Author: Anatole A. Klyosov
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2007-10-12
Genre: Technology & Engineering
A comprehensive, practical guide to wood-plastic composites and their properties This is the first book that presents an overview of the main principles underlying the composition of wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials and their performance in the real world. Focusing on the characteristics of WPC materials rather than their manufacture, this guide bridges the gap between laboratory-based research and testing and the properties WPC materials exhibit when they're used in decks, railing systems, fences, and other common applications. Complete with practical examples and case studies, this guide: Describes compositions of WPC materials, including thermoplastics, cellulose fiber, minerals, additives, and their properties Covers mechanical properties, microbial resistance, water absorption, flammability, slip resistance, thermal expansion-contraction, sensitivity to oxidation and solar radiation, and rheological properties of hot melts of WPC Covers subjects that determine esthetics, properties, performance, and durability of wood-plastic composite products Includes comparisons of different ASTM methods and procedures that apply to specific properties This is a comprehensive, hands-on reference for scientists, engineers, and researchers working with wood-plastic composites in plastics and polymers, materials science, microbiology, rheology, plastic technology, and chemical engineering, as well as an outstanding text for graduate students in these disciplines. It's also an excellent resource for suppliers and WPC manufacturers, and an accessible guide for developers, homebuilders, and landscape architects who want to know more about wood-plastic composites and their performance in the real world.
Author: Jin Kuk Kim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2010-12-16
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a non-recyclable composite material lumber or timber made of recycled plastic and wood wastes which has become one of the most dynamic sectors of the plastics industry in this decade. It is used in numerous applications, such as, outdoor deck floors, railings, fences, landscaping timbers, park benches, window and door frames. This book starts with a brief glimpse at the basic structures and properties of WPCs. Aspects such as surface treatment, machinery used and testing types of WPCs are also covered. The following chapters of the book give a view of foam technology, flame retardant properties and colour retardant properties of WPCs. The way morphology affects or controls the physical and mechanical behaviours of the finished materials is discussed. Finally, the authors give an overview of the applications of wood-plastic composites in daily life. The book may serve as a source book for scientists wishing to work in this field.
Author: K O Niska
Release Date: 2008-05-29
Genre: Technology & Engineering
Wood-polymer composites (WPC) are materials in which wood is impregnated with monomers that are then polymerised in the wood to tailor the material for special applications. The resulting properties of these materials, from lightness and enhanced mechanical properties to greater sustainability, has meant a growing number of applications in such areas as building, construction and automotive engineering. This important book reviews the manufacture of wood-polymer composites, how their properties can be assessed and improved and their range of uses. After an introductory chapter, the book reviews key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials, manufacturing technologies and interactions between wood and synthetic polymers. Building on this foundation, the following group of chapters discusses mechanical and other properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance. The book concludes by looking at orientated wood-polymer composites, wood-polymer composite foams, at ways of assessing performance and at the range of current and future applications. With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Wood-polymer composites is a valuable reference for all those using and studying these important materials. Provides a comprehensive survey of major new developments in wood-polymer composites Reviews the key aspects of manufacture, including raw materials and manufacturing technologies Discusses properties such as durability, creep behaviour and processing performance
Author: Nafish Sarwar Islam
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release Date: 2011-10
Natural fibres are promising reinforcement to be used in thermoplastic composites due to their low weight and cost. The major usage of plastic composites is in transportation followed by the combined usage in marine and corrosive environments. However, the stability of wood plastic composite in corrosion and marine environment is not well understood. Manufacturers mostly rely upon some limited laboratory tests whose methodologies are useful for simulations but not for predicting product's service properties. An investigation has been carried out to assess the properties of rubber wood fibre reinforced polypropylene composites; and environment stability of these composites has been studied at three different temperatures. ----- Nafish Sarwar Islam.
Author: Dr. Himadri Panda
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
Release Date: 2018-01-11
Coal is the product of plants, mainly trees that died tens or hundreds of millions of years ago. Coal is a fossil fuel and is the altered remains of prehistoric vegetation that originally accumulated in swamps and peat bogs. The energy we get from coal today comes from the energy that plants absorbed from the sun millions of years ago. Coal is used primarily as an energy source, either for heat or electricity. It was once heavily used to heat homes and power locomotives and factories. Bituminous coal is also used to produce coke for making steel and other industrial process heating. Lignin is a constituent of the cell walls of almost all dry land plant cell walls. It is the second most abundant natural polymer in the world, surpassed only by cellulose. Lignin is found in all vascular plants, mostly between the cells, but also within the cells, and in the cell walls. Wood is an aggregate of cells essentially cellulose in composition, which are cemented together by a substance called lignin. The cells are made of three substances called cellulose (about 50 percent), lignin (which makes up a fifth to a quarter of hardwoods but a quarter to a third of softwoods), and hemicellulose. Rosin refers to an extraction process that utilizes a combination of heat and pressure to nearly instantaneously squeeze resinous sap from your initial starting material In India's energy sector, coal accounts for the majority of primary commercial energy supply. With the economy poised to grow at the rate of 8-10% per annum, energy requirements will also rise at a reasonable level. The Indian coal industry aspires to reach the 1.5 billion tonne (BT) mark by FY 2020. In fore-coming years, the industry will naturally need to focus on building on the success, and be on track for reaching the FY 2020 goal. One of the primary goals of the Government of India is to ensure that it is able to meet the country's power generation needs. Another aim is to lower the country's reliance on coal imports by boosting the coal production quickly. The Major contents of the book are Coal, Analysis of Coal and Coke, Cotton, Lignin and Hemicelluloses, Degradation of Wood, CCA-Treated Wood, Wood-Polymer Composites, Lignocellulosic-Plastic Composites from Recycled Materials, Chemical Modification of Wood Fiber, Delignification of Wood with Pernitric Acid, Rosin and Rosin Derivatives, Polymerizable Half Esters of Rosin and Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details. It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of these industries.
Author: Roger M. Rowell
Publisher: CRC Press
Release Date: 2012-09-06
Wood has played a major role throughout human history. Strong and versatile, the earliest humans used wood to make shelters, cook food, construct tools, build boats, and make weapons. Recently, scientists, politicians, and economists have renewed their interest in wood because of its unique properties, aesthetics, availability, abundance, and perhaps most important of all, its renewability. However, wood will not reach its highest use potential until we fully describe it, understand the mechanisms that control its performance properties, and, finally, are able to manipulate those properties to give us the desired performance we seek. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites analyzes the chemical composition and physical properties of wood cellulose and its response to natural processes of degradation. It describes safe and effective chemical modifications to strengthen wood against biological, chemical, and mechanical degradation without using toxic, leachable, or corrosive chemicals. Expert researchers provide insightful analyses of the types of chemical modifications applied to polymer cell walls in wood. They emphasize the mechanisms of reaction involved and resulting changes in performance properties including modifications that increase water repellency, fire retardancy, and resistance to ultraviolet light, heat, moisture, mold, and other biological organisms. The text also explores modifications that increase mechanical strength, such as lumen fill, monomer polymer penetration, and plasticization. The Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites concludes with the latest applications, such as adhesives, geotextiles, and sorbents, and future trends in the use of wood-based composites in terms of sustainable agriculture, biodegradability and recycling, and economics. Incorporating decades of teaching experience, the editor of this handbook is well-attuned to educational demands as well as industry standards and research trends.
Author: Vijay Kumar Thakur
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Release Date: 2014-10-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
The book presents emerging economic and environmentally friendly lignocellulosic polymer composites materials that are free from side effects studied in the traditional synthetic materials. This book brings together panels of highly-accomplished leading experts in the field of lignocellulosic polymers & composites from academia, government, as well as research institutions across the globe and encompasses basic studies including preparation, characterization, properties and theory of polymers along with applications addressing new emerging topics of novel issues. Provide basic information and clear understanding of the present state and the growing utility of lignocellulosic materials from different natural resources Includes contributions from world-renowned experts on lignocellulosic polymer composites and discusses the combination of different kinds of lignocellulosic materials from natural resources Discusses the fundamental properties and applications of lignocellulosic polymers in comparison to traditional synthetic materials Explores various processing/ mechanical/ physic-chemical aspects of lignocellulosic polymer composites
Solid wood has been traditionally used as a decking and siding component in the USA and other parts of the world. However, environmental (because of chemical treatment) and performance (loss of value) issues concerning solid wood in those applications have brought about shift to replace solid wood with WPC. The shift is largely due to the perceived-improved properties, low maintenance, and environmentally benign attributes of WPC. However, a growing issue of concern with these products is their long-term weatherability and color stability. Therefore, retaining WPC color for extended periods during outdoor exposure is of importance. Unfortunately, a fundamental knowledge regarding chemical changes, which influence color changes that occur at the surface of WPC during weathering relative to material compositions are limited. In order to develop WPC with improved weathering performance, the chemical changes of the material compositions that are caused by weathering factors are investigated in this study. The outcomes of such an approach would provide basic understanding of WPC weathering that might likely foster research toward production WPC with improved weathering performance. In this study, the effects of outside and accelerated (UVA and xenon-arc) weathering on the color and chemical changes of wood plastic composites (WPC) produced from different plastics, wood species, and modified wood fiber were investigated. Different analytical techniques were employed to monitor color and chemical changes that occurred during weathering, such colorimetry, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (STIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Pyrolysis Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC), and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The outcomes of weathering trials using high density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP) and polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) based WPC with pine wood flour as reinforcement/filler and other additives showed that for both natural and celerated weathering, longer exposure time caused increased color change (and surface lightness), generation of chromophores, surface oxidation, and wood loss on the weathered WPC surface. Understanding of the basic the and color changes of naturally and accelerated weathered WPC suggest that wood lignin was a contributing factor to WPC color change. Therefore, the outcomes of xenon-arc weathered WPC produced from selected wood species showed that WPC formulation with moderated weathering performance (color stability) could be achieved using wood species of low lignin content (such as poplar). In addition, deligninfied wood fiber based WPC especially from HDPE had less color change compared to untreated wood based WPC. This suggests that cellulose fibers from chemical pulps could be used as a fiber source for weather resistant WPC. In all studies conducted, HDPE-based WPC had the least color change and mostly followed by PP and PVC, which could be associated with thermal history.
Graphical abstract: HZSM-5 can be used to catalytic convert Wood Fiber-Polypropylene or Wood Fiber-Polypropylene pyrolysis vapors into aromatic compounds in reasonable selectivities. This provides a recycling utilization WPCs wastes method. Highlights: Converting wood/plastic composites (WPC) wastes into aromatics. Recycling WPC by fast pyrolysis coupled with vapor catalytic cracking. Selective production of aromatics from WPCs and their components over HZSM-5. Acid site concentration inside zeolite was critical for maximizing aromatic yield. Synergistic effects between wood and plastics enhanced aromatics production. Abstract: Wood powder-high density polyethylene (WPE) and wood powder-polypropylene (WPP) composites were pyrolyzed at 550 °C in the presence of HZSM-5 catalysts using analytical pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Immediately passing the pyrolysis vapors through the HZSM-5 changed the product distribution by producing aromatic hydrocarbons and eliminating tar formation. Zeolite HZSM-5 was employed with three different silica-to-alumina ratios (25, 50, 260). The influence of catalysts on the yields of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, furan derivatives, lignin-derived compounds and acetic acid was studied. High yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons formed in WPE or WPP pyrolysis alone. The highest yields of aromatic hydrocarbons from WPE or WPP pyrolysis vapors over HZSM-5 occurred with a zeolite framework Si/Al ratio of 25 (more acid sites), suggesting that the concentration of acid sites inside the zeolite was critical for maximizing aromatic yield. Exposing vapors to HZSM-5 increased the hydrocarbon yields and reduced the amount of acetic acid produced, resulting in increased calorific value. The yields of typical aromatics from catalytic pyrolysis of WPP mixture and composites were higher than those of the calculated values of poplar wood and PP catalytic pyrolysis individually, indicating that a synergistic effect occurred to enhancing aromatic production. Compared to poplar wood/PP mixture, catalytic pyrolysis of the WPP composite generated more multi-ring aromatics and less mono-ring aromatics due to the more complete and thorough mixing achieved by the melt-extrusion process. A general mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis of wood-plastic composites was proposed in the presence of HZSM-5.
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the development of wood–plastic composites (WPC) for use as building materials. Using wood as natural reinforcement in composite materials, instead of mineral reinforcements, has several advantages such as low density, low cost, and less abrasive finish. The natural reinforcements are also non-toxic and recyclable. The wide variety of WPCs makes it difficult to discuss the performance of these composites. In this research, the bubble inflation technique, introduced by Joye et al., is used to study the behaviour of biocomposite materials in cold temperatures. The results of experiments with high-density polyethylene and WPC membranes with 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 wt% of wood fibre, under the combined effect of temperature and pressure are presented. The membranes are tested under the maximum pressure of 18 psi within the temperature range of −50C to +50°C with 25°C increments.