Informal economies, growing throughout the 1990s, are a central determinant of social transformation in Eastern Europe. In this book, the various patterns of informal economies and the causes of their growth in Romania are explored from quantitative and qualitative research: the difficult social transformation; informal household consumption and labor, their incomes, developments and strategies; and the impact of informalization in different branches related to the Romanian economy as a whole. Comparisons with other Eastern European countries are included, and methodological procedure is explained. Philippe Adair teaches economics at the University of Paris, France. Rainer Neef teaches Sociology at the University of Goettingen, Germany.
623435-28a.gif Volume A deals with the dynamics, mobility and transformation of pollutants and nutrients. Soil is a dynamic system in which soil minerals constantly interact with organic matter and microorganisms. Close association among abiotic and biotic entities governs several chemical and biogeochemical processes and affects bioavailability, speciation, toxicity, transformations and transport of xenobiotics and organics in soil environments. This book elaborates critical research and an integrated view on basic aspects of mineral weathering reactions; formation and surface reactivity of soil minerals with respect to nutrients and environmental pollutants; dynamics and transformation of metals, metalloids, and natural and anthropogenic organics; effects of soil colloids on microorganisms and immobilization and activity of enzymes, and metabolic processes, growth and ecology of microbes. It offers up-to-date information on the impact of such a processes on soil development, agricultural production, environmental protection, and ecosystem integrity.
Author: Brian Cantwell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2002-09-23
Symmetry analysis based on Lie group theory is the most important method for solving nonlinear problems aside from numerical computation. The method can be used to find the symmetries of almost any system of differential equations and the knowledge of these symmetries can be used to reduce the complexity of physical problems governed by the equations. This is a broad, self-contained, introduction to the basics of symmetry analysis for first and second year graduate students in science, engineering and applied mathematics. Mathematica-based software for finding the Lie point symmetries and Lie-Bäcklund symmetries of differential equations is included on a CD along with more than forty sample notebooks illustrating applications ranging from simple, low order, ordinary differential equations to complex systems of partial differential equations. MathReader 4.0 is included to let the user read the sample notebooks and follow the procedure used to find symmetries.
A best-seller in its print version, this comprehensive CD-ROM reference contains unique, fully searchable coverage of all major topics in digital signal processing (DSP), establishing an invaluable, time-saving resource for the engineering community. Its unique and broad scope includes contributions from all DSP specialties, including: telecommunications, computer engineering, acoustics, seismic data analysis, DSP software and hardware, image and video processing, remote sensing, multimedia applications, medical technology, radar and sonar applications
This manuscript is about the sense of justice that limits what individuals can do in pursuit of their ends and opens them to exploitation. It shows how flawed agents choosing under partial information advance those of their ends having nothing to do with justice by maintaining such a disposition.
Author: Paul Fannon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2012-09-13
Genre: Juvenile Nonfiction
This title forms part of the completely new Mathematics for the IB Diploma series. This highly illustrated coursebook, available in both print and e-book formats, has been written to specifically cover the new IB Standard Level syllabus. Based on the new group 5 aims, the progressive approach encourages cumulative learning. Features include: a dedicated chapter exclusively for combined exercises; plenty of worked examples; questions colour-coded according to grade; exam-style questions; feature boxes of hints and tips. The print book includes a CD-ROM providing a complete e-version of the book, extension worksheets, prior learning sheets, calculator skills sheets and fill-in proofs. These additional materials are also included in the e-book version.
Author: Yoshinori Shiozawa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-04-09
Genre: Business & Economics
Economics went through great development in the 20th century. This development, which was based mainly on mathematical methods, is not an appropriate method of analyzing markets that change every hour and every day. In a stock market, prices constantly change depending on speculation. U-Mart, a manmade market, has been proposed in order to study such instantly moving markets. Although the U-Mart system is internationally acclaimed for being at the forefront of market research, its use is by no means limited to a small number of researchers on the fringe. The whole system, including its source code, is open and is distributed without charge, testifying to a philosophy of creating and providing a common test bed for research into financial markets.
Highlights: Co-combustion of lignite and waste activated sludge (WAS) is conducted. Mineral transformation and emission behaviors of heavy metals are determined. Anorthite, quartz, pyroxene, and albite are the main components of lignite-WAS ash. Effects of O2 concentration and temperature on the volatilization of heavy metals. Abstract: Co-combustion of dried waste activated sludge (WAS) and lignite was conducted in a horizontal tube furnace system. The mineral transformation and emission behaviors of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn during combustion were examined. The above heavy metals (HMs) were selected because they are more abundant in WAS than in lignite. In the combustion condition of 1000 °C–21% O2 –30 min, the minerals in lignite ash were mainly anorthite (CaAl2 Si2 O8 ), quartz (SiO2 ), pyroxene [Ca(Mg, Fe)Si2 O6 ], and albite (NaAlSi3 O8 ). By contrast, the minerals in WAS ash were mainly quartz (SiO2 ), anorthite (CaAl2 Si2 O8 ), and hematite (Fe2 O3 ). When 90% lignite and 10% WAS were co-combusted, hematite was hardly detected in the combustion product because hematite reacted with quartz and calcium oxide, which are abundant in lignite ash, and generated a large amount of pyroxene. Anorthite and pyroxene were generated continuously during the combustion process, but albite was mainly generated during the first 5 min of combustion. High temperature promoted the generation of complex components, such as sodian anorthite [(Ca, Na)(Si, Al)2 Si2 O8 or (Ca, Na)(Si, Al)4 O8 ]. High O2 concentration promoted the reaction among the three main mineral elements, i.e., silicon, aluminum, and calcium, and generated a large amount of anorthite. During the co-combustion of WAS and lignite, the volatilization percentages of Cd, Pb, and Zn exceeded 30% after a combustion time of 30 min, and the order was Cd > Pb > Zn. By contrast, the volatilization percentages of Cr and Ni were lower than 15%. High temperature caused an increase in the volatility of HMs, especially Zn and Ni, although the volatilization percentage of Ni remained low. High O2 concentration also caused an increase in the volatility of HMs, except for Cr and Ni, which showed a slight increase or decrease with increasing O2 concentration in the inlet atmosphere.
Author: Kenneth Helme Chadwick
Publisher: Adam Hilger
Release Date: 1989
The transformation of mammalian cells in vitro provides quantitative and qualitative information on the processes by which physical and chemical agents induce malignancy. Recently, there has been considerable progress on the developmnent of new cell transformation systems and the role of oncogenes in cell transformation. An International Workshop held during April 1989 in Dublin encouraged collaborative interactions between the scientists working in this field and provided a forum for critical review of current research results. Cell Transformation and Radiation-induced Cancer is a record of the papers presented at the Workshop. It includes work which focuses on the potential of emerging human cell transformation systems and their relevance to radiation carcinogenesis, and on the role and interplay of oncogenes, retroviruses and radiation in cell transformation. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of such variables as radiation quality, dose and dose rate, promoters and suppressors and cell types on in vitro cell transformation. Also considered are the implications of the results from cell transformation studies for radiation-induced cancer in man and for radiological protection. This book will be of interest to molecular biologists, medical physicists and cancer specialists who require a comprehensive account of the latest work on cell transformation and radiation-induced cancer.
This book gives an overview of gene transfer and stability in those aquatic and terrestrial environments where bacteria and fungi can survive and interact genetically. It examines the role played by sex between microbes in the evolution of populations and their survival. Special emphasis is placed on methodology, including the analysis by novel techniques of genetic material extracted directly from soils, rivers and lakes. The natural spread of antibiotic resistance and the safe use of genetically manipulated microbes are matters of considerable scientific, medical and public concern upon which the investigations presented here have direct bearing. This unique collection will be of value to specialist researchers in applied microbiology, ecology and biotechnology as well as biomedical scientists interested in the environmental risks of genetic engineering.