Author: World Trade Organization
Release Date: 2011-07
Genre: Business & Economics
The ever-growing number of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) is a prominent feature of international trade. The World Trade Report 2011 describes the historical development of PTAs and the current landscape of agreements. It examines why PTAs are established, their economic effects, and the contents of the agreements themselves. Finally it considers the interaction between PTAs and the multilateral trading system. Accumulated trade opening - at the multilateral, regional and unilateral level - has reduced the scope for offering preferential tariffs under PTAs. As a result, only a small fraction of global merchandise trade receives preferences and preferential tariffs are becoming less important in PTAs. The report reveals that more and more PTAs are going beyond preferential tariffs, with numerous non-tariff areas of a regulatory nature being included in the agreements. Global production networks may be prompting the emergence of these "deep" PTAs as good governance on a range of regulatory areas is far more important to these networks than further reductions in already low tariffs. Econometric evidence and case studies support this link between production networks and deep PTAs. The report ends by examining the challenge that deep PTAs present to the multilateral trading system and proposes a number of options for increasing coherence between these agreements and the trading system regulated by the WTO.
Author: Frank Schäffler
Publisher: FinanzBuch Verlag
Release Date: 2017-11-13
Genre: Business & Economics
TTIP, CETA, JEFTA: So komplex und angsteinflößend wie die kryptischen Kürzel der Globalisierung klingen, ist Freihandel gar nicht. Auch wenn in der Bevölkerung oftmals Ängste und Befürchtungen überwiegen, bietet ein freier Handel zwischen Ländern weit mehr Chancen, als uns die Kritiker glauben machen wollen – gerade auch für die Benachteiligten. Der uneingeschränkte internationale Handel ermöglicht Wohlstand für alle. Er fördert das Wachstum der inländischen Wirtschaft, eine bessere wirtschaftliche Vernetzung weltweit, eine größere Produktvielfalt im heimischen Supermarkt und sogar die Bekämpfung von Armut in Dritte-Welt- und Schwellenländern. Nicht zuletzt hat der Abbau von Zöllen und Handelsbeschränkungen mehr zur Bekämpfung der Armut auf dieser Welt beigetragen als sämtliche Entwicklungshilfe-Milliarden und alle Demonstrationen gegen die vorgeblich unmenschliche Globalisierung. Hochkarätige Autoren aus Wissenschaft, Wirtschaft und Politik brechen in Freihandel für eine gerechtere Welt eine Lanze für den Freihandel, beseitigen Missverständnisse und zeigen an einer Vielzahl von Beispielen, dass die Öffnung von Märkten sehr viel menschlicher ist als eine Politik der Abschottung.
Turkey’s position in transatlantic alliances goes back in the 1950s. Turkish Foreign Policy “Fresh Look” was launched just prior to the failed coup d’etat last July, and was intended to mend ties with its neighbors with whom Turkey has strained relationships. Turkey’s new pragmatic reconciliation policy strives to build bridges without damaging existing transatlantic alliance. The goal of developing good relations with its neighbors that surround the Mediterranean and the Black sea, presents Turkey with a number of challenges. Turkey is seen as a bridge between West and East due to its geographic location. This volume intends to shed more light into past, present and future Turkey-Transatlantic relations, focusing on a history of Turkey-Transatlantic relations, the impact of current developments in Turkey and its neighbors, and Turkish domestic and foreign policies in Transatlantic relations. Authors include: Hülya Kevser Akdemir, Serdar Altay, Altay Atlı, Enes bayraklı, Münevver Cebeci, Filiz Cicioğlu, Şükrü Cicioğlu, İsmail Çağlar, Beril Dedeoğlu, Mehmet Uğur Ekinci, Emre Erşen, Tea Ivanovic, Donald N. Jensen, Edward P. Joseph, Kılıç Buğra Kanat, Erdal Tanas Karagöl, Christina Lin, Jennifer Miel, Nona Mikhelidze, Çiğdem Nas, Aslı Şirin Öner, Yonca Özer, Nicolò Sartori, Merve Seren, Eduard Soler i Lecha, Melike Janine Sökmen, Sasha Toperich, Aylin Ünver Noi, Alida Vračić, and Murat Yerlitaş
Author: William J. Davey
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Release Date: 2012-07-04
Genre: Social Science
International trade is conducted mainly under the rules of the World Trade Organization. Its non-discrimination rules are of fundamental importance. In essence, they require WTO members not to discriminate amongst products of other WTO members in trade matters (the mostfavoured- nation rule) and, subject to permitted market-access limitations, not to discriminate against products of other WTO members in favour of domestic products (the national treatment rule). The interpretation of these rules is quite difficult. Their reach is potentially so broad that it has been felt that they should be limited by a number of exceptions, some of which also present interpretative difficulties. Indeed, one of the principal conundrums faced by WTO dispute settlement is how to strike the appropriate balance between the rules and exceptions. Davey explores the background and justification for the non-discrimination rules and examines how the rules and the exceptions have been interpreted in WTO dispute settlement. He gives considerable attention to whether the exceptions give sufficient discretion to WTO members to pursue their legitimate non-trade policy goals.
Author: Christoph Herrmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2013-04-02
Part one of Volume 4 (2013) of the European Yearbook of International Economic Law offers a special focus on recent developments in international competition policy and law. International competition law has only begun to emerge as a distinct subfield of international economic law in recent years, even though international agreements on competition co-operation date back to the 1970s. Competition law became a prominent subject of political and academic debates in the late 1990s when competition and trade were discussed as one of the Singapore issues in the WTO. Today, international competition law is a complex and multi-layered system of rules and principles encompassing not only the external application of domestic competition law and traditional bilateral co-operation agreements, but also competition provisions in regional trade agreements and non-binding guidelines and standards. Furthermore, the relevance of competition law for developing countries and the relationship between competition law and public services are the subject of heated debates. The contributions to this volume reflect the growing diversity of the issues and elements of international competition law. Part two presents analytical reports on the developments of the regional integration processes in North America, Central Africa and Southeast Asia as well as on the treaty practice of the European Union. Part three covers the legal and political developments in major international organizations that deal with international economic law, namely the IMF, WCO, WTO, WIPO, ICSID and UNCTAD. Lastly, part four offers book reviews of recent works in the field of international economic law.
Author: Albert Park
Release Date: 2013
Genre: Business & Economics
Global value chains (GVCs) have been a feature of the international economic architecture for many years, but scholarly interest in the phenomenon is more recent. Today that interest is intense, emanating from an array of academic disciplines as well as from the policy world. The literature that attempts to understand and explain GVCs is vast, multidisciplinary and no less complex than the phenomenon itself. This volume, jointly produced by the Fung Global Institute and the World Trade Organization, is an attempt to capture the core features and themes of the exploding literature on GVCs. Contents Part I. Supply Chain Perspectives 1. Supply chains in the economics literature 2. Supply chains in the business literature Part II. Supply Chain Issues 3. Supply chains and offshoring 4. Supply chains, upgrading and development 5. Supply chains and risk 6. Supply chains and SMEs 7. Supply chains and services 8. Supply chains and trade in value-added 9. Supply chains and business models 10. Supply chains and sustainability 11. Supply chains and trade policy 12. Supply chains and trade finance
Author: United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa
Publisher: United Nations Publications
Release Date: 2012
Genre: Political Science
This publication assesses long-term trends in Africa's growth, analyses the factors behind the recent growth momentum, and provides global perspectives on the key challenges to be addressed, which are critical to unleashing the role of Africa as a global growth pole. The main aim of this publication is to facilitate discussion on concrete policy directions and actions at both national and regional levels that would help Africa realize its growth potential. As in previous editions, the first part of the report examines recent economic and social developments as well as some selected current and emerging development issues in Africa. The second part focuses on the question of how to address key constraints and unleash the potential of the continent as a new pole of global growth.
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org
Release Date: 2012-06-30
Genre: Technology & Engineering
This edition of The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture highlights the vital role of fisheries and aquaculture in both food and nutrition security as well as economic expansion. The sector remains a major supplier of high-quality animal protein and supports the livelihoods and well-being of more than ten percent of the world's population. International trade in fish has reached new peaks as overall production has continued to rise. Yet, as the document underlines, an array of problems--ranging from the need for more effective governance to that of ensuring environmental sustainability--threatens to undermine the sector's valuable contribution to alleviating hunger and reducing poverty. Using the latest available statistics on fisheries and aquaculture, this edition presents a global analysis of the sector's status and trends.
Author: Anna Maria Ferragina
Release Date: 2014
Genre: Business & Economics
This book is about the relationship between firm dynamics, innovation and globalization, the processes that are essential for long term economic growth and welfare creation. This volume deals with these three issues in three sections titled respectively: entrepreneurship, new firm formation and growth; productivity-innovation-growthnexus; globalization, multinational firms and producers' dynamics. The book presents new studies written by distinguished researchers in the field, who use state-of-the-art methodologies and extensive sources of firm- and plant-level longitudinal data to analyze and understand these major economic issues facing modern economies. In the first section, the book proposes two comprehensive introductory surveys which explore in detail the underpinnings of entrepreneurship, new firm formation and growth in advanced and developing countries. The second fundamental issue, productivity-innovation and firm dynamics, is approached by examining key drivers of selection mechanisms such as size, scale elasticity, innovative efforts, financial fragility of the firms, barriers to entry and exit, capital and financial market distortions, institutional inefficiencies and other market imperfections which affect the ability of firms to expand or enter. The third section examines differences, linkages and intertwined evolution of foreign and domestic firms in their dynamics of survival and growth in different institutional contexts and periods. Each chapter includes a detailed discussion of the implications of the respective analyses for enterprise policy. In a concluding chapter the overall implications for enterprise policy of the analyses presented in the different chapters are drawn by the Editors. This approach ensures that the book is integrated around a coherent central theme in comprehensive framework. The book responds to a growing concern among scholars, professionals, and policy makers over the recent decades about firm ability to survive and compete in a context of increasing globalization and international competition. The approach adopted is both theoretical and empirical with consideration of paradigmatic case studies in Europe, Africa and Asia, providing new evidence on developed, developing and transition economies in a comparative perspective. The cases selected represent different levels of development, different firms strategies and paths, with distinct outcomes. The book is an essential reading for scholars and students concerned with industry development, public policy and globalization, as well as to all those involved professionally in such issues.
Der Sammelband liefert einen Überblick der deutschsprachigen Diskussion der Internationalen Politischen Ökonomie und wirft die Frage auf, ob sich durch die Weltfinanzkrise theoretisch-konzeptionelle, regionale und themenfeldspezifische einschneidende Veränderungen für die Forschung ergeben. Dabei wird klar, dass sich die Weltfinanzkrise sowohl auf die verschiedenen Weltregionen als auch auf unterschiedliche Politikbereiche spezifisch auswirkt.