The Books of Enoch Jubilees and Jasher

Author: Derek Shaver
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 1494420341
Release Date: 2013-12-08
Genre:

[LARGE PRINT] The Books of Enoch, Jubilees, and Jasher together in one volume in large print (12 point type) *Enoch- Is derived from the R.H. Charles translation of The Book of Enoch reprinted and published under that name in 1917 with reworked verse numbers (Usually at sentence beginnings) for a more uniform pattern and more fluent reading experience. *Jubilees- Is derived from the R.H. Charles translation of The Book of Jubilees, or the Little Genesis reprinted and published under that name in 1917 excluding the [Anno Mundi] date stamps, for a more uniform pattern and more fluent reading experience. *Jasher- Is derived from the texts of The Book of Jasher Published By J.H. Parry & Company 1887 the Translator of the text is unknown to the editor.

Enoch Jubilees Jasher

Author: Joseph Lumpkin
Publisher: Fifth Estate Publishing
ISBN: 1936533448
Release Date: 2014
Genre:

Three of the most popular and sought after apocryphal books are now presented in a single volume. - The Book of Enoch is quoted by Jude, cited by Peter, and read by the apostles, Enoch (1 Enoch) informs our ideas of angels and demons. The book describes the fall of a group of angels called, the Watchers, who took the daughters of men as wives and fathered the Nephilim (Genesis 6: 1-2). Enoch goes on to record amazing visions of heaven and the workings thereof. Enoch is an ancient Jewish religious work, traditionally ascribed to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah. It is regarded as canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. - The Book of Jubilees, also known as The Little Genesis and The Apocalypse of Moses, opens with an extraordinary claim of authorship. It is attributed to the very hand of Moses; penned while he was on Mount Sinai, as an angel of God dictated to him regarding those events that transpired from the beginning of the world. The story is written from the viewpoint of the angel. The angelic monolog takes place after the exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt. The setting is atop Mount Sinai, where Moses was summoned by God. The text then unfolds as the angel reveals heaven's viewpoint of history. We are lead through the creation of man, Adam's fall from grace, the union of fallen angels and earthly women, the birth of demonic offspring, the cleansing of the earth by flood, and the astonishing claim that man's very nature was somehow changed, bringing about a man with less sinful qualities than his antediluvian counterpart. The story goes on to fill in many details in Israel's history, ending at the point in time when the dictation began on the mount. - The Book of Jasher reveals a large quantity of additional information about the period between divine creation and the time of Joshua's leadership over Israel when the Israelites enter into the land of Canaan. The Book of Jasher includes details about the antediluvian patriarchs, angels, watchers, the flood, the tower of Babel, and many other events mentioned in the Bible. The tales are expanded and infused with detail not previously available. This means we receive insight into the lives of Abraham, Noah, Enoch, Joseph, and many other biblical figures. We come to understand how they became great and why they acted as they did. We are also given hitherto unknown knowledge of historical events. We are shown how God's hand shaped history through his love and anger. We see how his disappointment with men and angels ended in earth's near total destruction.

The Complete Apocrypha with Enoch Jasher and Jubilees

Author: Enoch
Publisher:
ISBN: 1729738788
Release Date: 2018-11-13
Genre:

The Complete Apocrypha: with Enoch, Jasher, and JubileesThe Book of Enoch is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, although modern scholars estimate the older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) to date from about 300 BC, and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably to the first century BC. It is not part of the biblical canon as used by Jews, apart from Beta Israel. Most Christian denominations and traditions may accept the Books of Enoch as having some historical or theological interest, but they generally regard the Books of Enoch as non-canonical or non-inspired. It is regarded as canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, but not by any other Christian groups.The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division . Jubilees is considered one of the pseudepigrapha by Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches. It was well known to Early Christians, as evidenced by the writings of Epiphanius, Justin Martyr, Origen, Diodorus of Tarsus, Isidore of Alexandria, Isidore of Seville, Eutychius of Alexandria, John Malalas, George Syncellus, and George Kedrenos. The book was the major canonical literature of the ancient Jewish community indicated by the dominance of the number of copies found amongst all that were originally collected the Dead Sea Scrolls. No complete Hebrew, Greek or Latin version is known to have survived. The Book of Jubilees claims to present "the history of the division of the days of the Law, of the events of the years, the year-weeks, and the jubilees of the world" as revealed to Moses (in addition to the Torah or "Instruction") by angels while he was on Mount Sinai for forty days and forty nights. The chronology given in Jubilees is based on multiples of seven; the jubilees are periods of 49 years, seven "year-weeks", into which all of time has been divided.The Book of Jasher (also, Jashar) or the Book of the Upright or the Book of the Just Man is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The translation "Book of the Just Man" is the traditional Greek and Latin translation, while the transliterated form "Jasher" is found in the King James Bible, 1611. According to the Medieval Jewish scholar Rashi, Sefer HaYashar refers to the Pentateuch, as a fulfillment of Jacob's prophecy regarding Ephraim - "His seed will fill the nations" (Gen. 48:19) - and that this prophecy refers to Joshua's renown after the miracle of the standing of the sun.

The Apocrypha

Author:
Publisher:
ISBN: 1936533626
Release Date: 2019-01-10
Genre:

1 Esdras,2 Esdras,1 Maccabees,2 Maccabees,3 Maccabees,4 Maccabees,Letter (Epistle) of Jeremiah,The Prayer of Azariah,Baruch,Prayer of Manasseh (Manassas),Bel and the Dragon,Wisdom of Sirach,Wisdom of Solomon,Additions to Esther,Tobit,Judith,Susanna,Psalm 151,Enoch,Jubilees,1 Clements,Shepherd of Hermas,Book of Jasher,An Overview of Books

Enoch Jubilees and Jasher with Complete Apocrypha

Author: Derek Shaver
Publisher:
ISBN: 1081322578
Release Date: 2019-07-18
Genre:

A Collection of 30 Old Testament Apocryphal books such as The Books of Enoch, Jubilees, and Jasher, The Authorized King James Apocrypha, The Psalms and Odes of Solomon, along with many other worthwhile extra-canonical Biblical books (Full Book list below). The texts were carefully reformatted and reproduced to provide the reader with a comprehensive collection of the most critical lost, rejected, and forgotten books of the Bible. In an effort to build an all-in-one volume of these texts; we present to you the Ultimate Apocrypha Collection.

The Complete Apocrypha 2018 Edition with Enoch Jasher and Jubilees

Author: Enoch
Publisher:
ISBN: 1093411473
Release Date: 2019-04-09
Genre:

The Complete Apocrypha: with Enoch, Jasher, and JubileesThe Book of Enoch is an ancient Jewish religious work, ascribed by tradition to Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah, although modern scholars estimate the older sections (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) to date from about 300 BC, and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably to the first century BC. It is not part of the biblical canon as used by Jews, apart from Beta Israel. Most Christian denominations and traditions may accept the Books of Enoch as having some historical or theological interest, but they generally regard the Books of Enoch as non-canonical or non-inspired. It is regarded as canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, but not by any other Christian groups.The Book of Jubilees, sometimes called Lesser Genesis (Leptogenesis), is an ancient Jewish religious work of 50 chapters, considered canonical by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church as well as Beta Israel (Ethiopian Jews), where it is known as the Book of Division . Jubilees is considered one of the pseudepigrapha by Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox Churches. It was well known to Early Christians, as evidenced by the writings of Epiphanius, Justin Martyr, Origen, Diodorus of Tarsus, Isidore of Alexandria, Isidore of Seville, Eutychius of Alexandria, John Malalas, George Syncellus, and George Kedrenos. The book was the major canonical literature of the ancient Jewish community indicated by the dominance of the number of copies found amongst all that were originally collected the Dead Sea Scrolls. No complete Hebrew, Greek or Latin version is known to have survived. The Book of Jubilees claims to present "the history of the division of the days of the Law, of the events of the years, the year-weeks, and the jubilees of the world" as revealed to Moses (in addition to the Torah or "Instruction") by angels while he was on Mount Sinai for forty days and forty nights. The chronology given in Jubilees is based on multiples of seven; the jubilees are periods of 49 years, seven "year-weeks", into which all of time has been divided.The Book of Jasher (also, Jashar) or the Book of the Upright or the Book of the Just Man is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. The translation "Book of the Just Man" is the traditional Greek and Latin translation, while the transliterated form "Jasher" is found in the King James Bible, 1611. According to the Medieval Jewish scholar Rashi, Sefer HaYashar refers to the Pentateuch, as a fulfillment of Jacob's prophecy regarding Ephraim -- "His seed will fill the nations" (Gen. 48:19) -- and that this prophecy refers to Joshua's renown after the miracle of the standing of the sun.

The Enoch Bible

Author: Derek A. Shaver
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 1507803109
Release Date: 2015-01-31
Genre: Religion

One of the only Bibles in the world to contain the Apocrypha, the Book of Enoch, The Book of Jubilees and The Book of Jasher! The Enoch Bible Volume 1 The Old Testament Authorized King James Version With Apocrypha Including Also; The Books of Enoch, Jubilees and Jasher Table of Contents Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles [Prayer of Manasseh] [1 Esdras] [2 Esdras] Ezra Nehemiah [Tobit] [Judith] Esther [ with Additional Content] [1 Maccabees] [2 Maccabees] Job Psalms [ With Psalm 151] Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs [Wisdom of Solomon] [Ecclesiasticus] *[Psalms of Solomon] (R. Harris 1909) *[Odes of Solomon] (R. Harris 1909) Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations [Baruch] [Epistle of Jeremiah] Ezekiel Daniel [ with Additional Content] Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi *[ Enoch I ] (R.H Charles 1917) *[ Jubilees ] (R.H Charles 1917) *[ Jasher ] (J.H. Parry & Co. 1840/1887) Books in the Table of Contents without accompanying brackets or symbols contain the King James Versions of those titles. [Apocrypha] Book Titles presented in the Table of Contents in brackets are considered Apocrypha and are derived from the King James Version Translations of those titles. [Additional Apocryphal Content] Book Titles presented in the Table of Contents in brackets preceded by the symbol contain Apocrypha Content, which has been inserted in the text of the (KJV) book according to the descriptions of those texts presented in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) and are derived from the King James Version Translations of those titles. Esther- in the Septuagint and Apostle's Bible has six extra paragraphs inserted at various places. Daniel- in the Septuagint and Apostle's Bible has The Story of Susanna inserted at the beginning, the Song of the Three Children inserted in chapter 3, and the story of Bel and the Dragon added to the end. Psalm 151- Is a careful derivative of the English translations of the psalm of the same number and is unique to the Apostle's Bible. *[Other Apocrypha, or Pseudepigrapha] Book Titles presented in brackets preceded by the * symbol are considered Apocrypha or Pseudepigrapha and are derived from various definitive translations as follows; *Psalms of Solomon- Were given verse numbers and the texts were derived from the J. Rendel Harris, MA. translations. *Odes of Solomon- Were derived from the J. Rendel Harris, MA. translations. *Enoch- Is derived from the R.H. Charles translation of The Book of Enoch (1917) with reworked verse numbers (Usually at sentence beginnings) unique to the Apostle's Bible for a more uniform pattern and more fluent reading experience. *Jubilees- Is derived from the R.H. Charles translation of The Book of Jubilees, or the Little Genesis (1917) *Jasher- Is derived from the texts of The Book of Jasher Published By J.H. Parry & Company 1887 the Translator of the text is unknown to the editor. - 55 Old Testament Books! - Editor's Notes - Preface - Introduction to the Holy Bible including; breakdown of Bible versions, Canon Comparison chart, & Definitions of Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. - Apocrypha Books in their original order IN the Canon! - Including; The Books of Enoch, Jubilees and Jasher! (Easily a 30$ Value in these 3 alone) - Elegant Uniform Formatting blends the Books Seamlessly -8 point type (to squeeze everything into a compact edition of 55 books! ) -806 Pages "

The Complete Apocrypha

Author: Covenant Press
Publisher:
ISBN: 0999892436
Release Date: 2018-07-31
Genre:

This is the only modern translation of the complete collection of deuterocanonical books known popularly as "The Apocrypha" that also includes Enoch, Jasher, and Jubilees. Aside from Jasher, they were included as secondary works in the canon of Scripture for most of the Church's history. The Literal Standard Version (LSV) is a modern translation that stays true to the original manuscripts. This handsome 6" x 9" edition features a matte finish with thick, high-quality, cream-colored pages and 8-point Times New Roman font for elegance and easy reading. The Complete Apocrypha offers a staggering two-thirds as much material as the canonical 66 books of the Holy Bible. Additionally, the apocryphal versions of Esther and Daniel are included in their entirety.The Complete Apocrypha includes Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Maccabees, 1st and 2nd Esdras, Prayer of Manasses, Enoch, Jubilees, Jasher, Psalm 151, and all of the apocryphal additions to Daniel and Esther (including The Prayer of Azariah, Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon). This collection is published by Covenant Press, the publishing arm of the Covenant Christian Coalition.

The Apostle s Bible

Author: Derek Shaver
Publisher: CreateSpace
ISBN: 1477569448
Release Date: 2012-07-11
Genre:

The Apostle's Bible Volume 1 The Old Testament Authorized King James Version With Apocrypha Including Also; The Books of Enoch, Jubilees and Jasher Features; - 55 Old Testament Books! - Editor's Notes - Preface - Introduction to the Holy Bible including; breakdown of Bible versions, Canon Comparison chart, & Definitions of Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha. - Apocrypha Books in their original order IN the Canon! - Including; The Books of Enoch, Jubilees and Jasher! (Easily a 30$ Value in these 3 alone) - Elegant Uniform Formatting blends the Books Seamlessly -8 point type (to squeeze everything into a compact edition of 55 books! ) -806 Pages Table of Contents Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles [Prayer of Manasseh] [1 Esdras] [2 Esdras] Ezra Nehemiah [Tobit] [Judith] Esther [ with Additional Content] [1 Maccabees] [2 Maccabees] Job Psalms [ With Psalm 151] Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs [Wisdom of Solomon] [Ecclesiasticus] *[Psalms of Solomon] (R. Harris 1909) *[Odes of Solomon] (R. Harris 1909) Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations [Baruch] [Epistle of Jeremiah] Ezekiel Daniel [ with Additional Content] Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi *[ Enoch I ] (R.H Charles 1917) *[ Jubilees ] (R.H Charles 1917) *[ Jasher ] (J.H. Parry & Co. 1840/1887) Books in the Table of Contents without accompanying brackets or symbols contain the King James Versions of those titles. [Apocrypha] Book Titles presented in the Table of Contents in brackets are considered Apocrypha and are derived from the King James Version Translations of those titles. [Additional Apocryphal Content] Book Titles presented in the Table of Contents in brackets preceded by the symbol contain Apocrypha Content, which has been inserted in the text of the (KJV) book according to the descriptions of those texts presented in the Greek Septuagint (LXX) and are derived from the King James Version Translations of those titles. Esther- in the Septuagint and Apostle's Bible has six extra paragraphs inserted at various places. Daniel- in the Septuagint and Apostle's Bible has The Story of Susanna inserted at the beginning, the Song of the Three Children inserted in chapter 3, and the story of Bel and the Dragon added to the end. Psalm 151- Is a careful derivative of the English translations of the psalm of the same number and is unique to the Apostle's Bible. *[Other Apocrypha, or Pseudepigrapha] Book Titles presented in brackets preceded by the * symbol are considered Apocrypha or Pseudepigrapha and are derived from various definitive translations as follows; *Psalms of Solomon- Were given verse numbers and the texts were derived from the J. Rendel Harris, MA. translations. *Odes of Solomon- Were derived from the J. Rendel Harris, MA. translations. *Enoch- Is derived from the R.H. Charles translation of The Book of Enoch (1917) with reworked verse numbers (Usually at sentence beginnings) unique to the Apostle's Bible for a more uniform pattern and more fluent reading experience. *Jubilees- Is derived from the R.H. Charles translation of The Book of Jubilees, or the Little Genesis (1917) and excludes only the [Anno Mundi] date stamps, unique to the Apostle's Bible, for a more uniform pattern and more fluent reading experience. *Jasher- Is derived from the texts of The Book of Jasher Published By J.H. Parry & Company 1887 the Translator of the text is unknown t"

All Three Books of Enoch

Author: Dr. Edward Hammond
Publisher: Premier House Press
ISBN:
Release Date:
Genre: Body, Mind & Spirit

This is a translation by Dr. Edward Hammond. The First Book of Enoch was lost for centuries to the western world although it was kept by the Ethiopian church. In 1773 the Scottish explorer James Bruce heard that the Book of Enoch may have been in Ethiopia so traveled there and procured three copies. In 1821 Richard Laurence, a professor of Hebrew at Oxford, produced the first English translation. Fragments of ten Enoch manuscripts were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. It is quoted by New Testament Book of Jude. This book contains all sections of The First Book of Enoch: The Book of the Watchers The Book of Parables of Enoch The Astronomical Book The Book of Dream Visions The Epistle of Enoch It is of particular interest to anyone with an interest in angels and demons, or Bible history in general. The Books of Enoch: The Complete Set also contains 2 Enoch (also known as The Slavonic Enoch, or The Secrets of Enoch) and contains the Extended Version; and 3 Enoch (also known as The Hebrew Book of Enoch.)

Lost Books of the Bible The Rejected Texts Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha

Author: Dr. Edward Hammond
Publisher: Premier House Press
ISBN:
Release Date: 2011-12-17
Genre: Religion

This huge book of eighteen of the Lost Books of the Bible contains the following, NONE of which are Public Domain translations (beware of imitations): The First Book of Adam and Eve; The Second Book of Adam and Eve; The Slavonic Life of Adam and Eve; The First Book of Enoch; The Book of Jubilees; The Book of Jasher; The Story of Ahikar; The Apocalypse of Abraham; The Apocalypse of Thomas; 4 Ezra; 2 Baruch; The War Scroll: The Sons of Dark Against the Sons of Light; The Gospel of Philip; The Gospel of Mary Magdalene; The Apocryphon of John (The Secret Book of John); The Gospel of Thomas; The Gospel of Judas; Acts 29. The massive 684 page book does not attempt to explain why the books were not included in the Bible. To attempt to do so would not only be cursory given the lack of space, but more importantly, would be most unfair to readers as this is matter for specialist academics, and they have written books on the subject. Note: Translators use the symbols [...] to signify a missing word in an ancient text. In this book there are symbols such as this to designate missing words of ancient texts.

Genesis Retold 2nd Ed

Author: Various
Publisher:
ISBN: 1540847667
Release Date: 2016-12-05
Genre:

Genesis Retold is a single volume that contains four individual books: 1 Enoch, Jasher, Jubilees, and The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (T12P). All translations have been emended and edited for accuracy, and brought closer in line with the source texts that we have available to us today. In the case of Enoch and Jubilees, the English version set forth here is a major revision of the monumental work by Dr. R. H. Charles. His work was revised to bring it closer in line with the Aramaic and Hebrew texts uncovered at Qumran which were not available to him. Likewise the existing Ethiopic, Latin, and Greek texts were also consulted. Similarly, the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs was also highly revised and emended from Charles' English translation, including some fragments from an Aramaic Testament of Levi from the Cairo Genizah, and a Hebrew Testament of Naphtali which was found among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Book of Jasher set forth here is a major revision of J. H. Parry & Co.'s English translation which has been emended and brought closer in line with the Hebrew source text that underlies it. It was discovered in this process that numerous entire sections present in the Hebrew text have been omitted from the current English versions for more than a century. The version available in Genesis Retold includes these sections. Above all else, Genesis Retold has treated the Name of the Almighty with special care. As further explained in the Preface, the Name is written in Hebrew block print letters as yod-hey-vav-hey, also called the Tetragrammaton. This should avoid dogmatic debate over pronunciation. However, placing the Name into the English text was not an arbitrary process. The underlying source texts were carefully examined and compared to see where placeholders were used, to determine where the Name would be if it were a Hebrew original. All other names have likewise been restored to a Hebraic pronunciation when possible. All Elizabethan English style terms (thee, thou, thine, dost, etc.) have been revised into modern English, and thousands of entire sentences have been rewritten and/or reworded to flow better in Modern American English. Multiple appendices fill the back of the book, including an etymological breakdown of the names of the key angels in Enoch. The final appendix includes a list of more than 130 verses in the New Testament, and corresponding passages in the books of Genesis Retold. Many of these show direct correlation and even quotes between these books and the New Testament. There are also nearly 600 footnotes that further elaborate on word definitions, provide cross-references between the books (and Biblical books), provide variant readings, and highlight other possible translations. This is more than just a Restored Name version. This is a Critical Edition, with Names Restored, keeping in the tradition of the Literal English Version family of books.

The Books of Enoch

Author: Joseph Lumpkin
Publisher: Fifth Estate Incorporated
ISBN: 1936533073
Release Date: 2011-01-01
Genre: Religion

The well known and acclaimed work of Dr. Joseph Lumpkin has been enlarged to include new research on the Books of Enoch, Fallen Angels, the Watchers, and the Nephilim. After presenting extensive historical backgrounds and brilliant translations of The First, Second, and Third Books of Enoch, Lumpkin takes time to piece together a historical narrative of Fallen Angels, the Watcher, and the Nephilim, using his extensive knowledge of ancient texts. The history of the Fallen Angels is sewn tightly together using such books as Enoch, Jasher, Jubilees, The Book of Giants, The War Scrolls, and many others. The story will astonish you. - - - New information on the First Book of Enoch is greatly expanded. Lumpkin describes the Calendar of Enoch and its pivotal place in the prophecy of Daniel. He takes First Enoch apart, section-by-section to describe its history, the time frame of authorship, and its contents. Copious notes are included throughout. - - - This volume, containing The First Book of Enoch (The Ethiopic Book of Enoch), The Second Book of Enoch (The Slavonic Secrets of Enoch), The Third Book of Enoch (The Hebrew Book of Enoch), and The Book of Fallen Angels, The Watchers, and the Origins of Evil. Expanded Commentary is included for the three books of Enoch, as well as the sections on Angels, Prophecies and the Enochian Calendar. These sources are found here, all in a single source. - - - Dr. Joseph Lumpkin is the CEO of Fifth Estate Publishers and the author of over twenty books. He appears regularly of L.A. Talk Radio and the show, "Rain Making Time" as an expert guest on the subjects of religion, theology, and church history.

In The Beginning From Abraham to Israel Expanded Edition

Author: Ahava Lilburn
Publisher: Minister 2 Others
ISBN: 194775100X
Release Date: 2017-08
Genre: Religion

The Ancient Texts and the Bible series is a ten book set which synchronizes the manuscripts of the book of Enoch, the book of Jasher, and the book of Jubilees into the Bible, making one complete storyline. The books are interwoven using the Torah as the backbone, and the extra-biblical texts as the fleshing out of that backbone.