Author: David R. Roediger
Publisher: Hachette UK
Release Date: 2006-08-08
How did immigrants to the United States come to see themselves as white? David R. Roediger has been in the vanguard of the study of race and labor in American history for decades. He first came to prominence as the author of The Wages of Whiteness, a classic study of racism in the development of a white working class in nineteenth-century America. In Working Toward Whiteness, Roediger continues that history into the twentieth century. He recounts how ethnic groups considered white today -- including Jewish-, Italian-, and Polish-Americans -- were once viewed as undesirables by the WASP establishment in the United States. They eventually became part of white America, through the nascent labor movement, New Deal reforms, and a rise in home-buying. Once assimilated as fully white, many of them adopted the racism of those whites who formerly looked down on them as inferior. From ethnic slurs to racially restrictive covenants -- the real estate agreements that ensured all-white neighborhoods -- Roediger explores the mechanisms by which immigrants came to enjoy the privileges of being white in America. A disturbing, necessary, masterful history, Working Toward Whiteness uses the past to illuminate the present. In an introduction to the 2018 edition, Roediger considers the resonance of the book in the age of Trump, showing how Working Toward Whiteness remains as relevant as ever even though most migrants today are not from Europe.
1892 richteten Chicago und New York zum 400-jährigen Jubiläum der Entdeckung Amerikas pompöse Großveranstaltungen aus, die Christoph Kolumbus als US-amerikanischen Nationalhelden und Boten des Fortschritts feierten. 1992 hingegen war in den USA kein Jahr der patriotischen Mega-Events: Indianische, afroamerikanische und umweltpolitische Aktivisten machten mit Protesten auf die langfristigen sozialen, ökonomischen und ökologischen Konsequenzen von 1492 aufmerksam und kritisierten den einseitigen Eurozentrismus der Entdeckungsgeschichte. Was war geschehen? Kathleen Loock rekonstruiert, wie jüdische und italienische Einwanderer Kolumbus seit dem Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts als ethnische Legitimationsfigur reklamiert und so den aktuellen multikulturellen Anti-Mythos vorbereitet haben. Die umfangreiche Studie erschließt eine beeindruckende Fülle an Quellen und leistet einen wegweisenden Beitrag zur Kolumbusforschung und zur multilingualen Aufarbeitung US-amerikanischer Kulturgeschichte.
A Transatlantic Experience The book describes the transatlantic experience of migrants from Imperial Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary who arrived in the US from the middle of the nineteenth century up to the outbreak of WWI. Traditional assumptions of mass migration - such as the rapid and easy Americanization of newly arriving Europeans, as well as their strong desire of retaining as much of native culture as possible - have been challenged by recent historical studies. Multiethnic Groups The socio-economic, demographic, and cultural analyses presented in this book offer a much more differentiated picture of the migrants who struggled for new living space amidst hostile industrial environments. This study breaks new ground by examining migration broadly between the Habsburg Monarchy and North America and return migration to Central Europe, including the study of a variety of ethnic and religious groups who originated in different regions. This book offers a scientific investigation of the circumstances under which Austro-Hungarians migrated to the United States in order to find new opportunities while trying to keep up their traditional values.
Author: Lisa-Marie Rohrdantz
Publisher: Peter Lang
Release Date: 2009
Genre: Social Science
Diese Untersuchung beschaftigt sich mit dem Konzept des "Kritischen Weissseins "als Teil der postkolonialen Theorie und Diskursanalyse. Sie enthalt, neben einem einleitenden historischen und theoretischen Teil, eine umfassende empirische Befragung von uber 200 Menschen afrikanischer Herkunft und "Weissen Deutschen," die in Koln und Berlin durchgefuhrt wurde, sowie eine qualitative Datenerhebung, die vor allem aus Interviews und Beobachtungen besteht. Dabei wird ein differenziertes Bild der interkulturellen Ansichten und Verhaltensweisen der deutschen Gesellschaft bezuglich ihrer Kolonialvergangenheit und der Gegenwart prasentiert. Die Untersuchung leistet ferner einen wichtigen Beitrag zum Verstandnis der Selbst- und Fremdwahrnehmung von Menschen afrikanischer Herkunft und "Weissen Deutschen" in Deutschland und somit fur die interkulturelle Forschung im Allgemeinen. Die wissenschaftliche Analyse des modernen deutschen Weissseinsdiskurses veranschaulicht, dass zahlreiche neokoloniale Diskurse uber Afrika und Menschen afrikanischer Herkunft in Deutschland bis heute unreflektiert fortbestehen."
Author: Giorgio Bertellini
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Release Date: 2010
Giorgio Bertellini traces the origins of American cinema's century-long fascination with Italy and Italian immigrants to the popularity of the pre-photographic aesthetic—the picturesque. Once associated with landscape painting in northern Europe, the picturesque came to symbolize Mediterranean Europe through comforting views of distant landscapes and exotic characters. Showing readers how this aesthetic was transferred from 19th-century American painters to early 20th-century American filmmakers, Bertellini moves from the picturesque in silent films to theGodfathertrilogy, perhaps the definitive example of the picturesque in modern cinema.Italy in Early American Cinemaoffers readings of early films that pay close attention to how landscape representations that were related to narrative settings and filmmaking locations conveyed distinct ideas about racial difference and national destiny.
Author: W. Connell
Release Date: 2010-12-20
Genre: Social Science
There has been an odd reluctance on the part of historians of the Italian American experience to confront the discrimination faced by Italians and Americans of Italian ancestry. This volume is a bold attempt by an esteemed group of scholars and writers to discuss the question openly by charting the historical and cultural boundaries of stereotypes, prejudice, and assimilation. Contributors offer a continuous series of cultural encounters and experiences in television, literature, and film that deserve the attention of anyone interested in the larger themes of American history.
Author: Ta-Nehisi Coates
Publisher: Hanser Berlin
Release Date: 2016-02-01
Genre: Political Science
Wenn in den USA schwarze Teenager von Polizisten ermordet werden, ist das nur ein Problem von individueller Verfehlung? Nein, denn rassistische Gewalt ist fest eingewebt in die amerikanische Identität – sie ist das, worauf das Land gebaut ist. Afroamerikaner besorgten als Sklaven seinen Reichtum und sterben als freie Bürger auf seinen Straßen. In seinem schmerzhaften, leidenschaftlichen Manifest verdichtet Ta-Nehisi Coates amerikanische und persönliche Geschichte zu einem Appell an sein Land, sich endlich seiner Vergangenheit zu stellen. Sein Buch wurde in den USA zum Nr.-1-Bestseller und ist schon jetzt ein Klassiker, auf den sich zukünftig alle Debatten um Rassismus beziehen werden.
Author: Marvin McAllister
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
Release Date: 2011-12-05
Genre: Social Science
In the early 1890s, black performer Bob Cole turned blackface minstrelsy on its head with his nationally recognized whiteface creation, a character he called Willie Wayside. Just over a century later, hiphop star Busta Rhymes performed a whiteface supercop in his hit music video "Dangerous." In this sweeping work, Marvin McAllister explores the enduring tradition of "whiting up," in which African American actors, comics, musicians, and even everyday people have studied and assumed white racial identities. Not to be confused with racial "passing" or derogatory notions of "acting white," whiting up is a deliberate performance strategy designed to challenge America's racial and political hierarchies by transferring supposed markers of whiteness to black bodies--creating unexpected intercultural alliances even as it sharply critiques racial stereotypes. Along with conventional theater, McAllister considers a variety of other live performance modes, including weekly promenading rituals, antebellum cakewalks, solo performance, and standup comedy. For over three centuries, whiting up as allowed African American artists to appropriate white cultural production, fashion new black identities through these "white" forms, and advance our collective ability to locate ourselves in others.
Author: Philip Kretsedemas
Publisher: Columbia University Press
Release Date: 2012-02-07
In the debate over U. S. immigration, all sides now support policy and practice that expand the parameters of enforcement. Philip Kretsedemas examines this development from several different perspectives, exploring recent trends in U.S. immigration policy, the rise in extralegal state power over the course of the twentieth century, and discourses on race, nation, and cultural difference that have influenced politics and academia. He also analyzes the recent expansion of local immigration law and explains how forms of extralegal discretionary authority have become more prevalent in federal immigration policy, making the dispersion of local immigration laws possible. While connecting such extralegal state powers to a free flow position on immigration, Kretsedemas also observes how these same discretionary powers have been used historically to control racial minority populations, particularly African Americans under Jim Crow. This kind of discretionary authority often appeals to "states rights" arguments, recently revived by immigration control advocates. Using these and other examples, Kretsedemas explains how both sides of the immigration debate have converged on the issue of enforcement and how, despite differing interests, each faction has shaped the commonsense assumptions defining the debate.
Author: Gordon K. Mantler
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Release Date: 2013-02-25
Genre: Social Science
The Poor People's Campaign of 1968 has long been overshadowed by the assassination of its architect, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., and the political turmoil of that year. In a major reinterpretation of civil rights and Chicano movement history, Gordon K. Mantler demonstrates how King's unfinished crusade became the era's most high-profile attempt at multiracial collaboration and sheds light on the interdependent relationship between racial identity and political coalition among African Americans and Mexican Americans. Mantler argues that while the fight against poverty held great potential for black-brown cooperation, such efforts also exposed the complex dynamics between the nation's two largest minority groups. Drawing on oral histories, archives, periodicals, and FBI surveillance files, Mantler paints a rich portrait of the campaign and the larger antipoverty work from which it emerged, including the labor activism of Cesar Chavez, opposition of Black and Chicano Power to state violence in Chicago and Denver, and advocacy for Mexican American land-grant rights in New Mexico. Ultimately, Mantler challenges readers to rethink the multiracial history of the long civil rights movement and the difficulty of sustaining political coalitions.
Author: Kevin R. Johnson
Publisher: NYU Press
Release Date: 2007-10-01
Seeking to re-imagine the meaning and significance of the international border, Opening the Floodgates makes a case for eliminating the border as a legal construct that impedes the movement of people into this country. Open migration policies deserve fuller analysis, as evidenced by President Barack Obama’s pledge to make immigration reform a priority. Kevin R. Johnson offers an alternative vision of how U.S. borders might be reconfigured, grounded in moral, economic, and policy arguments for open borders. Importantly, liberalizing migration through an open borders policy would recognize that the enforcement of closed borders cannot stifle the strong, perhaps irresistible, economic, social, and political pressures that fuel international migration. Controversially, Johnson suggests that open borders are entirely consistent with efforts to prevent terrorism that have dominated immigration enforcement since the events of September 11, 2001. More liberal migration, he suggests, would allow for full attention to be paid to the true dangers to public safety and national security.
Author: Greg Carter
Publisher: NYU Press
Release Date: 2013-04-22
Genre: Social Science
Barack Obama’s historic presidency has re-inserted mixed race into the national conversation. While the troubled and pejorative history of racial amalgamation throughout U.S. history is a familiar story, The United States of the United Races reconsiders an understudied optimist tradition, one which has praised mixture as a means to create a new people, bring equality to all, and fulfill an American destiny. In this genealogy, Greg Carter re-envisions racial mixture as a vehicle for pride and a way for citizens to examine mixed America as a better America. Tracing the centuries-long conversation that began with Hector St. John de Crevecoeur’s Letters of an American Farmer in the 1780s through to the Mulitracial Movement of the 1990s and the debates surrounding racial categories on the U.S. Census in the twenty-first century, Greg Carter explores a broad range of documents and moments, unearthing a new narrative that locates hope in racial mixture. Carter traces the reception of the concept as it has evolved over the years, from and decade to decade and century to century, wherein even minor changes in individual attitudes have paved the way for major changes in public response. The United States of the United Races sweeps away an ugly element of U.S. history, replacing it with a new understanding of race in America.
Author: Peter Kivisto
Release Date: 2009-12-08
Genre: Social Science
The most up-to-date analysis of today's immigration issues As the authors state in Chapter 1, "the movement of people across national borders represents one of the most vivid dramas of social reality in the contemporary world." This comparative text examines contemporary immigration across the globe, focusing on 20 major nations. Noted scholars Peter Kivisto and Thomas Faist introduce students to important topics of inquiry at the heart of the field, including Movement: Explores the theories of migration using a historical perspective of the modern world. Settlement: Provides clarity concerning the controversial matter of immigrant incorporation and refers to the varied ways immigrants come to be a part of a new society. Control: Focuses on the politics of immigration and examines the role of states in shaping how people choose to migrate. Key Features Provides comprehensive coverage of topics not covered in other texts, such as state and immigration control, focusing on policies created to control migratory flow and evolving views of citizenship Offers a global portrait of contemporary immigration, including a demographic overview of today's cross-border movers Offers critical assessments of the achievements of the field to date Encourages students to rethink traditional views about the distinction between citizen and alien in this global age Suggests paths for future research and new theoretical developments
Author: Jay Riley Case
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Release Date: 2012-01-02
The astonishing growth of Christianity in the global South over the course of the twentieth century has sparked an equally rapid growth in studies of ''World Christianity,'' which have dismantled the notion that Christianity is a Western religion. What, then, are we to make of the waves of Western missionaries who have, for centuries, been evangelizing in the global South? Were they merely, as many have argued, agents of imperialism out to impose Western values? In An Unpredictable Gospel, Jay Case examines the efforts of American evangelical missionaries in light of this new scholarship. He argues that if they were agents of imperialism, they were poor ones. Western missionaries had a dismal record of converting non-Westerners to Christianity. The ministries that were most successful were those that empowered the local population and adapted to local cultures. In fact, influence often flowed the other way, with missionaries serving as conduits for ideas that shaped American evangelicalism. Case traces these currents and sheds new light on the relationship between Western and non-Western Christianities.
In the nineteenth century, nearly all Native American men living along the southern New England coast made their living traveling the world's oceans on whaleships. Many were career whalemen, spending twenty years or more at sea. Their labor invigorated economically depressed reservations with vital income and led to complex and surprising connections with other Indigenous peoples, from the islands of the Pacific to the Arctic Ocean. At home, aboard ship, or around the world, Native American seafarers found themselves in a variety of situations, each with distinct racial expectations about who was "Indian" and how "Indians" behaved. Treated by their white neighbors as degraded dependents incapable of taking care of themselves, Native New Englanders nevertheless rose to positions of command at sea. They thereby complicated myths of exploration and expansion that depicted cultural encounters as the meeting of two peoples, whites and Indians. Highlighting the shifting racial ideologies that shaped the lives of these whalemen, Nancy Shoemaker shows how the category of "Indian" was as fluid as the whalemen were mobile.