorporating decades of teaching experience, the editor of this handbook is well-attuned to educational demands as well as industry standards and research trends.

Chemistry of Wood Plastic Composite Weathering

Author: James Sunday Fabiyi
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:265419461
Release Date: 2007
Genre: Plastic-impregnated wood

Solid wood has been traditionally used as a decking and siding component in the USA and other parts of the world. However, environmental (because of chemical treatment) and performance (loss of value) issues concerning solid wood in those applications have brought about shift to replace solid wood with WPC. The shift is largely due to the perceived-improved properties, low maintenance, and environmentally benign attributes of WPC. However, a growing issue of concern with these products is their long-term weatherability and color stability. Therefore, retaining WPC color for extended periods during outdoor exposure is of importance. Unfortunately, a fundamental knowledge regarding chemical changes, which influence color changes that occur at the surface of WPC during weathering relative to material compositions are limited. In order to develop WPC with improved weathering performance, the chemical changes of the material compositions that are caused by weathering factors are investigated in this study. The outcomes of such an approach would provide basic understanding of WPC weathering that might likely foster research toward production WPC with improved weathering performance. In this study, the effects of outside and accelerated (UVA and xenon-arc) weathering on the color and chemical changes of wood plastic composites (WPC) produced from different plastics, wood species, and modified wood fiber were investigated. Different analytical techniques were employed to monitor color and chemical changes that occurred during weathering, such colorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (STIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The outcomes of weathering trials using high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) based WPC with pine wood flour as reinforcement/filler and other additives showed that for both natural and celerated weathering, longer exposure time caused increased color change (and surface lightness), generation of chromophores, surface oxidation, and wood loss on the weathered WPC surface. Understanding of the basic the and color changes of naturally and accelerated weathered WPC suggest that wood lignin was a contributing factor to WPC color change. Therefore, the outcomes of xenon-arc weathered WPC produced from selected wood species showed that WPC formulation with moderated weathering performance (color stability) could be achieved using wood species of low lignin content (such as poplar). In addition, deligninfied wood fiber based WPC especially from HDPE had less color change compared to untreated wood based WPC. This suggests that cellulose fibers from chemical pulps could be used as a fiber source for weather resistant WPC. In all studies conducted, HDPE-based WPC had the least color change and mostly followed by PP and PVC, which could be associated with thermal history.

Decay Resistance of Wood plastic Composites Reinforced with Extracted Or Delignified Wood Flour

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:1039876198
Release Date: 2014
Genre: Composite materials

S2The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by weight HDPE and WF, first compounded using extrusion followed by injection molding. After preconditioning in water at 70 °C for 5 days, the specimens were exposed for 12 weeks to the brown-rot fungus, Gloeophyllum trabeum in the AWPA D1413 standard soil block test. The WPC made with untreated wood flour had the highest overall weight loss (24.9 ±3.6%), followed by the HW (22.3 ±4.6%) and DL (16.4 ±3%). The TE (7.8 ±0.8%) and AW (7.7 ±2.3%) had the lowest weight losses. WPC moisture content was monitored before and after decay. Cracking was observed in some blends after the preconditioning, which may explain the differences in weight loss.S3.

Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites Second Edition

Author: Roger M. Rowell
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439853818
Release Date: 2012-09-06
Genre: Science

Wood has played a major role throughout human history. Strong and versatile, the earliest humans used wood to make shelters, cook food, construct tools, build boats, and make weapons. Recently, scientists, politicians, and economists have renewed their interest in wood because of its unique properties, aesthetics, availability, abundance, and perhaps most important of all, its renewability. However, wood will not reach its highest use potential until we fully describe it, understand the mechanisms that control its performance properties, and, finally, are able to manipulate those properties to give us the desired performance we seek. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of wood cellulose and its response to natural processes of degradation. It describes safe and effective chemical modifications to strengthen wood against biological, chemical, and mechanical degradation without using toxic, leachable, or corrosive chemicals. Expert researchers provide insightful analyses of the types of chemical modifications applied to polymer cell walls in wood. They emphasize the mechanisms of reaction involved and resulting changes in performance properties including modifications that increase water repellency, fire retardancy, and resistance to ultraviolet light, heat, moisture, mold, and other biological organisms. The text also explores modifications that increase mechanical strength, such as lumen fill, monomer polymer penetration, and plasticization. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites concludes with the latest applications, such as adhesives, geotextiles, and sorbents, and future trends in the use of wood-based composites in terms of sustainable agriculture, biodegradability and recycling, and economics. Incorporating decades of teaching experience, the editor of this handbook is well-attuned to educational demands as well as industry standards and research trends.

Wood Plastic Composites

Author: Mohammad Dalour Hossen Beg
Publisher:
ISBN: 3639203518
Release Date: 2010-02
Genre:

The incorporation of lignocellulosic material as a reinforcing component in polymer composites has received increased attention, particularly for price driven and high volume applications. This development has been brought about, as reinforcement by lignocellulosic fibres offers several advantages over their inorganic counterparts, including lower density, greater deformability, less abrasiveness to expensive moulds and mixing equipment and lower cost. Moreover, lignocellulosic based fibres are derived from renewable resources. However, inherent poor adhesion between the fibre and the matrix is a challenge, which results in low durability. This book include the study on interfacial improvement, weathering and recycling of wood plastic composites. Emphasis has been given on thermoplastic composites.

Wood Composites

Author: Martin P Ansell
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 9781782424772
Release Date: 2015-07-24
Genre: Technology & Engineering

Recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart multi-functional coatings have made them a particular area of interest for researchers. Wood Composites comprehensively reviews the whole field of wood composites, with particular focus on their materials, applications and engineering and scientific advances, including solutions inspired biomimetrically by the structure of wood and wood composites. Part One covers the materials used for wood composites and examines wood microstructure, and wood processing and adhesives for wood composites. Part Two explores the many applications of wood composites, for example plywood, fibreboard, chipboard, glulam, cross-laminated timber, I-beams and wood-polymer composites. The final part investigates advances in wood composites and looks at the preservation and modification of wood composites, environmental impacts and legislative obligations, nano-coatings and plasma treatment, biomimetic composite materials, the integration of wood composites with other materials and carbonized and mineralized wood composites. Comprehensively reviews the entire field of wood composites in a single volume Examines recent progress in enhancing and refining the performance and properties of wood composites by chemical and thermal modification and the application of smart multi-functional coatings Explores the range of wood composites, including both new and traditional products

Foam Extrusion of PP based Wood Plastic Composites with Chemical Blowing Agents and the Celuka Technique

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: OCLC:1014444524
Release Date:
Genre:

Wood plastic composites have gained relevance in recent years as an alternative to wood boards. However, because the cavities in wood fibres are compressed by high processing pressure during the extrusion of wood plastic composites, the product densities show a range of up to 1.5 g/cm depending on wood content and base material. Particularly in large-sized products, this may be disadvantageous for processors and end users. Foaming of the plastic matrix is a promising approach to reduce the density of wood plastic composites products. This article discusses the foam extrusion of PP-based wood plastic composites with chemical blowing agents in combination with the Celuka technique. Integral wood plastic composites foam with a rigid and plain outer layer was produced using a parallel, counter rotating twin screw extruder. The profiles obtained were analysed with respect to foam structure and mechanical properties. It was possible to achieve a density reduction of up to 0.7 g/cm in the foamed wood plastic composites profiles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that wood fibre length and type of chemical blowing agent have a strong effect on the resulting foam morphology.