623435-28a.gif Volume A deals with the dynamics, mobility and transformation of pollutants and nutrients. Soil is a dynamic system in which soil minerals constantly interact with organic matter and microorganisms. Close association among abiotic and biotic entities governs several chemical and biogeochemical processes and affects bioavailability, speciation, toxicity, transformations and transport of xenobiotics and organics in soil environments. This book elaborates critical research and an integrated view on basic aspects of mineral weathering reactions; formation and surface reactivity of soil minerals with respect to nutrients and environmental pollutants; dynamics and transformation of metals, metalloids, and natural and anthropogenic organics; effects of soil colloids on microorganisms and immobilization and activity of enzymes, and metabolic processes, growth and ecology of microbes. It offers up-to-date information on the impact of such a processes on soil development, agricultural production, environmental protection, and ecosystem integrity.
During the rapid growth period of the Japanese economy, from the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s, the economic system that became entrenched in Japan -- the so-called Japanese-style capitalism -- was based on the government-business-bureaucracy triad. Although its distinct features survived the subsequent two decades of slow growth, now, in the late 1990s, there are many indications that the Japanese economy is once again transforming itself to accommodate such environmental changes as the further slowdown of growth, the rapid aging of the population, structural changes, and so forth. The readings in this volume, largely translated from the Japanese economic literature and thoughtfully contextualized by Professor Sato, address the various aspects of this new transformation of the Japanese economic system and place it in its historical perspective.
With some 200 indicators, the 2017 edition of the OECD Science, Technology and Industry (STI) Scoreboard shows how the digital transformation affects science, innovation, the economy, and the way people work and live.
Martensitic Transformation examines martensitic transformation based on the known crystallographical data. Topics covered range from the crystallography of martensite to the transformation temperature and rate of martensite formation. The conditions for martensite formation and stabilization of austenite are also discussed, along with the crystallographic theory of martensitic transformations. Comprised of six chapters, this book begins with an introduction to martensite and martensitic transformation, with emphasis on the basic properties of martensite in steels such as carbon steels. The next two chapters deal with the crystallography of martensite and discuss the martensitic transformation behavior of the second-order transition; lattice imperfections in martensite; and close-packed layer structures of martensites produced from ? phase in noble-metal-base alloys. Thermodynamical problems and kinetics are also analysed, together with conditions for the nucleation of martensite and problems concerning stabilization of austenite. The last chapter discusses the theory of the mechanism underlying martensitic transformation. This monograph will be of interest to metallurgists and materials scientists.
Informal economies, growing throughout the 1990s, are a central determinant of social transformation in Eastern Europe. In this book, the various patterns of informal economies and the causes of their growth in Romania are explored from quantitative and qualitative research: the difficult social transformation; informal household consumption and labor, their incomes, developments and strategies; and the impact of informalization in different branches related to the Romanian economy as a whole. Comparisons with other Eastern European countries are included, and methodological procedure is explained. Philippe Adair teaches economics at the University of Paris, France. Rainer Neef teaches Sociology at the University of Goettingen, Germany.
Author: Brian Cantwell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Release Date: 2002-09-23
Symmetry analysis based on Lie group theory is the most important method for solving nonlinear problems aside from numerical computation. The method can be used to find the symmetries of almost any system of differential equations and the knowledge of these symmetries can be used to reduce the complexity of physical problems governed by the equations. This is a broad, self-contained, introduction to the basics of symmetry analysis for first and second year graduate students in science, engineering and applied mathematics. Mathematica-based software for finding the Lie point symmetries and Lie-Bäcklund symmetries of differential equations is included on a CD along with more than forty sample notebooks illustrating applications ranging from simple, low order, ordinary differential equations to complex systems of partial differential equations. MathReader 4.0 is included to let the user read the sample notebooks and follow the procedure used to find symmetries.
A best-seller in its print version, this comprehensive CD-ROM reference contains unique, fully searchable coverage of all major topics in digital signal processing (DSP), establishing an invaluable, time-saving resource for the engineering community. Its unique and broad scope includes contributions from all DSP specialties, including: telecommunications, computer engineering, acoustics, seismic data analysis, DSP software and hardware, image and video processing, remote sensing, multimedia applications, medical technology, radar and sonar applications
Author: Yoshinori Shiozawa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date: 2008-04-09
Genre: Business & Economics
Economics went through great development in the 20th century. This development, which was based mainly on mathematical methods, is not an appropriate method of analyzing markets that change every hour and every day. In a stock market, prices constantly change depending on speculation. U-Mart, a manmade market, has been proposed in order to study such instantly moving markets. Although the U-Mart system is internationally acclaimed for being at the forefront of market research, its use is by no means limited to a small number of researchers on the fringe. The whole system, including its source code, is open and is distributed without charge, testifying to a philosophy of creating and providing a common test bed for research into financial markets.
The use of high-pressure techniques has become popular for studying the nature of substances and phenomena occurring in them, especially as a means of obtaining new materials (synthesis under high pressure) and processing known materials (hydroextrusion). A product of many years of research by the authors and their colleagues, Phase Transitions in Solids under High Pressure discusses the relationships of phase transformations in solids under high pressure, the mechanism of these transformations, crystal geometry, the effect of deformation, the conditions of formation, and preservation of the high-pressure phases under normal pressure. The book begins with an introduction that describes the relationship of the thermodynamics of phase transformations and the kinetics of the transformations. This is followed by a chapter explaining the equipment and mostly original procedures for investigating phase transformation in solids under high hydrostatic and quasi-hydrostatic pressures. The book covers phase transformations under high pressure in a wide temperature range in the elements carbon, silicon, germanium, titanium, zirconium, iron, gallium, and cerium as well as in titanium- and iron-based alloys and AIBVII, AIIBVI, and AIIIBV compounds. In addition, the book examines the kinetics of phase transformations in iron-based alloys in isobaric–isothermal conditions. The authors present results for phase transformations in deformation under high pressure, describe several non-trivial effects associated with phase transformations under high pressure, and analyze the kinetics and hysteresis of high-temperature and low-temperature phase transformations. They conclude by describing the role of investigations under high pressure for determining general relationships governing phase transformations in solids.
Author: Kenneth Helme Chadwick
Publisher: Adam Hilger
Release Date: 1989
The transformation of mammalian cells in vitro provides quantitative and qualitative information on the processes by which physical and chemical agents induce malignancy. Recently, there has been considerable progress on the developmnent of new cell transformation systems and the role of oncogenes in cell transformation. An International Workshop held during April 1989 in Dublin encouraged collaborative interactions between the scientists working in this field and provided a forum for critical review of current research results. Cell Transformation and Radiation-induced Cancer is a record of the papers presented at the Workshop. It includes work which focuses on the potential of emerging human cell transformation systems and their relevance to radiation carcinogenesis, and on the role and interplay of oncogenes, retroviruses and radiation in cell transformation. Particular emphasis is placed on the influence of such variables as radiation quality, dose and dose rate, promoters and suppressors and cell types on in vitro cell transformation. Also considered are the implications of the results from cell transformation studies for radiation-induced cancer in man and for radiological protection. This book will be of interest to molecular biologists, medical physicists and cancer specialists who require a comprehensive account of the latest work on cell transformation and radiation-induced cancer.
This book gives an overview of gene transfer and stability in those aquatic and terrestrial environments where bacteria and fungi can survive and interact genetically. It examines the role played by sex between microbes in the evolution of populations and their survival. Special emphasis is placed on methodology, including the analysis by novel techniques of genetic material extracted directly from soils, rivers and lakes. The natural spread of antibiotic resistance and the safe use of genetically manipulated microbes are matters of considerable scientific, medical and public concern upon which the investigations presented here have direct bearing. This unique collection will be of value to specialist researchers in applied microbiology, ecology and biotechnology as well as biomedical scientists interested in the environmental risks of genetic engineering.