Operation Linebacker II 1972

Author: Marshall Michel III
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781472827593
Release Date: 2018-09-20
Genre: History

After the failed April 1972 invasion of South Vietnam and the heavy US tactical bombing raids in the Hanoi area, the North Vietnamese agreed to return to the Paris peace talks, yet very quickly these negotiations stalled. In an attempt to end the war quickly and 'persuade' the North Vietnamese to return to the negotiating table, President Nixon ordered the Air Force to send the US' ultimate conventional weapon, the B-52 bomber, against their capital, Hanoi. Bristling with the latest Soviet air defence missiles, it was the most heavily defended target in Vietnam. Taking place in late December, this campaign was soon dubbed the 'Christmas Bombings'. Using specially commissioned artwork and maps, ex-USAF fighter colonel Marshall Michel describes Linebacker II, the climax of the air war over Vietnam, and history's only example of how America's best Cold War bombers performed against contemporary Soviet air defences.

Vietnam s Final Air Campaign

Author: Stephen Emerson
Publisher: Pen & Sword Military
ISBN: 1526728451
Release Date: 2019-01-21

On March 30, 1972 some 30,000 North Vietnamese troops along with tanks and heavy artillery surged across the demilitarized zone into South Vietnam in the opening round of Hanoi's Easter Offensive. By early May South Vietnamese forces were on the ropes and faltering. Without the support of U.S. combat troops - who were in their final stage of withdrawing from the country - the Saigon government was in danger of total collapse and with it any American hope of a negotiated settlement to the war. In response, President Richard Nixon called for an aggressive, sustained bombardment of North Vietnam. Code-named Operation Linebacker I, the interdiction effort sought to stem the flow of men and material southward, as well as sever all outside supply lines in the first new bombing of the North Vietnamese heartland in nearly four years. To meet the American air armada, North Vietnamese MiG fighters took to the skies and surface-to-missiles and anti-aircraft fire filled the air from May to October over Hanoi and Haiphong.With the failure of its Easter Offensive to achieve military victory, Hanoi reluctantly returned to the negotiating table in Paris. However, as the peace talks teetered on the edge of collapse in mid-December 1972, Nixon played his trump card: Operation Linebacker II. The resulting twelve-day Christmas bombing campaign from 18-30 December unleashed the full wrath of American air power. More than 2,200 attack sorties, including 724 B-52 sorties alone, were flown by Air Force and Navy aircraft delivering 15,287 tons of bombs that laid waste to the North Vietnamese capital. Railyards, military storage depots, power stations, and bridges, as well as radar and communication sites, airfields, and anti-aircraft defenses were pummelled day and night. Linebacker II would prove to be decisive: a ceasefire agreement was signed on 23 January 1973.

Operation Linebacker I 1972

Author: Marshall Michel III
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 9781472827555
Release Date: 2019-01-24
Genre: History

At Easter 1972, North Vietnam invaded the South, and there were almost no US ground troops left to stop it. But air power reinforcements could be rushed to the theater. Operation Linebacker's objective was to destroy the invading forces from the air and cut North Vietnam's supply routes – and luckily in 1972, American air power was beginning a revolution in both technology and tactics. Most crucial was the introduction of the first effective laser-guided bombs, but the campaign also involved the fearsome AC-130 gunship and saw the debut of helicopter-mounted TOW missiles. Thanks to the new Top Gun fighter school, US naval aviators now also had a real advantage over the MiGs. This is the fascinating story of arguably the world's first “modern” air campaign. It explains how this complex operation – involving tactical aircraft, strategic bombers, close air support and airlift – defeated the invasion. It also explains the shortcomings of the campaign, the contrasting approaches of the USAF and Navy, and the impact that Linebacker had on modern air warfare.

Hanoi s War

Author: Lien-Hang T. Nguyen
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807882696
Release Date: 2012-07-15
Genre: History

While most historians of the Vietnam War focus on the origins of U.S. involvement and the Americanization of the conflict, Lien-Hang T. Nguyen examines the international context in which North Vietnamese leaders pursued the war and American intervention ended. This riveting narrative takes the reader from the marshy swamps of the Mekong Delta to the bomb-saturated Red River Delta, from the corridors of power in Hanoi and Saigon to the Nixon White House, and from the peace negotiations in Paris to high-level meetings in Beijing and Moscow, all to reveal that peace never had a chance in Vietnam. Hanoi's War renders transparent the internal workings of America's most elusive enemy during the Cold War and shows that the war fought during the peace negotiations was bloodier and much more wide ranging than it had been previously. Using never-before-seen archival materials from the Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as materials from other archives around the world, Nguyen explores the politics of war-making and peace-making not only from the North Vietnamese perspective but also from that of South Vietnam, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States, presenting a uniquely international portrait.

Who Are Those Guys

Author: Thomas Mangan
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 9781496935519
Release Date: 2014-08-30
Genre: Biography & Autobiography

Who Are Those Guys can be used as a handbook for people who don’t know anyone whose name is on the Wall, the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. It is also an excellent resource for schoolchildren who visit the Wall during a class trip to Washington. Walking along the Wall looking for the name of someone you know is a totally different experience from just walking along the Wall. Before you go to the Wall, or the Travelling Wall, look through the stories in Who Are Those Guys until someone’s name, story, place of residence, or birthday catches your attention. Who Are Those Guys gives you the opportunity to learn something about someone whose name is on the Wall, so that when you walk along the Wall, you will be looking for the name of someone you know, instead of just walking along the Wall.

When the Wolf Rises

Author: Colonel G. Alan Dugard
Publisher: AuthorHouse
ISBN: 9781468525366
Release Date: 2012-01-04
Genre: History

When the wolf rises was a term used by Theodore Roosevelt to describe "Fear" as experienced in life situations, to include combat and other extreme happenings. This term is applied to the role of the B-52s and the effect on the crews, flying out of the island of Guam and from U-Tapao, Thailand during the eleven days starting on December 18th, 1972. This personal account is a graphic description on the results of those raids from a commander of a B-52 squadron during the raids which led to the end of the Vietnam War and its aftermath.

Vietnam War

Author: James H. Willbanks
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 9781610691031
Release Date: 2013
Genre: History

The Vietnam War was one of America's longest, bloodiest, and most controversial wars. This volume examines the complexities of this protracted conflict and explains why the lessons learned in Vietnam are still highly relevant today. * More than 45 contributors, including Robert K. Brigham, Cecil B. Currey, Arnold R. Isaacs, Lewis Sorley, Spencer C. Tucker, and David T. Zabecki * Introductory essays provide a broad overview of the Vietnam War and help readers understand the causes and consequences of the conflict * Maps depicting South Vietnam, infiltration routes, and key battles

The Strategic Significance of Linebacker II

Author: Phillip S. Michael
ISBN: OCLC:52550079
Release Date: 2003
Genre: Bombing, Aerial

President Nixon enjoyed a solid reelection victory in 1972. Even so, he faced an imminent cutoff of funds for the Vietnam War, so he needed a decision strategy to end the war in a short period of time. This SRP will describe the instrument of national power he chose to fulfill that objective-the strategic bombing campaign named LINEBACKER II. The campaign illustrates the application of military power to achieve a political goal. This study describes the evolution of U.S. strategy leading up to the campaign, the strategy of the campaign, and the consequences of that strategy. Conducted 30 years ago, LINEBACKER II offers an excellent case study on how the Air Force incorporates historical experience into its air power doctrine. Two opposing interpretations of the success of LINEBACKER II have influenced Air Force Doctrine. The first, or traditional interpretation examines the operation as the example of how air power should have been used throughout the war. This consensus interpretation dominated the Air Force's view of LINEBACKER II until the late 1980s, when more critical or revisionist interpretations began to appear. This study assesses both the traditional and revisionist interpretations of LINEBACKER II. Finally, it examines the doctrinal implications of LINEBACKER II on current doctrine and air operations.

Linebacker II

Author: James R. McCarthy
Publisher: Department of the Air Force
ISBN: 0999331701
Release Date: 2018-05-15
Genre: Hanoi (Vietnam)

Originally published: Maxwell Air Force Base, Ala.: Airpower Research Institute, Air War College, 1979.

The Nixon Tapes

Author: Douglas Brinkley
Publisher: HMH
ISBN: 9780544542693
Release Date: 2014-08-12
Genre: History

An enhanced edition of this “fascinating” collection of White House transcripts, including audio clips of some of the most newsworthy conversations (San Francisco Chronicle). This “treasure trove” of transcripts documents two years of Richard Nixon’s presidency and takes you directly inside the White House, through the famous—and infamous—Nixon White House tapes that reveal for the first time the president uncensored, unfiltered, and in his own words (TheBoston Globe). President Nixon’s voice-activated taping system captured every word spoken in the Oval Office, Cabinet Room, other key locations in the White House, and at Camp David—3,700 hours of recordings between 1971 and 1973. Yet less than five percent of those conversations have ever been transcribed and published. Now, thanks to historian Luke Nichter’s massive effort to digitize and transcribe the tapes, the world can finally read an unprecedented account of one of the most important and controversial presidencies in US history. This volume of The Nixon Tapes offers a selection of fascinating scenes from the period in which Nixon opened relations with China, negotiated the SALT I arms agreement with the Soviet Union, and won a landslide reelection victory. All the while, the growing shadow of Watergate and Nixon’s political downfall crept ever closer. The Nixon Tapes provides a never-before-seen glimpse into a flawed president’s hubris, paranoia, and political genius—“essential for students of the era and fascinating for those who lived it” (Kirkus Reviews, starred review).

The Air Force Way of War

Author: Brian D. Laslie
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
ISBN: 9780813160856
Release Date: 2015-06-03
Genre: History

On December 18, 1972, more than one hundred U.S. B-52 bombers flew over North Vietnam to initiate Operation Linebacker II. During the next eleven days, sixteen of these planes were shot down and another four suffered heavy damage. These losses soon proved so devastating that Strategic Air Command was ordered to halt the bombing. The U.S. Air Force's poor performance in this and other operations during Vietnam was partly due to the fact that they had trained their pilots according to methods devised during World War II and the Korean War, when strategic bombers attacking targets were expected to take heavy losses. Warfare had changed by the 1960s, but the USAF had not adapted. Between 1972 and 1991, however, the Air Force dramatically changed its doctrines and began to overhaul the way it trained pilots through the introduction of a groundbreaking new training program called "Red Flag." In The Air Force Way of War, Brian D. Laslie examines the revolution in pilot instruction that Red Flag brought about after Vietnam. The program's new instruction methods were dubbed "realistic" because they prepared pilots for real-life situations better than the simple cockpit simulations of the past, and students gained proficiency on primary and secondary missions instead of superficially training for numerous possible scenarios. In addition to discussing the program's methods, Laslie analyzes the way its graduates actually functioned in combat during the 1980s and '90s in places such as Grenada, Panama, Libya, and Iraq. Military historians have traditionally emphasized the primacy of technological developments during this period and have overlooked the vital importance of advances in training, but Laslie's unprecedented study of Red Flag addresses this oversight through its examination of the seminal program.

Air War Over North Vietnam

Author: Stephen Emerson
Publisher: Pen & Sword Books
ISBN: 1526708221
Release Date: 2018-02

In early 1965 the United States unleashed the largest sustained aerial bombing campaign since World War II, against North Vietnam. Through an ever escalating onslaught of destruction, Operation Rolling Thunder intended to signal America's unwavering commitment to its South Vietnamese ally in the face of continued North Vietnamese aggression, break Hanoi's political will to prosecute the war, and bring about a negotiated settlement to the conflict. It was not to be. Against the backdrop of the Cold War and fears of widening the conflict into a global confrontation, Washington policy makers micromanaged and mismanaged the air campaign and increasingly muddled strategic objectives and operational methods that ultimately sowed the seeds of failure, despite the heroic sacrifices by U.S. Air Force and Navy pilots and crews Despite flying some 306,000 combat sorties and dropping 864,000 tons of ordnance on North Vietnam - 42 per cent more than that used in the Pacific theater during World War II - Operation Rolling Thunder failed to drive Hanoi decisively to the negotiating table and end the war. That would take another four years and another air campaign. But by building on the hard earned political and military lessons of the past, the Nixon Administration and American military commanders would get another chance to prove themselves when they implemented operations Linebacker I and II in May and December 1972\. And this time the results would be vastly different.